Nanchong (Chinese: 南充; pinyin: Nánchōng; Wade–Giles: Nan-ch'ung; Sichuanese: lan2cong1) is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of Sichuan province, China, with an area of 12,479.96 square kilometres (4,818.54 sq mi). At the 2010 census it was home to 6,278,614 people, of whom 1,858,875 lived in the built-up (or 'metro') area made of three urban districts. It is the second most populated city of Sichuan Province, after Chengdu. The administrative center is Shunqing District.
The fruit City
Location of Nanchong City jurisdiction in Sichuan
|Coordinates (Nanchong Bureau of Civil Affairs (南充市民政局)):|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Shunqing District|
|• Party Secretary||Liu Hongjian|
|• Prefecture-level city||12,479.96 km2 (4,818.54 sq mi)|
|• Urban||2,527.8 km2 (976.0 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,527.8 km2 (976.0 sq mi)|
|Elevation||340 m (1,120 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||6,278,614|
|• Density||500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-SC-13|
|Licence plate prefixes||川R|
Nanchong was in the territory of the state of Ba before it was conquered by the Qin in 314 BC. The Qin set up a government at Langzhong City. Anhan City was established in Shunqinq district at the beginning of the Han Dynasty.
In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu of Han instituted the Anhan (simplified Chinese: 安汉; traditional Chinese: 安漢) County in this place. Anhan literally means "to establish or stabilize Han". In 8 AD, the name was changed to Anxin (安新) when Wang Mang seized the throne of the Han Dynasty, but it reverted to Anhan in 25 AD. It was again changed to Guozhou (果州; 'fruit state') in 621 AD (Tang dynasty), and then to Nanchong in 742 AD. The nickname of Nanchong is Guocheng (果城), derived from Guozhou.
The vast majority of this area is hilly. The woodland coverage is 25%.
The Jialing River, a tributary of the Yangtze River, crosses the prefecture from north to south. There are another 30 rivers in the prefecture with a drainage basin of more than 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi).
As with the rest of the Sichuan Basin, Nanchong has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with high humidity year-round; winters are short and mild while summers long, hot, and humid. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 6.5 °C (43.7 °F) in January to 27.3 °C (81.1 °F) in July; the annual mean is 17.38 °C (63.3 °F). Frost is uncommon and the frost-free period lasts 290−320 days.
Over 70% of the 1,003 mm (39.5 in) of annual precipitation occurs from May to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from around 9% in December to 47% in August, the city receives only 1,135 hours of bright sunshine annually. Spring (March–April) tends to be sunnier and warmer in the day than autumn (October–November).
|Climate data for Nanchong (Gaoping District, 1981−2010 normals)|
|Record high °C (°F)||19.4
|Average high °C (°F)||9.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.5
|Average low °C (°F)||4.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||15.7
|Average precipitation days||8.9||8.6||10.7||12.5||13.5||13.6||12.8||10.1||14.6||14.0||10.6||8.3||138.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||81||77||76||74||79||79||77||81||84||84||85||80|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||31.7||43.6||81.7||118.4||130.7||122.6||168.6||193.8||96.5||67.5||53.3||26.9||1,135.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||10||14||22||31||31||29||39||47||26||19||17||9||26|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)|
|Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|Shunqing District||顺庆区||Shùnqìng Qū||635,999||545||1,167|
|Gaoping District||高坪区||Gāopíng Qū||585,769||812||721|
|Jialing District||嘉陵区||Jiālíng Qū||691,489||1,170||591|
|Langzhong City||阆中市||Lángzhōng Shì||870,708||1,877||464|
|Nanbu County||南部县||Nánbù Xiàn||1,275,748||2,305||553|
|Yingshan County||营山县||Yíngshān Xiàn||926,940||1,633||568|
|Peng'an County||蓬安县||Péng'ān Xiàn||702,336||1,334||526|
|Yilong County||仪陇县||Yílǒng Xiàn||1,088,266||1,695||642|
|Xichong County||西充县||Xīchōng Xiàn||643,818||1,108||581|
As in other cities of China, the population of Nanchong can be divided into two parts: upper urban population and lower rural population. The registered urban population is about 1.2 million.
Shunqing District, downtown, is the most dense area in Nanchong. At the center of Shunqing District, and the proverbial heart of the city, is Five Star Garden (五星花园); a large roundabout with five exits leading to other sections of the city.
Agriculture is the pillar of Nanchong’s economy, with 80% of Nanchong’s population in rural areas and committed to traditional agricultural activities. Nanchong’s manufacturing industry also relies on raw materials which are provided by agriculture.
There is a large quantity of rock oil and natural gas found in Nanchong, and it has the largest slate mine in the west of China. The dams on Jialing River and its branches have a large potential to increase electric power generation. But the largest resource of Nanchong is human: Nanchong is one of the main providers of Chinese cheap migrant workers.
Nanchong is a transport hub of the northeast Sichuan Province. It is crossed by the strategic China National Highway 318, built by the Chinese government in the 1930s, and China National Highway 212 and newly built expressways — Cheng-Nan and Nan-Guang expressway — which link the city to Chengdu and another prefecture-level city: Guang'an. The expressway to Chongqing is under construction.
The Dazhou–Chengdu Railway through Nanchong links Chengdu and Dazhou. The Chongqing–Lanzhou Railway, in 2015, will link Lanzhou (Gansu) and Chongqing, and turn Nanchong into a railway hub in northeast Sichuan province. The Nanchong railway station provides passenger and cargo services to regional and national economic centres such as Shanghai, Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Chengdu and Shenzhen.
The old Nanchong airport was built in the 1950s and closed in 2003. The new Nanchong Gaoping Airport which has capacity to land bigger planes, provides regular air services to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Kunming, Xi'an and Sanya.
Nanchong is suggested as a tradition shipping hub in ancient times. Ships from Gansu could reach Chongqing along the Jialing river, but the river is not suitable for modern shipping.
There are five academic institutions in Nanchong that provide higher education.
- Chen Shou, historian in the Western Jin Dynasty, the author of San guo zhi (the record of Three Kingdoms)
- Luo Ruiqing, general of the Chinese Army, former minister of Public Security of People's Republic of China
- Zhang Lan, former vice-president of People's Republic of China
- Zhang Side, a soldier of the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China. He was posthumously honored by Chairman Mao and became an icon of self-sacrifice and noble character.
- Zhu De, one of the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party, Chinese communist government, and People's Liberation Army
- (in Chinese) Profile of Nanchong Archived 2008-04-20 at the Wayback Machine, official website of Nanchong Civil Affairs Bureau, visited on May 17, 2008.
- 南充市 (in Chinese). XZQH. Archived 2008-05-18 at the Wayback Machine.
- 南充城市介绍. Weather China.
- 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年）. China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-11. Retrieved 2009-01-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2009-01-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)