Chen Li (emperor)

Chen Li (simplified Chinese: 陈理; traditional Chinese: 陳理; 1351-1408[1]) was the second and the last emperor of the Dahan (大漢 Great Han) regime during the latter Yuan Dynasty of China.[2] Chen Li ruled from 1363–64.

Chen Li
Emperor of Da Han
Reign1363 - 1364
PredecessorChen Youliang
Successor(none)
BornChina
Died1408
Korea
Names
Family name: Chen (陳)
Given name: Li (理)
HouseDa Han
FatherChen Youliang

Chen HanEdit

Chen Li was born in Mianyang (沔阳 now Xiantao, Hubei) as the second son of Chen Youliang, the first emperor of the Chen Han during the Yuan-Ming transition. His brother Chen Shan (陈善), was a crown prince who joined the Ming army.

In 1363, his father Chen Youliang was shot by an arrow in the Battle of Poyang Lake. His brother Chen Shan fled to the Ming. Later Zhang Dingbian (张定边) and other top generals protected Chen Li and his descendants, escorting Chen to Wuchang, where Chen changed he succeeded the throne and changed his title to Yuan Deshou (元德寿).[3][4] In the winter of the same year, Zhu Yuanzhang personally visited Wuchang.[5]

Chen Youliang's father, Chen Pucai, was named Cheng En Hou (承恩侯),[6] his eldest brother, Chen Youfu (陈友富), was named Guirenbo (归仁伯), and his second brother, Chen Youzhi, was named Huai Enbo (怀恩伯). He posthumously presented his fourth brother, Chen Youren (陈友仁), as King of Kangshan (康山王), and ordered the relevant officials to set up a temple to offer sacrifices, and his fifth brother, Chen Yougui (陈友贵), was in charge of sacrifices.[7]

In 1364, he surrendered to Zhu Yuanzhang of the rising Ming Dynasty. Zhu then appointed him as Marquis Gui-de (归德侯 Guide Hou). Chen was later sent to Korea, where he became known as King Chen. In Korea, Chen settled down and had children, starting the Yangsan Jin Clan (see below).

DescendantsEdit

Some of Chen Li's descendants after the Chen Han and Ming have the surname Cheng (程).[citation needed]

Yangsan Jin ClanEdit

According to Korean and Chinese historical sources, in 1372, he migrated to Goryeo and had offspring, starting the Yangsan Jin clan. One of his known sons was Chen Mingshan (陈明善).[8]

On 1372 May 19, Chen Li and Ming Sheng (明升) arrived in Korea with a group of 27 people, who were received by the King of Korea. At that time, Chen Li was 22 years old.[9]

After Chen Li arrived in Korea, he was called Chen Wang (陈王) or King Chen. On the 6th day of June, King Gongcheng (恭愍王) gave Chen Li nine bamboo cloths (苎布). Chen was also given some land, a wife, housemaid, and food. During this time he had children, including Chen Mingshan. Chen Li passed away due to illness but is survived by his descendants in Korea and the Yangsan Jin Clan.[10][11]

AnecdoteEdit

[To be translated]

太祖高皇帝討平蜀漢。僞主明玉珍之子昇。陳友諒之子理。皆流于我國。詔曰。不做官不做民。我國給茅舍臧獲。俾安接之。昇承玉珍之後稱帝。年九歲。見擒到我國。昇母曾爲皇太后者。每夜祝手向天曰。天乎天乎。使我播遷。專是蜀大臣之罪。大臣與大明相通。我兵專務拒東。而引兵從西南而入。故遂至於亡耳。太崇朝王妃冠服。自大明而來。宮中不知被荷之術。昇母入宮指敎。然後乃得知之。昇之孫有屬錄事者。庸劣莫甚。斯文正公時爲左相。謂錄事曰。子之祖父。爲大蜀皇帝。不幸而亡。假令其時不亡。至於子之身當亡矣。至今明氏苗裔。有居開城者。余嘗見明主之像。容皃端正。鬚髥如畫。爪指不翦而長。陳理無子。只有外孫。余嘗從外孫曹公。見所藏刺繡文錦。想其時豪猾之遺物也。— Trích Dung Trai tùng thoại

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ 朝鮮太宗實錄卷15, 8年(1408 戊子/永樂6年) 6月28日(乙巳):「順德侯陳理卒。 理卽友諒之子也。 有子曰明善。 及卒,賻米豆五十石、紙百卷,賜棺槨,仍咨報于禮部。」
  2. ^ 明史列傳第十一
  3. ^ 《明史·卷一百二十三·列传第十一》:友谅从舟中引首出,有所指捴,骤中流矢,贯晴及颅死。军大溃,太子善儿被执。太尉张定边夜挟友谅次子理,载其尸遁还武昌。
  4. ^ 《明史·卷一百二十三·列传第十一》:子理既还武昌,嗣伪位,改元德寿。是冬,太祖亲征武昌。
  5. ^ 《明史·卷一百二十三·列传第十一》:明年二月再亲征。其丞相张必先自岳州来援,次洪山。常遇春击擒之,徇于城下。必先,骁将也,军中号“泼张”,倚为重。及被擒,城中大惧,由是欲降者众。太祖乃遣其故臣罗复仁入城招理。理遂降,入军门,俯伏不敢视。太祖见理幼弱,掖之起,握其手曰:“吾不汝罪也。”府库财物恣理取,旋应天,授爵归德侯。
  6. ^ These are imperial titles for nobles
  7. ^ 《明史·卷一百二十三·列传第十一》:太祖平武昌,封普才承恩侯,友富归仁伯,友直怀恩伯,赠友仁康山王,命所司立庙祀之,以友贵祔。
  8. ^ 《明史》列傳第十一 (Mingshi)
  9. ^ 《高丽史·世家卷四十三·恭愍王六》:乙丑,陈理、明升等男妇共二十七人入京。理升诣阙。王出御报平厅。 理升拜于阶上王坐受之。礼讫坐于使臣之下。 升年十八,理年二十二。
  10. ^ 《高丽史·世家卷四十三·恭愍王六》:辛巳,赐陈理明升苎布九匹。
  11. ^ 《朝鲜太宗实录》Records of Choseon Korea

ReadingEdit