Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck

Jonkheer Charles Joseph Marie Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (1 December 1873 – 17 April 1936) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP), later formed to the Catholic People's Party (KVP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA). He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 9 September 1918 until 4 August 1925 and from 10 August 1929 until 26 May 1933.


Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck
Beerenbrouck.jpg
Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck in 1918
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
In office
10 August 1929 – 26 May 1933
MonarchWilhelmina
Preceded byDirk Jan de Geer
Succeeded byHendrikus Colijn
In office
9 September 1918 – 4 August 1925
MonarchWilhelmina
Preceded byPieter Cort van der Linden
Succeeded byHendrikus Colijn
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
20 April 1933 – 26 May 1933
Ad interim
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byFrans Beelaerts
van Blokland
Succeeded byAndries Cornelis
Dirk de Graeff
Leader of the Roman
Catholic State Party
In office
27 August 1931 – 17 April 1936
Preceded byWillem Hubert Nolens
Succeeded byPiet Aalberse
Speaker of the House of Representatives
In office
31 May 1933 – 17 April 1936
Preceded byJosef van Schaik
Succeeded byPiet Aalberse
In office
17 September 1925 – 10 August 1929
Preceded byDionysius Koolen
Succeeded byJosef van Schaik
Chairman of the Roman
Catholic State Party
In office
4 August 1925 – 10 August 1929
LeaderWillem Hubert Nolens
Preceded byAntonius van Wijnbergen
Succeeded byCarel Goseling
Minister of Agriculture,
Commerce and Industry
In office
13 September 1922 – 1 January 1923
Ad interim
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byHendrik van IJsselsteyn
Succeeded byPiet Aalberse
as Minister of Labour, Commerce
and Industry
Minister of the Interior and Agriculture
In office
10 August 1929 – 1 May 1932
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byJan Kan
Succeeded byHimself
as Minister of the Interior
In office
1 January 1923 – 4 August 1925
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byHimself
as Minister of the Interior
Succeeded byDirk Jan de Geer
Minister of War
In office
5 January 1920 – 31 March 1920
Ad interim
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byGeorge Alting von Geusau
Succeeded byWillem Frederik Pop
Minister of Colonial Affairs
In office
13 August 1919 – 13 November 1919
Ad interim
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byAlexander Idenburg
Succeeded bySimon de Graaff
Minister of the Navy
In office
19 February 1919 – 19 April 1919
Ad interim
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byWillem Naudin
ten Cate
Succeeded byHendrik Bijleveld
Minister of the Interior
In office
1 May 1932 – 26 May 1933
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byHimself
as Minister of the Interior
and Agriculture
Succeeded byJacob Adriaan
de Wilde
In office
9 September 1918 – 1 January 1923
Prime MinisterCharles Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Preceded byPieter Cort van
der Linden
Succeeded byHimself
as Minister of the Interior
and Agriculture
Queen's Commissioner of Limburg
In office
7 May 1918 – 9 September 1918
MonarchWilhelmina
Preceded byGustave Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Succeeded byEduard van Hövell
tot Westerflier
Parliament
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
9 May 1933 – 17 April 1936
In office
15 September 1925 – 10 August 1929
In office
25 July 1922 – 18 September 1922
In office
7 December 1909 – 16 May 1918
In office
19 September 1905 – 21 September 1909
Parliamentary groupRoman Catholic
State Party
(1926–1936)
General League of
Roman Catholic
Caucuse
(1905–1926)
Personal details
Born
Charles Joseph Marie Ruijs de Beerenbrouck

(1873-12-01)1 December 1873
Roermond, Netherlands
Died17 April 1936(1936-04-17) (aged 62)
Utrecht, Netherlands
Cause of deathAddison's disease
NationalityDutch
Political partyRoman Catholic
State Party
(from 1926)
Other political
affiliations
General League of
Roman Catholic
Caucuse
(until 1926)
Spouse(s)
Maria van der Heyden
(m. 1902; his death 1936)
ChildrenMaria Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (1903–1999)
Gustave Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (1904–1983)
Joanna Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (1910–1992)
FatherGustave Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (1842–1926)
RelativesGodfried van Voorst
tot Voorst
(son in law)
Alma materUtrecht University
(Bachelor of Laws)
Leiden University
(Master of Laws)
OccupationPolitician · Civil servant · Jurist · Lawyer · Prosecutor
Signature

Early lifeEdit

Charles Joseph Maria Ruijs de Beerenbrouck was born on 1 December 1873 in Roermond, a town with a Bishop's see in the province of Limburg, in the very south of the Netherlands. Born into an aristocratic family, he grew up in a predominantly-Catholic community and went to school in Maastricht and in The Hague. He attended the Utrecht University and in 1895, he obtained his master's degree in law at the Leiden University.

He was the son of Gustave Ruijs de Beerenbrouck (1842–1926), Minister of Justice in the Mackay cabinet (founder of the labour and social laws first) and later governor of Limburg (1918).

CareerEdit

He started his career in 1896 as a lawyer in Maastricht. In 1899 Ruijs de Beerenbrouck became a member of the Maastricht municipal council and in 1905 he was elected to the House of Representatives. Ruijs de Beerenbrouck remained a councillor and a member of parliament until 16 May 1918, when he became Queen's Commissioner of the province of Limburg (in the province of Limburg usually called Gouverneur, or Governor).

Ruijs de Beerenbrouck did not stay in office as Queen's Commissioner for long, as on 9 September 1918 he was appointed as Prime Minister of the Netherlands.

As Prime Minister he had to deal with the aftermath of World War I. Although the Netherlands had remained neutral during the conflict, Ruijs de Beerenbrouck nevertheless faced several problems, particularly the return of German troops through the province of Limburg and the exile of the German emperor Wilhelm II.

In November 1918 the leader of the Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP), Pieter Jelles Troelstra, inspired by the Russian Revolution and the German Revolution of 1918–19, called for a socialist revolution among the working class. However, the revolution attempt of Troelstra met with little enthusiasm. Despite this, Ruijs de Beerenbrouck enacted several social reforms in order to satisfy the working class.

From 1925 to 1929 Ruijs de Beerenbrouck was Speaker of the House of Representatives.

During his third cabinet Ruijs de Beerenbrouck had to deal with the worldwide Great Depression of 1929 and the early 1930s, which had crippling effects on the Dutch economy, effects which lasted longer than they did in most European countries. The depression lead to large unemployment and poverty, as well as increasing social unrest. Ruijs de Beerenbrouck was forced to cut down government expenses and to devaluate the national currency, the Guilder, but these measures only worsened the effects of the economic crisis.

In February 1933 the third cabinet Ruijs de Beerenbrouck ordered the bombing of the navy cruiser De Zeven Provinciën, when sailors aboard the cruiser, cruising near Sumatra, mutinied because of the cutting of their wages. Twenty three mutineers were killed, resulting in a prolonged controversy and recriminations.

In 1933 Ruijs de Beerenbrouck again became Speaker of the House of Representatives. He remained in office until his death.

Personal lifeEdit

On 15 April 1902, Ruijs de Beerenbrouck married Maria van der Heyden (19 August 1877 – 17 January 1948).[1] Ruijs de Beerenbrouck died on 17 April 1936 at the age of 62 in Utrecht.

DecorationsEdit

Honours
Ribbon bar Honour Country Date Comment
  Grand Officer of the Order of the House of Orange Netherlands 1 December 1918
  Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown Belgium 5 July 1922
  Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau Netherlands 4 August 1925 Elevated from Grand Officer (31 August 1923)
  Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold Belgium 25 August 1925
  Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Netherlands 25 July 1927 Elevated from Commander (1 August 1924)
  Knight of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre Holy See 10 December 1929
Honorific Titles
Ribbon bar Honour Country Date Comment
  Minister of State Netherlands 25 July 1927 Style of Excellency

ReferencesEdit

External LinksEdit

House of Representatives of the Netherlands
Preceded by
Joseph Merckelbach
Member for Gulpen
1905–1918
Succeeded by
Henri Hermans
Party political offices
Preceded by
Antonius van Wijnbergen
Chairman of the Roman
Catholic State Party

1925–1929
Succeeded by
Carel Goseling
Preceded by
Willem Hubert Nolens
Leader of the Roman
Catholic State Party

1931–1931
Succeeded by
Piet Aalberse
Political offices
Preceded by
Gustave Ruijs de
Beerenbrouck
Queen's Commissioner
of Limburg

1918
Succeeded by
Eduard van Hövell
tot Westerflier
Preceded by
Pieter Cort van
der Linden
Minister of the Interior
1918–1923
1932–1933
Succeeded by
Himself
as Minister of the Interior
and Agriculture
Preceded by
Himself
as Minister of the Interior
and Agriculture
Succeeded by
Jacob Adriaan
de Wilde
Preceded by
Pieter Cort van
der Linden
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
1918–1925
1929–1933
Succeeded by
Hendrikus Colijn
Preceded by
Dirk Jan de Geer
Preceded by
Willem Naudin
ten Cate
Minister of the Navy
Ad interim

1919
Succeeded by
Hendrik Bijleveld
Preceded by
Alexander Idenburg
Minister of Colonial Affairs
Ad interim

1919
Succeeded by
Simon de Graaff
Preceded by
George Alting
von Geusau
Minister of War
Ad interim

1920
Succeeded by
Willem Frederik Pop
Preceded by
Himself
as Minister of the Interior
Minister of the Interior
and Agriculture

1923–1925
1929–1932
Succeeded by
Dirk Jan de Geer
Preceded by
Jan Kan
Succeeded by
Himself
as Minister of the Interior
Preceded by
Hendrik van IJsselsteyn
Minister of Agriculture,
Commerce and Industry
Ad interim

1922–1923
Succeeded by
Piet Aalberse
as Minister of Labour,
Commerce and Industry

Himself
as Minister of the Interior
and Agriculture
Preceded by
Dionysius Koolen
Speaker of the House
of Representatives

1925–1929
1933–1936
Succeeded by
Josef van Schaik
Preceded by
Josef van Schaik
Succeeded by
Piet Aalberse
Preceded by
Frans Beelaerts
van Blokland
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Ad interim

1933
Succeeded by
Andries Cornelis
Dirk de Graeff