Open main menu

Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond

Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond, KG, PC (3 August 1791 – 21 October 1860), styled Earl of March until 1819, was a British peer, soldier, politician, and a prominent Conservative.

The Duke of Richmond and Lennox

Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond and Lennox 1824.jpg
The Duke of Richmond, 1824.
Postmaster General
In office
11 December 1830 – 5 July 1834
MonarchWilliam IV
Prime MinisterThe Earl Grey
Preceded byThe Duke of Manchester
Succeeded byThe Marquess Conyngham
Personal details
Born3 August 1791 (1791-08-03)
Richmond House, Whitehall Gardens, London
Died21 October 1860 (1860-10-22) (aged 69)
Portland Place, Marylebone, London
Political partyUltra-Tories
Spouse(s)Lady Caroline Paget
ParentsCharles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond
Lady Charlotte Gordon
Alma materTrinity College, Dublin
Shield of arms of Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond, KG, PC


Background and educationEdit

Richmond was the son of Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, and the former Lady Charlotte Gordon. He was educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Dublin.[1]

Military careerEdit

The Duke of Richmond by William Salter.

Richmond (while Earl of March) served on Wellington's staff in the Peninsular War,[2] during which time he volunteered to join the 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot's advance storming party on the fortress of Ciudad Rodrigo.[3] He formally joined the 52nd Foot in 1813, and took command of a company of 52nd soldiers at Orthez in 1814, where he was severely wounded; the musket-ball in his chest was never removed.[1][3] During the Battle of Waterloo he was ADC to the Prince of Orange, and following that man's wounding, served as ADC to Wellington.[4] Richmond was chiefly responsible for the belated institution in 1847 of the Military General Service Medal for all survivors of the campaigns between 1793 and 1814. (There had only hitherto been a Waterloo Medal.) He campaigned in Parliament and also enlisted the interest of Queen Victoria.[5] Richmond himself received the medal with eight clasps.[3]

On 19 October 1817 he reformed the Goodwood Troop of Yeomanry Artillery, originally raised by the 3rd Duke in 1797. The unit supported the cavalry of the Sussex Yeomanry but was disbanded in December 1827.[6] Richmond was appointed Colonel of the Royal Sussex Light Infantry Militia on 4 December 1819, and Colonel-in-Chief of its offshoot, the Royal Sussex Militia Artillery, on its formation in April 1853.[7]

Political careerEdit

Richmond sat as Member of Parliament for Chichester between 1812 and 1819.[2] The latter year he succeeded his father in the dukedom and entered the House of Lords. He was a vehement opponent in the House of Lords of Roman Catholic emancipation, and at a later date a leader of the opposition to Peel's free trade policy, as he was the president of the Central Agricultural Protection Society, which campaigned for preservation of the Corn Laws. Although a vigorous Conservative and Ultra-Tory for most of his career, Richmond's anger with Wellington over Catholic Emancipation led him to lead the Ultras into joining Earl Grey's reforming Whig government in 1830 (Lang, 1999).[2] He served under Grey as Postmaster General between 1830 and 1834.[1] He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1830.[8] Richmond was also Lord Lieutenant of Sussex between 1835 and 1860 and was appointed a Knight of the Garter in 1829.[1][9]

In 1836, on inheriting the estates of his mother's brother, the fifth and last Duke of Gordon, he assumed the name of Gordon before that of Lennox.[2][10]


Richmond married Lady Caroline, daughter of Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey and Lady Caroline Villiers, on 10 April 1817. The couple had five sons and five daughters, including:

Richmond died at Portland Place, Marylebone, London, in October 1860, aged 69. He was succeeded in the dukedom by his eldest son, Charles. The Duchess of Richmond died in March 1874, aged 77.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d Lundy, Darryl. " Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond". The Peerage.[unreliable source]
  2. ^ a b c d   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainMcNeill, Ronald John (1911). "Richmond, Earls and Dukes of". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 307.
  3. ^ a b c Moorsom, W.S. Historical Record of the Fifty-Second Regiment (Oxfordshire Light Infantry), London: Richard Bentley, 1860, p. 443
  4. ^ Georgiana, Dowager Lady De Ros. Personal Recollections of the Duke of Wellington, The Regency Library, Complimentary Issue Archived 28 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine July 2005. Originally published in Murray's Magazine 1889 Part I.
  5. ^ Stanley C. Johnson, A Guide to Naval, Military, Air-force and Civil Medals and Ribbons, 1921, pp 57–60
  6. ^ L. Barlow & R.J. Smith, The Uniforms of the British Yeomanry Force 1794–1914, 1: The Sussex Yeomanry Cavalry, London: Robert Ogilby Trust/Tunbridge Wells: Midas Books, ca 1979, ISBN 0-85936-183-7, p. 7.
  7. ^ Hart's Army List, 1855.
  8. ^ Privy Counsellors 1679–1835
  9. ^ Peerage: Rendel-Robson
  10. ^ "No. 19409". The London Gazette. 12 August 1836. p. 1441.
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
George White-Thomas
James du Pre
Member of Parliament for Chichester
With: William Huskisson
Succeeded by
William Huskisson
Lord John Lennox
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Manchester
Postmaster General
Succeeded by
The Marquess Conyngham
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Egremont
Vice-Admiral of Sussex
Lord Lieutenant of Sussex
Succeeded by
The Earl of Chichester
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Richmond
3rd creation
Succeeded by
Charles Gordon-Lennox
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Lennox
2nd creation
Succeeded by
Charles Gordon-Lennox
French nobility
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Aubigny
Succeeded by
Charles Gordon-Lennox