Chandoli National Park

Chandoli National Park[1] is a national park spread over Satara, Kolhapur and Sangli Districts, Maharashtra state, India, established in May 2004.[2] Earlier it was a Wildlife Sanctuary declared in 1985. Chandoli Park is notable as the southern portion of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve, with Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary forming the northern part of the reserve

Chandoli National Park
Sahyadri Tiger Reserve
Oriental Garden Lizard or Bloodsucker.jpg
Oriental garden lizard at Chandoli National Park
Map showing the location of Chandoli National Park
Map showing the location of Chandoli National Park
LocationSatara District, Kolhapur District, Sangli District, Maharashtra, India
Nearest citySangli, Kolhapur
Coordinates17°11′30″N 73°46′30″E / 17.19167°N 73.77500°E / 17.19167; 73.77500Coordinates: 17°11′30″N 73°46′30″E / 17.19167°N 73.77500°E / 17.19167; 73.77500
Area317.67 square kilometres (122.65 sq mi)
EstablishedMay 2004
Governing bodyMaharashtra State Forest Dept.
Websitehttp://chandolinationalpark.com/ (unofficial)
Official nameNatural Properties - Western Ghats (India)
TypeNatural
Criteriaix, x
Designated2012 (36th session)
Reference no.1342
State PartyIndia
RegionIndian subcontinent

Sahyadri Tiger ReserveEdit

The 741.22 km2 (286.19 sq mi) Sahyadri Tiger Reserve, including all of Chandoli National Park and Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary was declared by The National Tiger Conservation Authority as a Project Tiger tiger reserve on May 21, 2007. The Sahyadri Tiger Reserve was then estimated to have nine tigers and 66 leopards.[3]

LocationEdit

Chandoli National Park is located near the Chandoli Dam between longitudes 73°40' and 73°53' E and latitudes 17°03' and 17°20'N in Sangli District of Western Maharashtra. It lies between the Radhanagiri and Koyna Wildlife Sanctuaries and forms the southern part of the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve.[2]

HistoryEdit

The park includes historical places of note including 17th century forts of the Maratha Empire, Prachitgad and Bhairavgad. Most of the protected area was used an open jail for the "prisoners of war" of the early battles during Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's rule.[citation needed] Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj used Prachitgad as an observation point and recreational place.[4]

GeographyEdit

The park spreads along the crest of the Sahyadri Range of the northern Western Ghats. It forms and protects many perennial water channels, water holes and the Vasant Sagar Reservoir. Elevation of the park ranges from 589–1,044 m (1,932–3,425 ft).[5] The park receives its water supply from the Warna river and reservoir as well as several other small streams and rivers. Flat topped mountains, rocky, lateritic plateaus called 'Saddas', almost devoid of vegetation, large boulders and caves are distinctive to the protected areas in the Sahyadri region of the Western Ghats.[citation needed]

FloraEdit

The forest types seen here are a mix of Malabar Coast moist forests and North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests. In the dwarf evergreen forests, some tree species commonly seen here are the anjani ironwood tree, jamun, pisa (angustifolia), fig, Olea (diocia), katak spinous kino tree, nana or Crape myrtle (lanceolata), kinjal, kokum tree and phanasi false kelat (brachiata). Other trees dominating the landscape include asan wood or ain or Indian laurel, amla or Indian gooseberry, umbar or devil fig (hispida) and harra or chebulic myrobalan.

Grasses commonly seen here include bangala or bluestem grass sp., dongari or golden beard grass (fulvus), black spear grass, kalikusli or tangle grass, anjan grass or buffel grass, grader grass or karad or kangaroo grass (quadrivalvis) and grasses belonging to family Poaceae, like saphet-kusli or Aristida funiculata].[6] Insectivorous plant species like sundews and bladderworts sp. are also found in this protected area.[citation needed]

FaunaEdit

Nearly 23 species of mammals, 122 species of birds, 20 species of amphibians and reptiles are known to be resident in the forests of Chandoli. The tiger,[7] leopard, Indian bison, leopard cat, sloth bear and giant squirrel are quite conspicuous here.[citation needed]

Many prey species of ungulates such as the barking deer, sambar deer, mouse deer and blackbuck are present. A census carried out in 2002 by the Forest Department showed a rise in the number of tigers, leopards, gaur, barking deer, mouse deer, sloth bears and blackbuck. A similar census carried out in 2004 showed a rise in gaur population in the Kolhapur Wildlife Division from 88 to 243.[8]

On the 23rd and 24 May 2018, a tiger was camera-trapped in Chandoli, the first such photographic evidence in the Sahyadri Tiger Reserve in 8 years. Prior to that, it was estimated from scat DNA and model-based predictions that the reserve had 5–8 tigers in 2014.[7]

DevelopmentEdit

Work undertaken for habitat improvement and development in the Chandoli National Park include removal of invasive species, soil conservation and water conservation, vaccination of cattle, research, fire prevention, providing salt licks, demarcation of boundary, erection of watch towers, maintenance of nature trails, desalting water holes, development of grasslands, and procurement of wireless two-way radios.[9]

ThreatsEdit

The Maharashtra government has plans to set up the Karadi-Bhogiv hydro-electric project in the catchment area of the Warna Dam that is expected to use up 6.78 km2 (2.62 sq mi) of forest land. On a positive note, nearly 7,894 people and a significant cattle population resident on 84.29 km2 (32.54 sq mi) of land in 32 villages within the park. These villages have been successfully relocated to areas outside the park. This measure has helped to preserve and regenerate some of the vegetation in this protected area.[8]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ loksatta.com
  2. ^ a b "Tiger reserve status could be pride of Sahyadri". The Times Of India. Times of India. 2004-12-22. Retrieved 2006-09-27.
  3. ^ "Sahyadri is now a tiger reserve". Daily News and Analysis. May 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
  4. ^ "Chandoli Wildlife Sanctuary, Kolhapur, Kotoli". Maharashtra State Forest Department. Archived from the original on 2009-04-10. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  5. ^ "Western Ghats (sub cluster nomination), Western Ghats—Sahyadri Sub-Cluster (with Four Site Elements)". UNESCO World Heritage Center. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
  6. ^ FAO
  7. ^ a b Kulkarni, Dhaval (2018-06-26). "Sahyadri Tiger Reserve camera traps evidence of tigers first time in 8 years". DNA India. Retrieved 2019-07-11.
  8. ^ a b "Chandoli National Park". ATREE, Eco-Informatics Center. Archived from the original on 2009-05-04. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
  9. ^ "Declaration of Chandoli wildlife sanctuary as National Park". Government of India, Press Information Bureau. 12 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-05.