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Carlos Marighella (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈkaʁluz ˌmaɾiˈɡɛlɐ]; 5 December 1911 – 4 November 1969) was a Brazilian politician, writer and guerrilla fighter of Marxist-Leninist orientation, accused of engaging in "terrorist acts" against the Brazilian Military Dictatorship.
|Born||5 December 1911|
|Died||4 November 1969 (aged 57)|
São Paulo, Brazil
|Organization||Brazilian Communist Party|
Ação Libertadora Nacional
Marighella's most famous contribution to revolutionary terrorism literature was the Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla, consisting of advice on how to disrupt and overthrow a military regime, aiming at revolution to implement a Marxist regime. Written shortly before his death in late 1969 in São Paulo, Minimanual was first published in North America by the Berkeley Tribe in Berkeley, California in July 1970 in an English edition. Marighella also wrote For the Liberation of Brazil. The theories laid out in both books have greatly influenced contemporary ideological activism. His ideas of revolution were complementary to Che Guevara's, who proposed guerrilla activity in the countryside, Marighela's theories on urban guerrilla warfare contemplated cities as a key point of support for the peasant's armed revolt. As an advocate of urban guerrilla warfare as means to assist a larger scale rural uprising, Marighella's work was the latest tome in the small library of guerrilla literature in the 20th century.
Marighella was born in Salvador, Bahia, to Italian immigrant Augusto Marighella and Afro-Brazilian Maria Rita do Nascimento. His father was a blue-collar worker originally from Emilia, while his mother was a descendant of African slaves, brought from Sudan (Hausa blacks). He spent his young life at a house in Rua do Desterro, at the Baixa do Sapateiro neighbourhood, where he would graduate from primary and secondary education. In 1934, he left the Polytechnic School of Bahia, where he was pursuing a degree in civil engineering, in order to become an active member of the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB). He then moved to Rio de Janeiro to work in the restructuring of PCB.
Marighella was first arrested in 1932, after he wrote an offensive poem about the administration of Bahia intervener Juracy Magalhães. On 1 May 1936, during the Getúlio Vargas time in presidency, he was once again arrested for subversion. He was arrested again by the political police led by Filinto Müller. He remained in jail for a year. He was released by "macedada" (the measure which freed political prisoners without pressing charges against them). After his release, he once again entered clandestinity, along with all members of PCB. He was recaptured in 1939. He was not released until 1945, when an amnesty during the democratization process of the country benefited all political prisoners.
The following year, Marighella was elected constituent federal deputy by the Bahian branch of PCB, but he lost his office in 1948 under the new proscription of the party. Back in clandestinity, he occupied several offices in the leadership of the party. Invited by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Marighella visited China between 1953 and 1954 in order to learn more about the Chinese Communist Revolution. In May 1964, after the military coup, he was shot and arrested by agents of the Department of Social and Political Order (Departamento de Ordem Política e Social - DOPS), the political police, at a movie theater in Rio. He was released in the following year by a court order.
Writing, founding the Ação Libertadora NacionalEdit
In 1966, he wrote The Brazilian Crisis, opting for the armed struggle against the military dictatorship. Later that year, he renounced his office in the national leadership of PCB. On August 1967, he participated at the 1st Conference of Latin American Solidarity in Havana, contradicting what party had determined. In Havana, he wrote Some Questions About the Guerrillas in Brazil, dedicated to the memory of Che Guevara and made public by Jornal do Brasil on 5 September 1968. That same year he was expelled from PCB, and founded the Ação Libertadora Nacional (ALN) on February 1968. In September 1969, ALN members kidnapped the U.S. ambassador Charles Burke Elbrick in a coordinated move with the Revolutionary Movement 8th October (Movimento Revolucionário 8 de Outubro — MR-8). The group was responsible for several executions as well.
After a series of successful robberies and kidnappings, the police force was determined to eliminate him. He was shot by police at an ambush at 8pm on 4 November 1969 at 800 Alameda Casa Branca, São Paulo. This ambush was organized by police deputy Sérgio Paranhos Fleury, known for his work inside DOPS.
- Marighella, Carlos (1 December 1966). "Carta à Comissão Executiva do Partido Comunista Brasileiro". Marxists.org. marxists.org. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- Magalhães, Mário (2012). Marighella (in Portuguese). Companhia das Letras. ISBN 9788580864717.
- Sulzberger, C. L. (22 October 1977). "Terror Without A Philosophy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "The Terrorist Classic: Manual of the Urban Guerrilla" (Spring 1986). 28 January 2009. ISSN 0015-7120. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- Williams, John W. (1989). "Carlos Marighela: The father of urban guerrilla warfare". Terrorism. 12 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1080/10576108908435757. ISSN 0149-0389.
- "Urban Terrorism in Latin America" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency of the U.S. of America. 6 November 1969.
- "Marighella, Carlos (1911–1969)", The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011, doi:10.4135/9781412980173.n254, ISBN 9781412980166, retrieved 18 February 2019
- "Carlos Marighella - der gute Terrorist". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- Schaefer, Annette (1 December 2017). "Inside the Terrorist Mind". Scientific American. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- Ekaterina, Stepanova (2008). Terrorism in asymmetrical conflict: ideological and structural aspects. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199533558. OCLC 170034858.
- "Marighella: who is the terrorist brought by Wagner Moura to the movies?". Gazeta do Povo. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "O herói que achava o terrorismo nobre e honrado, que defendia sabotagem a trens de passageiros e que pregava a emboscada para executar o inimigo sem chance de defesa - Reinaldo Azevedo". VEJA (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "A patética "beatificação" de Marighella". Revista Época - Globo. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Marighella: o terrorista que Wagner Moura vai levar ao cinema". Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "A farsa na morte de Marighella". ISTOÉ Independente (in Portuguese). 2 March 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Crítica alemã aponta mitificação em "Marighella"". BOL Notícias (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Wagner Moura espera ódio da direita e crítica da esquerda ao seu 'Marighella'". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 1 February 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Caetano, Camilo (17 September 2016). "Wagner Moura diz que empresas estão boicotando seu filme sobre o terrorista Marighella". ILISP (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Marighella não foi humanista, mas sim um terrorista". Jovem Pan Online (in Portuguese). 15 February 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Villa, Marco Antonio (13 February 2018). "Viva Marighella! Viva a morte!". O Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Dirigido por Wagner Moura, filme sobre terrorista Marighella tem "incentivo" da Rouanet". Terça Livre TV (in Portuguese). 11 January 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Constantino, Rodrigo (18 February 2019). "Marighella: o humanista negro, segundo Wagner Moura, e o terrorista psicopata, segundo os fatos históricos". Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "COMISSÃO DA VERDADE: Marighella arrancou a perna dele! Indenização: R$ 500 por mês. Chefão terrorista foi homenageado pela Comissão da Anistia; terrorista que largou a bomba no local recebe o triplo! Rosa Maria, Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro e Maria Rita Kehl aplaudem?". VEJA (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Wagner Moura quer que Marighella seja um modelo de resistência". O Antagonista (in Portuguese). 1 December 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "IMDB derruba críticas negativas do filme Marighella, de Wagner Moura". Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "Estratégia para matar o terror". VEJA. 12 March 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- White, Jonathan. “Ideological Terrorism.” Chapter 12 in Terrorism and Homeland Security, 5thEdition. Mason, Ohio, Cengage Learning, 2006. Page 218.
- Williams, John W. (January 1989). "Carlos Marighela: The father of urban guerrilla warfare". Terrorism. 12 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1080/10576108908435757. ISSN 0149-0389.
- library of congress.gov/chronicling america/berkeley tribe
- University of Michigan.gov/archives/underground newspapers/microfilm collection
- "Marighella: who is the terrorist brought by Wagner Moura to the movies? | Texto em inglês com áudio". Wise Up News: textos em inglês com áudio da Gazeta do Povo. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- Holmes, Richard; Hugh Biceno; et al. (2001). Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press. p. 549. ISBN 978-0-19-860696-3.