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The Caldwell catalogue is an astronomical catalogue of 109 star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies for observation by amateur astronomers. The list was compiled by Patrick Moore as a complement to the Messier catalogue.[1]

Caldwell catalogue
Caldwell Catalogue.jpg
Montage of Caldwell Catalogue objects.
Survey typeAstronomical catalog Edit this on Wikidata
TargetStar cluster, Nebula, Galaxy Edit this on Wikidata
Named afterPatrick Moore Edit this on Wikidata
PublishedDecember 1995 Edit this on Wikidata
Commons page Related media on Wikimedia Commons

While the Messier catalogue is used by amateur astronomers as a list of deep-sky objects for observation, Moore noted that Messier's list was not compiled for that purpose and excluded many of the sky's brightest deep-sky objects,[1] such as the Hyades, the Double Cluster (NGC 869 and NGC 884), and the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253). The Messier catalogue was actually compiled as a list of known objects that might be confused with comets. Moore also observed that since Messier compiled his list from observations in Paris, it did not include bright deep-sky objects visible in the Southern Hemisphere, such as Omega Centauri, Centaurus A, the Jewel Box, and 47 Tucanae.[1][2] Moore compiled a list of 109 objects to match the commonly accepted number of Messier objects (he excluded M110[3]), and the list was published in Sky & Telescope in December 1995.[3]

Moore used his other surname – Caldwell – to name the list, since the initial of "Moore" is already used for the Messier catalogue.[1][4] Entries in the catalogue are designated with a "C" and the catalogue number (1 to 109).

Unlike objects in the Messier catalogue, which are listed roughly in the order of discovery by Messier and his colleagues,[5] the Caldwell catalogue is ordered by declination, with C1 being the most northerly and C109 being the most southerly,[1] although two objects (NGC 4244 and the Hyades) are listed out of sequence.[1] Other errors in the original list have since been corrected: it incorrectly identified the S Norma Cluster (NGC 6087) as NGC 6067 and incorrectly labelled the Lambda Centauri Cluster (IC 2944) as the Gamma Centauri Cluster.[1]

Contents

Caldwell star chartEdit

 
Caldwell Star Chart

Number of objects by type in the Caldwell catalogueEdit

Dark nebulae 1
Galaxy 35
Globular clusters 18
Nebulae 9
Star Clusters 25
Star Clusters and Nebulae 6
Planetary Nebulae 13
Supernova remnant 2
Total 109

Caldwell objectsEdit

  Star cluster   Nebula   Galaxy

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Type Distance
(1000 ly)
Constellation Magnitude
C1 NGC 188     Open Cluster 4.8 Cepheus 8.1
C2 NGC 40 Bow-Tie Nebula   Planetary Nebula 3.5 Cepheus 11
C3 NGC 4236     Barred Spiral Galaxy 7,000 Draco 9.7
C4 NGC 7023 Iris Nebula   Open Cluster and Nebula 1.4 Cepheus 7
C5 IC 342     Spiral Galaxy 10,000 Camelopardalis 9
C6 NGC 6543 Cat's Eye Nebula   Planetary Nebula 3 Draco 9
C7 NGC 2403     Spiral Galaxy 14,000 Camelopardalis 8.4
C8 NGC 559     Open Cluster 3.7 Cassiopeia 9.5
C9 Sh2-155 Cave Nebula   Nebula 2.8 Cepheus 7.7
C10 NGC 663     Open Cluster 7.2 Cassiopeia 7.1
C11 NGC 7635 Bubble Nebula   Nebula 7.1 Cassiopeia -
C12 NGC 6946 Fireworks Galaxy   Spiral Galaxy 18,000 Cepheus 8.9
C13 NGC 457 Owl Cluster, E.T. Cluster   Open Cluster - Cassiopeia 6.4
C14 NGC 869 & NGC 884 Double Cluster, H & χ Persei   Open Cluster 7.3 Perseus 4
C15 NGC 6826 Blinking Planetary   Planetary Nebula 2.2 Cygnus 10
C16 NGC 7243     Open Cluster 2.5 Lacerta 6.4
C17 NGC 147     Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.3
C18 NGC 185     Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.2
C19 IC 5146 Cocoon Nebula   Open Cluster and Nebula 3.3 Cygnus 7.2
C20 NGC 7000 North America Nebula   Nebula 1.8 Cygnus 4
C21 NGC 4449     Irregular galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 9.4
C22 NGC 7662 Blue Snowball   Planetary Nebula 3.2 Andromeda 9
C23 NGC 891     Spiral Galaxy 31,000 Andromeda 10
C24 NGC 1275 Perseus A   Type-cD galaxy 230,000 Perseus 11.6
C25 NGC 2419     Globular Cluster 275 Lynx 10.4
C26 NGC 4244     Spiral Galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 10.2
C27 NGC 6888 Crescent Nebula   Nebula 4.7 Cygnus 7.4
C28 NGC 752     Open Cluster 1.2 Andromeda 5.7
C29 NGC 5005     Spiral Galaxy 69,000 Canes Venatici 9.8
C30 NGC 7331     Spiral Galaxy 47,000 Pegasus 9.5
C31 IC 405 Flaming Star Nebula   Nebula 1.6 Auriga -
C32 NGC 4631 Whale Galaxy   Barred Spiral Galaxy 22,000 Canes Venatici 9.3
C33 NGC 6992 East Veil Nebula   Supernova Remnant 2.5 Cygnus -
C34 NGC 6960 West Veil Nebula   Supernova Remnant 2.5 Cygnus -
C35 NGC 4889     Type-cD galaxy 300,000 Coma Berenices 11.4
C36 NGC 4559     Spiral Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.9
C37 NGC 6885     Open Cluster 1.95 Vulpecula 6
C38 NGC 4565 Needle Galaxy   Spiral Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.6
C39 NGC 2392 Eskimo Nebula/Clown Face Nebula   Planetary Nebula 4 Gemini 10
C40 NGC 3626   Spiral Galaxy 86,000 Leo 10.9
C41 Mel 25 Hyades   Open Cluster 0.151 Taurus 0.5
C42 NGC 7006     Globular Cluster 135 Delphinus 10.6
C43 NGC 7814     Spiral Galaxy 49,000 Pegasus 10.5
C44 NGC 7479     Barred Spiral Galaxy 106,000 Pegasus 11
C45 NGC 5248     Spiral Galaxy 74,000 Boötes 10.2
C46 NGC 2261 Hubble's Variable Nebula   Nebula 2.5 Monoceros -
C47 NGC 6934     Globular Cluster 57 Delphinus 8.9
C48 NGC 2775     Spiral Galaxy 55,000 Cancer 10.3
C49 NGC 2237 Rosette Nebula   Nebula 4.9 Monoceros 9.0
C50 NGC 2244     Open Cluster 4.9 Monoceros 4.8
C51 IC 1613     Irregular galaxy 2,300 Cetus 9.3
C52 NGC 4697     Elliptical galaxy 76,000 Virgo 9.3
C53 NGC 3115 Spindle Galaxy   Lenticular Galaxy 22,000 Sextans 9.2
C54 NGC 2506     Open Cluster 10 Monoceros 7.6
C55 NGC 7009 Saturn Nebula   Planetary Nebula 1.4 Aquarius 8
C56 NGC 246     Planetary Nebula 1.6 Cetus 8
C57 NGC 6822 Barnard's Galaxy   Barred irregular galaxy 2,300 Sagittarius 9
C58 NGC 2360     Open Cluster 3.7 Canis Major 7.2
C59 NGC 3242 Ghost of Jupiter   Planetary Nebula 1.4 Hydra 9
C60 NGC 4038 Antennae Galaxies   Galaxy 83,000 Corvus 10.7
C61 NGC 4039 Antennae Galaxies   Interacting galaxy 83,000 Corvus 13
C62 NGC 247     Spiral Galaxy 6,800 Cetus 8.9
C63 NGC 7293 Helix Nebula   Planetary Nebula 0.522 Aquarius 7.3
C64 NGC 2362     Open Cluster and Nebula 5.1 Canis Major 4.1
C65 NGC 253 Sculptor Galaxy   Galaxy 9,800 Sculptor 7.1
C66 NGC 5694     Globular Cluster 113 Hydra 10.2
C67 NGC 1097     Galaxy 47,000 Fornax 9.3
C68 NGC 6729 R CrA Nebula   Nebula 0.424 Corona Australis -
C69 NGC 6302 Bug Nebula   Planetary Nebula 5.2 Scorpius 13
C70 NGC 300     Galaxy 3,900 Sculptor 9
C71 NGC 2477     Open Cluster 3.7 Puppis 5.8
C72 NGC 55     Galaxy 4,200 Sculptor 8
C73 NGC 1851     Globular Cluster 39.4 Columba 7.3
C74 NGC 3132 Eight Burst Nebula   Planetary Nebula 2 Vela 8
C75 NGC 6124     Open Cluster 1.5 Scorpius 5.8
C76 NGC 6231     Open Cluster and Nebula 6 Scorpius 2.6
C77 NGC 5128 Centaurus A   Galaxy 16,000 Centaurus 7
C78 NGC 6541     Globular Cluster 22.3 Corona Australis 6.6
C79 NGC 3201     Globular Cluster 17 Vela 6.8
C80 NGC 5139 Omega Centauri   Globular Cluster 17.3 Centaurus 3.7
C81 NGC 6352     Globular Cluster 18.6 Ara 8.2
C82 NGC 6193     Open Cluster 4.3 Ara 5.2
C83 NGC 4945     Galaxy 17,000 Centaurus 9
C84 NGC 5286     Globular Cluster 36 Centaurus 7.6
C85 IC 2391 Omicron Velorum Cluster Open Cluster 0.5 Vela 2.5
C86 NGC 6397     Globular Cluster 7.5 Ara 5.7
C87 NGC 1261     Globular Cluster 55.5 Horologium 8.4
C88 NGC 5823     Open Cluster 3.4 Circinus 7.9
C89 NGC 6087[note 1] S Norma Cluster   Open Cluster 3.3 Norma 5.4
C90 NGC 2867     Planetary Nebula 5.5 Carina 10
C91 NGC 3532 Wishing Well Cluster   Open Cluster 1.6 Carina 3
C92 NGC 3372 Eta Carinae Nebula   Nebula 7.5 Carina 3
C93 NGC 6752     Globular Cluster 13 Pavo 5.4
C94 NGC 4755 Jewel Box   Open Cluster 4.9 Crux 4.2
C95 NGC 6025     Open Cluster 2.5 Triangulum Australe 5.1
C96 NGC 2516   Open Cluster 1.3 Carina 3.8
C97 NGC 3766 Pearl Cluster   Open Cluster 5.8 Centaurus 5.3
C98 NGC 4609     Open Cluster 4.2 Crux 6.9
C99 - Coalsack Nebula   Dark Nebula 0.61 Crux -
C100 IC 2944 Lambda Centauri Nebula   Open Cluster and Nebula 6 Centaurus 4.5
C101 NGC 6744     Galaxy 34,000 Pavo 9
C102 IC 2602 Theta Car Cluster   Open Cluster 0.492 Carina 1.9
C103 NGC 2070 Tarantula Nebula   Open Cluster and Nebula 170 Dorado 8.2
C104 NGC 362     Globular Cluster 27.7 Tucana 6.6
C105 NGC 4833     Globular Cluster 19.6 Musca 7.4
C106 NGC 104 47 Tucanae   Globular Cluster 14.7 Tucana 4
C107 NGC 6101     Globular Cluster 49.9 Apus 9.3
C108 NGC 4372     Globular Cluster 18.9 Musca 7.8
C109 NGC 3195     Planetary Nebula 5.4 Chamaeleon 11.6
Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
  1. ^ C89 was mistakenly written as NGC 6067 in the original, but its description is that of NGC 6087.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g O'Meara, Stephen James (2002). The Caldwell Objects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82796-6.
  2. ^ "Caldwell Club Introduction". Retrieved 2006-09-08.
  3. ^ a b Moore, Patrick (December 1995). "Beyond Messier: The Caldwell Catalogue". Sky & Telescope: 38. Archived from the original (subscription required) on 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2006-08-29.
  4. ^ Mobberley, Martin (2009). The Caldwell Objects and How to Observe Them. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-0325-9.
  5. ^ Jones, Kenneth Glyn (1991). "Introduction". Messier's Nebulae & Star Clusters. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–8. ISBN 0-521-37079-5.

External linksEdit