Messier 110, or M110, also known as NGC 205, is a dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of the Andromeda Galaxy. Although Charles Messier never included the galaxy in his list, it was depicted by him, together with M32, on a drawing of the Andromeda Galaxy; a label on the drawing indicates that Messier first observed NGC 205 on August 10, 1773. The galaxy was independently discovered by Caroline Herschel on August 27, 1783; her brother William Herschel described her discovery in 1785. The suggestion to assign the galaxy a Messier number was made by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.
SDSS image of Messier 110/NGC 205
|Observation data (J2000 epoch)|
|Right ascension||00h 40m 22.05446s|
|Declination||+41° 41′ 07.4963″|
|Helio radial velocity||−241±3|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||8.92|
|Apparent size (V)||21′.9 × 11′.0|
|IRAS 00376+4124, LEDA 2429, M110, MCG +07-02-014, NGC 0205, PGC 002429|
This galaxy has a morphological classification of pec dE5, indicating a dwarf elliptical galaxy with a flattening of 50%. M110 is designated peculiar because there are patches of dust and young blue stars located near the center. This is unusual for dwarf elliptical galaxies in general, and the reason for this peculiarity is unclear. Unlike M32, NGC 205 does not (as of 2005) show evidence for a supermassive black hole at its center.
The interstellar dust in M110 has a mass of (1.1–1.8)×104 M☉ with a temperature of 18–22 K, and the interstellar gas has (4–7)×106 M☉. The inner regions of M110 show a deficiency in the interstellar medium (IM) materials, which most likely were ejected by supernova explosions. Tidal interactions with M31 may have stripped away a significant fraction of the expelled gas and dust, leaving the galaxy as a whole deficient in its IM density.
A few novae have been detected in this galaxy, including one discovered in 1999 by Johnson and Modjaz, and another detected in 2002, by Nakano and Sumoto. The latter, designated EQ J004015.8+414420, had also been captured in images taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in October, 2002.
About half of the Andromeda's satellite galaxies are orbiting the host galaxy along a highly flattened plane, with 14 out of 16 following the same sense of rotation. One theory proposes that these objects once belonged to a subhalo surrounding NGC 205, then the group was broken up by tidal forces during a close encounter with Andromeda.
- McConnachie, A. W.; et al. (2005). "Distances and metallicities for 17 Local Group galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 356 (4): 979–997. arXiv:astro-ph/0410489. Bibcode:2005MNRAS.356..979M. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08514.x.
- Dreyer, J. L. E.; Sinnott, R. W. (1988). Sinnott, R. W. (ed.). NGC 2000.0: The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogues of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer. Sky Publishing Corporation and Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-933346-51-2.
- Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.
- "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 205. Retrieved 2006-11-29.
- Batcheldor, D.; et al. (September 2013). "An STIS Atlas of Ca II Triplet Absorption Line Kinematics in Galactic Nuclei". The Astronomical Journal. 146 (3): 10. arXiv:1308.1983. Bibcode:2013AJ....146...67B. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/3/67. 67.
- "M 110". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- Sandage, A.; Bedke, J. (1994). Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies. Carnegie Institution of Washington. ISBN 978-0-87279-667-6.
- Jones, K. G. (1991). Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-37079-0.
- Jones, K. G. (1967). "Some New Notes on Messier's Catalogue". Sky & Telescope. 33: 156–158. Bibcode:1967S&T....33..156J.
- Ford, Holland C.; et al. (July 1973), "Planetary Nebulae in Local-Group Galaxies. I. Identifications in NGC 185, NGC 205, and NGC 221", Astrophysical Journal, 183: L73, Bibcode:1973ApJ...183L..73F, doi:10.1086/181255
- Valluri, M.; et al. (2005). "The Low End of the Supermassive Black Hole Mass Function: Constraining the Mass of a Nuclear Black Hole in NGC 205 via Stellar Kinematics". Astrophysical Journal. 628 (1): 137–152. arXiv:astro-ph/0502493. Bibcode:2005ApJ...628..137V. doi:10.1086/430752.
- De Looze, I.; et al. (July 2012). "Herschel and JCMT observations of the early-type dwarf galaxy NGC 205". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 423 (3): 2359–2373. arXiv:1204.1264. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.423.2359D. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21044.x.
- van den Bergh, S. (2000). "Updated Information on the Local Group". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 112 (770): 529–536. arXiv:astro-ph/0001040. Bibcode:2000PASP..112..529V. doi:10.1086/316548.
- "Forum di Astronomia Amatoriale Italiano".
- Angus, Garry W.; Coppin, Paul; Gentile, Gianfranco; Diaferio, Antonaldo (November 2016). "The potential role of NGC 205 in generating Andromeda's vast thin corotating plane of satellite galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 462 (3): 3221–3242. arXiv:1608.03763. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.462.3221A. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw1822.
- Messier 110 data sheet, altitude charts, sky map and related objects - Deep Sky Objects Browser
- Messier 110 amateur astrophotography - Deep Sky Objects Browser
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Messier 110.|
- Messier 110 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Astrophoto, Sky Map, Articles and images
- SEDS: Elliptical Galaxy M110
- Fohring, Dora; Merrifield, Michael. "M110 – Dwarf Galaxy". Deep Space Videos. Brady Haran.