Caenophidia

The Caenophidia are a derived clade of alethinophidian snakes, which contains over 80% of all the extant species of snakes.[1] The largest family is Colubridae, but it also includes at least seven other families,[1] at least four of which were once classified as "Colubridae" before molecular phylogenetics helped us understand their relationships. It has been found to be monophyletic.[1]

Caenophidia
Temporal range: 84.9–0 Ma Late Cretaceous to Present
Crotalus atrox (2).jpg
Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Clade: Afrophidia
Clade: Caenophidia
Hoffstetter, 1939
Subclades
Synonyms

Xenophidia

Although the Caenophidia previously was held to exclude Acrochordidae, researchers have recognized that acrochordids share several traits with the other caenophidians.[2] Hence Caenophidia is usually considered to comprise Acrochordidae plus more the more derived snakes classified as Colubroidea. Recent molecular studies have also found the families Xenophidiidae and Bolyeriidae to be closely related to caenophidians, forming the sister group to Caenophidia rather than being part of Henophidia.[3][4]

Below is a phylogeny of the Caenophidia based on analyses from several studies:[5][3][4]

 
Bolyerioidea

Xenophidiidae

Bolyeriidae

Caenophidia

Anomalophiidae

Russellophiidae

Acrochordoidea

Nigerophiidae

Acrochordidae

Palaeophiidae

Archaeophinae

Palaeophiinae

Colubroides

Xenodermidae

Colubriformes
Pareidae

Pareinae

Xylophiinae

Viperidae

Viperinae

Azemiopinae

Crotalinae

Homalopsidae

Elapoidea

Prosymnidae

Buhoma

Psammophiidae

Pseudaspidinae

Psammophiinae

Lamprophiidae

Pseudoxyrhophiinae

Micrelapiinae

Psammodynastiinae

Lamprophiinae

Elapidae

Calliophiinae

Micrurinae

Najinae

Bungarinae

Elapsoidea

Hydrophiinae

Atractaspididae

Cyclocorinae

Atractaspidinae

Colubroidea
Colubridae

Grayiinae

Calamariinae

Ahaetuliinae

Colubrinae

Sibynophiidae

Natricidae

Pseudoxenodontidae

Dipsadidae

Carphophiinae

Xenodontinae

Dipsadinae

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Vidal, Nicolas; Delmas, Anne-Sophie; David, Patrick; Cruaudd, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Hedges, S. Blair (2007). "The phylogeny and classification of caenophidian snakes inferred from seven nuclear protein-coding genes". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 330 (2): 182–187. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2006.10.001. PMID 17303545.
  2. ^ Rieppel, O. (1979). "A cladistics classification of primitive snakes based on skull structure". Zeitschrift für Zoologie, Systematik und Evolutionforschung (Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research). 17 (2): 140–150. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.1979.tb00696.x.
  3. ^ a b Reynolds, RG; Niemiller, ML; Revell, LJ (2014). "Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 71: 201–213. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.11.011. PMID 24315866. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-02. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  4. ^ a b Figueroa, A.; McKelvy, A. D.; Grismer, L. L.; Bell, C. D.; Lailvaux, S. P. (2016). "A species-level phylogeny of extant snakes with description of a new colubrid subfamily and genus". PLOS ONE. 11 (9): e0161070. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1161070F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161070. PMC 5014348. PMID 27603205.
  5. ^ Pyron; Burbrink; Wiens (2013). "A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-93. PMC 3682911. PMID 23627680.