Colubridae (/kəˈlbrɪd/, commonly known as colubrids /ˈkɒljʊbrɪdz/, from Latin: coluber, 'snake') is a family of snakes. With 249 genera,[1] it is the largest snake family. The earliest species of the family date back to the Oligocene epoch. Colubrid snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica.[2]

Temporal range: Oligocene to recent
Coluber caspius.jpg
Caspian whipsnake, Coluber caspius
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Superfamily: Colubroidea
Family: Colubridae
Oppel, 1811


While most colubrids are not venomous (or have venom that is not known to be harmful to humans) and are mostly harmless, a few groups, such as genus Boiga, can produce medically significant bites. In addition, the boomslang, the twig snakes, and the Asian genus Rhabdophis have caused human fatalities.[2][3][4]

According to Scott Weinstein, author of "Venomous" Bites from Non-Venomous Snakes, more research needs to be done on the bites and venom of colubrids.[4] Some colubrids are described as opisthoglyphous (often called "rear-fanged"), meaning they have elongated, grooved teeth located in the back of their upper jaws. It is likely that opisthoglyphous dentition evolved many times in the history of snakes[3] and is an evolutionary precursor to the fangs of vipers and elapids, which are located in the front of the mouth.[5][6][7][2][3]


In the past, the Colubridae were not a natural group, as many were more closely related to other groups, such as elapids, than to each other.[8] This family was historically used as a "wastebasket taxon"[4] for snakes that do not fit elsewhere.[9] Until recently, colubrids were basically colubroids that were not elapids, viperids, or Atractaspis.[10]

However, recent research in molecular phylogenetics has stabilized the classification of historically "colubrid" snakes and the family as currently defined is a monophyletic clade,[11][12][13][14] although additional research will be necessary to sort out all the relationships within this group. As of May 2018, eight subfamilies are recognized.[15]

Current subfamiliesEdit

Sibynophiinae – 2 genera

Natricinae – 37 genera (sometimes given as family Natricidae)

Two Indian rat snakes (grey and yellow)

Pseudoxenodontinae – 2 genera

Dipsadinae – 101 genera (sometimes given as family Dipsadidae)

Grayiinae – 1 genus

Calamariinae – 7 genera

Ahaetuliinae – 5 genera

Colubrinae – 93 genera

A colubrine, Dolichophis jugularis, preying on a legless lizard, a sheltopusik

Unknown incertae sedis (not currently placed in a subfamily, usually because of the absence of genetic data, but suspected to be colubrids based on morphology)

Former subfamiliesEdit

These taxa have been at one time or another classified as part of the Colubridae, but are now either classified as parts of other families, or are no longer accepted because all the species within them have been moved to other (sub)families.

Fossil ColubridaeEdit

North AmericaEdit

Locations of Colubridae fossil finds in Mexico
  Cueva de Abra Travertine
  Goleta Formation#
  Las Tunas Wash; Jeffries Site
Find NALMA Formation Notes Refs
Colubrinae indet. Pleistocene Cueva de Abra Travertine Described from Cueva de Abra Travertine in Tamaulipas by W. W. Dalquest and E. Roth. 1970. Late Pleistocene mammals from a cave in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 15(2):217-230 [17]
?Pituophis sp. Blancan Described from Las Tunas Wash; Jeffries Site in Baja California Sur by W. E. Miller. 1980. The Late Pliocene Las Tunas Local Fauna from Southernmost Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Paleontology 54(4):762-805 [18]
Lampropeltis intermedius Blancan Goleta Described from locality in Michoacán by C. A. Repenning. 1962. The Giant Ground Squirrel Paenemarmota. Journal of Paleontology 36(3):540-556 [19]

South AmericaEdit

Locations of Colubridae fossil finds in South America
  Pleisto-Holocene ages
  Pliocene ages
  Miocene ages
Find SALMA Basin Formation Country Notes Refs
"Colubridae sp." sic Laventan VSM Villavieja   Colombia Described from same Los Mangos Fishbed in Huila; Colombophis portai and Eunectes stirtoni by R. Hoffstetter and J.-C. Rage. 1977. Le gisement de vertébrés Miocènes de La Venta (Colombie) et sa faune de serpents. Annales de Paléontologie (Vertébrés) 63(2):161-190 [20]
indet. Chasicoan
Solimões Solimões   Brazil Described from Talismã, upper Purus River locality in Amazonas; the snakes Colombophis spinosus, aff. Epicrates sp., Eunectes sp. , the turtle Chelonoidis sp., crocodylians Acresuchus pachytemporalis and Caiman brevirostris, lizard cf. Paradracaena sp., and many mammals by Cozzuol, Mario Alberto. 2006. The Acre vertebrate fauna: Age, diversity, and geography. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 21. 185–203. Accessed 2017-08-15. [21]
Colubrinae indet. Holocene Subandean Belt Ñuapua   Bolivia Described from Ñuapua 2 locality in Chuquisaca; snakes Tupinambis teguixin, Boidae indet., Crotalidae indet., turtles, frogs Leptodactylus cf. ocellatus, Bufo cf. paracnemis, birds Crypturellus tataupa, Podiceps minor, Podiceps auritus cornutus, Platalea ajaja, Rhea cf. americana, Anas sp., Coccyzus sp., Dendrocygna sp., Jacana sp., Nyctibius sp., Platalea sp., cf. Rhynchotus sp., Columbidae indet., Falconidae indet., Passeriformes indet., Rallidae indet., fossils of Tolypeutus matacus, Ceratrophrys cf. ornata, and Leposternon sp., and many mammals including Homo sapiens by Marshall, Larry G., and Thierry Sempere. 1991. The Eocene to Pleistocene vertebrates of Bolivia and their stratigraphic context: A review. Revista técnica de YPFB 12. 631–652. Accessed 2017-08-15. [22]
indet. Chapadmalalan Sierras de Córdoba Brochero   Argentina Described from Valle de Traslasierra - Paso del Río Arriba and Pedernara Cliffs locality in Córdoba; with Rhinella cf. arenarum, R. cf. spinulosa, Teius sp., ?Liolaemus sp., Iguanidae indet. and the mammals Chukimys favaloroi and Echimyidae indet. by L. E. Cruz, J. C. Fernicola, and C. A. Carignano. 2018. New Vertebrates of the Brochero Formation (Córdoba, Argentina): A Review of the Pliocene of Central Argentina. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 25:315-326 [23]
indet. Chasicoan Colorado Cerro Azul   Argentina Described from Cerro La Bota locality in La Pampa; reported with many mammal fossils by Verzi, Diego H.; Claudia I. Montalvo, and Cecilia M. Deschamps. 2008. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Late Miocene of central Argentina: Evidence from rodents and taphonomy. Geobios 41. 145–155. Accessed 2017-08-15. [24]
indet. Montehermosan Claromecó Monte Hermoso   Argentina From several localities in Buenos Aires; reported by R. L. Tomassini, C. I. Montalvo, C.M. Deschamps and T. Manera. 2013. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 48:31-42 and C. M. Deschamps, G. I. Esteban, and M. S. Bargo. 2001. El registro más antiguo del género Lestodon Gervais, 1855 (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Mylodontidae) (Montehermosense, Plioceno Temprano). Ameghiniana 38(2):151-156 [25][26]
indet. Colhuehuapian Golfo San Jorge Trelew Mb of Sarmiento   Argentina Described from same Gaiman locality in Chubut; Gaimanophis tenuis, Waincophis sp., the turtle Chelonoidis gringorum and many mammals by A. M. Albino. 1996. Snakes from the Miocene of Patagonia (Argentina) Part I: The Booidea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 199(3):417-434 [29]
indet. Santacrucian Austral Rio Pinturas   Argentina From Río Pinturas locality in Santa Cruz; reported by A. M. Albino. 1996. Snakes from the Miocene of Patagonia (Argentina) Part II: The Colubroidea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 200(3):353-360 [30]
indet. Santacrucian Austral Santa Cruz   Argentina Sole reptile described from Santa Cruz Formation locality in Santa Cruz together with the terror birds Psilopterus bachmanni, P. lemoinei, Phororhacos longissimus, Patagornis marshi, Brontornis burmeisteri, penguin Paraptenodytes antarcticus and other birds Eoneornis australis, Eutelornis patagonicus, Anisolornis excavatus, Protibis cnemialis, Opisthodactylus patagonicus, Liptornis hesternus, and many mammals by A. M. Albino. 1996. Snakes from the Miocene of Patagonia (Argentina) Part II: The Colubroidea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 200(3):353-360 & Vizcaíno, Sergio F.; Richard F. Kay, and Susana Bargo. 2012. Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation, 1–370. Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521194617. Accessed 2017-10-21.}} [31][32]


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External linksEdit