British Rail Class 43 (HST)

The British Rail Class 43 (HST) is the TOPS classification used for the InterCity 125 High Speed Train (formerly Classes 253 and 254) power cars, built by British Rail Engineering Limited from 1975 to 1982, and in service in the UK since 1976.

British Rail Class 43 (HST)
St Philip's Marsh - GWR 43002 Sir Kenneth Grange.JPG
Power car 43002 Sir Kenneth Grange restored to the original InterCity 125 livery in May 2016
Type and origin
Power typeDiesel-Electric
BuilderBritish Rail Engineering Limited Crewe Works
Build date1975–1982
Total produced197
Specifications
Configuration:
 • UICBo′Bo′
 • CommonwealthBo-Bo
Gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
BogiesBP10
Wheel diameter3 ft 4 in (1.016 m)
Length17.79 metres (58.4 ft)
Width2.74 metres (9.0 ft)
Loco weight70.25 tonnes (69.14 long tons; 77.44 short tons)
Fuel capacity990 imp gal (4,500 l; 1,190 US gal)
Prime moverPaxman VP185
MTU 16V4000 R41R
Paxman Valenta 12RP200L
AlternatorValenta, VP185: Brush Traction BA1001B
MTU: Brush Traction BA1001C
Traction motorsGEC G417AZ (43124-43152)
Brush Traction TMH68-46
Both frame mounted, four off.
TransmissionEngine driven alternator and rectifier supplying DC to traction motors
MU workingWithin class only
Train heatingElectric Train Heat
Train brakesAir
Performance figures
Maximum speedService: 125 mph (201 km/h)
Record: 148 mph (238 km/h)
Power outputEngine: 2,250 hp (1,678 kW)
At rail: 1,320 kW (1,770 bhp)
Tractive effortMaximum: 17,980 lbf (80.0 kN)
Continuous: 10,340 lbf (46.0 kN)
Brakeforce35 long tons-force (349 kN)
Career
Operators
Current:
Previous:
Numbers43002–43198
Axle load classRoute availability 5
Disposition127 in service, 40 stored, 12 preserved, 9 scrapped

The class is officially the fastest diesel locomotive in the world, with an absolute maximum speed of 148.5 mph (239.0 km/h), and a regular service speed of 125 mph (201 km/h). The record run was led by 43102 (43302) and trailed by 43159.[1][2]

History and backgroundEdit

In the early 1970s, the British Railways Board made the decision to replace its main-line express diesel traction. Financial limitations were tight, so mass electrification was not possible. As a result, a new generation of high-speed diesel trains had to be developed.

Experience with the high-speed Class 55 Deltic locomotives had shown that a low axle weight was essential to avoid damage to the track at sustained high speed, and that high-speed engines were the only way to provide a good enough power-to-weight ratio for diesels. To power the HST at up to 125 mph (201 km/h), each power car had a new diesel engine, the 12-cylinder Paxman Valenta, running at 1,500 rpm and developing 2,250 bhp (1,680 kW). The 70-tonne weight of the power car gave it a 17.5-tonne axle loading.

Development and designEdit

PrototypeEdit

 
Prototype power car 41001 (left) with first production power car 43002

The prototype set was developed at the Railway Technical Centre, Derby, the power cars having been constructed by British Rail Engineering Limited's (BREL) Crewe Works and the British Rail Mark 3 passenger cars by BREL's Derby Litchurch Lane Works. The engine used in the prototype power cars was the Paxman 'Valenta' 12RP200L, which developed 2,250 horsepower (1,680 kW). The electrical equipment was supplied by Brush. The power cars had a main driver's position at one aerodynamically shaped end with the other flat and gangwayed end having only an auxiliary driving position for shunting purposes.

The two prototype power cars emerged from the works in June and August 1972 and were initially numbered 41001 and 41002, but after a short period the entire set, including the passenger coaches, became reclassified as a diesel-electric multiple unit: British Rail Class 252. The power cars were given the coaching stock numbers 43000 and 43001. After proving trials on the Eastern Region the prototype High Speed Diesel Train (HSDT) was transferred to the Western Region, where it was deployed on Paddington Bristol/Weston-super-Mare services.

In May 2011 the National Railway Museum (NRM) announced that the remaining HST prototype power car 41001 would undergo full restoration work.[3] A long-term loan was agreed between the NRM and the 125 Group of volunteers for the locomotive and a Paxman Valenta RP200L engine. The replacement engine (no. S508) was required as the original Valenta engine (no. S183) had been sectioned for display purposes. The S508 engine was lifted into the locomotive at Neville Hill TMD on 29 June 2012.[4] The loan agreement ended in November 2019 and 41001 returned to the NRM.[5]

In order to facilitate a main line move, Class 41 prototype HST power car 41001 was re-registered as a Class 43/9 locomotive, with the number 43000. It is the only locomotive in this sub-class.[6]

Production seriesEdit

 
The driver's cab and controls aboard a Class 43 Power Car

The design was successful and led to production orders being placed for similar trains for the Western, Eastern, Scottish and London Midland regions. The production power cars featured a redesigned front end without conventional buffers, although a rigid drawbar can be used to connect an HST to an ordinary locomotive. Following the introduction of production HST sets, the prototype unit was withdrawn, the power cars passing to the Research Division at Derby. Of the ten prototype coaches, two were adapted for use in the Royal Train,[7] five were modified for use with the production HSTs,[8] and three were transferred to Departmental stock.[9]

The 197 power cars produced are numbered 43002-43198. 43001 was applied to the second of the two prototype power cars, while the first of the pair (now preserved at the NRM; formerly operational on the GCR) became 43000, which is unusual because BR TOPS classification numbered its locomotives from 001 upwards (this was because it was not, at the time, classified as a locomotive).

Buffered unitsEdit

 
43468 Departs London King's Cross

In 1987, as electrification of the East Coast Main Line was under way, British Rail realised that the new Mark 4 carriages for the Class 89 and Class 91 locomotives were not going to be finished in time for the introduction of electric services on the East Coast Main Line so, in late 1987, a total of eight Eastern Region power cars (Numbers 43013/014/065/067/068/080/084/123) conversions (on 43014/123) were carried out at the Derby Engineering Development Unit, whilst the other six (43013/065/067/068/080/084) were converted by the diesel repair shop at Stratford to have the lower valancing removed and buffers fitted.

After being fitted with buffers, these power cars began work as surrogate DVTs to work with the Class 91s and 89. The locomotives, working with conventional Mk3 stock, worked on the line between 1987 and 1991, when the last Class 91 locomotives entered service. As well as buffers being fitted to these power cars, special remote control equipment was also added to the locomotives so they could be controlled by the locomotive at the front. Once these locomotives left DVT duties, the remote equipment was removed.

After privatisation, these power cars joined the Virgin Trains fleet working both Virgin CrossCountry and Virgin Trains West Coast routes, where they displaced loco-hauled stock. All the units were repainted from their original InterCity colours to the Virgin red livery. Later, Virgin Trains withdrew the HSTs when new Class 220 and 221 units were delivered, and nearly all of these power cars went into storage at Long Marston.

After years of storage, several of the power cars were bought by Midland Mainline to be part of Project Rio, special services running from London St Pancras to Manchester while major engineering works were undertaken on the West Coast Main Line. These units were kept in the de-branded Virgin Trains livery throughout their time with Midland Mainline and put back in storage once Project Rio had finished in 2006.

43013 and 43014 joined Network Rail's New Measurement Train in 2003 and have continued to work with this service ever since. Both of these units have now had MTU engines fitted.

43080 was leased to GNER as a one-off power car, working as a spare unit that could be easily called for if an HST failed. For most of its time with GNER, it was based at Craigentinny yard in Edinburgh and was painted into GNER colours. This locomotive's lease ended in 2006 and it was returned to storage at Long Marston.

In 2007, Grand Central took an interest in the stored power cars and amalgamated them into its fleet of three HST sets. In total, 43065/067/068/080/084/123 were bought by the company and ran high-speed services between Sunderland and London Kings Cross. HSTs 43084 and 43123 were the final operational Paxman Valenta power cars, being re-engined in 2010 with the MTU treatment. While at the works being re-engined, Grand Central added the orange stripe that appears on its Class 180 units, re-painted the front ends (making them look more like the non-buffered HSTs), and re-numbered the power cars into the four-hundreds. These are the current numbers: 43465 (065)/467 (067)/468 (068)/480 (080)/484 (084)/423 (123). They were withdrawn from Grand Central service in 2017 after more Class 180s were acquired.[10]

EnginesEdit

 
Paxman VP185 engine in a class 43 of East Midlands Trains
Video of a GWR High Speed Train with MTU engines

British Rail experimented with Mirrlees Blackstone MB190 engines in four Western region examples (43167–43170) between 1987 and 1996, but this experiment was unsuccessful and the standard Paxman Valenta engines re-installed.

Paxman began development of the Valenta's successor, the Paxman VP185, in 1987. The suggestion that British Rail participate in a trial of the new VP185 engine in the IC125 was first mooted in January 1991, and a formal agreement for the trial was signed in May 1993.[11]

A qualifying requirement for the trial was that the engine should undergo a British Rail Type Test which was carried out between December 1993 and February 1994.[11] The test involved completion of 3,000 cycles, each of 10 minutes duration, with four minutes at the maximum power of 2,611 kW (3,501 bhp) and six minutes at idle, simulating the typical 'on-off' nature of IC125 duty. The test was much more severe than operational duty, where the train operates at a maximum of 1,678 kW (2,250 bhp). The successful results of the test cleared the way for installation of a VP185 in Power Car 43170 at Plymouth Laira Depot for in-service trials in the summer of 1994. Power car 43170 entered service on 22 September 1994.[11] 43170 was given the nameplate "Edward Paxman".[12]

During the late 1990s twenty-five HST power cars were re-engined with Paxman VP185 engines in order to improve fuel consumption and reduce emissions.

The last VP185 engine to be manufactured at Paxman's Colchester Works was despatched from the factory on 15 September 2003 as part of a programme to convert 14 Midland Mainline power cars to VP185 engines to supplement the four already converted during 1994/95, and this led to 43043/045/048-050/052/055/060/061/072/073/076/082 joining 43047/059/074/075 with this engine type.[13]

Today there are no production power cars fitted with a Paxman Valenta engine, although the 125 Group have reinstalled a Paxman Valenta in the surviving prototype power car, 41001 (formerly 43000).

Diesel-battery hybrid trialEdit

In 2007, Brush Traction and Hitachi equipped Paxman Valenta powered 43089 and a semi-permanently coupled Mark 3 coach with a diesel-battery hybrid power system for experimental trials. The power car was named "Hayabusa" (Hayabusa, はやぶさ, Japanese for Peregrine falcon, project name 'V-Train 2').[14][15][16] It returned to normal service with East Midlands Trains.

Life extensionEdit

The HST, having been in operation since the late 1970s, is due for replacement by the Hitachi Super Express. The development cycle for the replacement series is such that the existing fleet may be required to operate through to 2019 or beyond.

  • During 2005, two Class 43 power cars (43004 and 43009) operated by First Great Western were fitted with new MTU V16 4000 engines before being tested in passenger operation on the Great Western Line. In December 2005, First announced that all its power cars would receive the MTU engine. The MTU engine offers improvements over the existing Paxman 12RP200 'Valenta' engines, with reduced noise, smoke and exhaust emissions, improved reliability and fuel efficiency.[17]
  • East Coast also re-engined its fleet with MTU engines, a process begun under its predecessor GNER. East Coast's fleet of re-engined power cars have been renumbered into the 432xx and 433xx series by adding 200 to the existing power car number.
  • East Midlands Trains stated that it would install Paxman VP185 engines in all its power cars before the end of its franchise. It has since completed this operation, though the re-engined power cars retain their original numbers
  • Grand Central had fitted their HST fleet with MTU engines, with the first pair entering service on 21 September 2010; they have also been repainted with an orange stripe to match Grand Central's Class 180s.[18] 43123 was the final Valenta power car; it now carries a plaque reading "Valenta 1972-2010". The final passenger service of a Valenta engined power car was on 19 December 2010. On 22 December 2010 the Valenta was used in four farewell tours between York and Sunderland using 43123. All power cars have been re-engined by Brush Traction, Loughborough, and have been renumbered in the 43/4 range.
  • CrossCountry's first CrossCountry-liveried HST power car, 43301 (formerly 43101) was released from its overhaul at Brush Traction, Loughborough on 16 July 2008. To identify its fleet, CrossCountry is renumbering all its HST units by adding an extra 200 to the old number.
  • Network Rail's New Measurement Train is a specially converted InterCity 125. It can check the condition of railway lines over a 13-week cycle. On the West Coast Main Line, care is taken so tilting trains can safely run. It measures contact between wheels, rails and overhead power lines and is equipped with lasers, video cameras and other instruments. It was launched in 2003, but the vehicles used for it are older. Its yellow livery has earned it the nickname "The Flying Banana", which was previously used for older High Speed Trains with a similar livery.

OperationsEdit

 
An eight-car East Coast Main Line set in 1979
 
A seven-car Cross Country set in the 1980s

When Crewe Works built them, the InterCity 125 units were considered to be diesel multiple units, and were allocated Classes 253 and 254 for Western and Eastern Region services respectively. The locomotives were introduced in the Midland region later.

Until the HST's introduction, the maximum speed of British trains was limited to 100 mph (160 km/h). The increased speed and rapid acceleration and deceleration of the HST made it ideal for passenger use, and it slashed journey times around the country. The prototype InterCity 125 (power cars 43000 and 43001) set the world record for diesel traction at 143 mph (230 km/h) on 12 June 1973. An HST also holds the world speed record for a diesel train carrying passengers. On 27 September 1985, a special press run for the launch of a new Tees-Tyne Pullman service from Newcastle to London King's Cross, formed of a shortened 2+5 set, briefly touched 144 mph (232 km/h) north of York.

During 1987, eight HST power cars were converted for use as driving van trailers (DVTs) with Class 91 locomotives during trials on the East Coast Main Line. The power cars were fitted with buffers and time-division multiplex equipment that allowed them to directly control a Class 91, and were moved over to the ECML where they were used on workings with Class 89 and then Class 91 locomotives from London to Leeds. After the Mk 4 stock had been delivered, the HST power cars had the TDM equipment removed, and then reverted to their normal duties. The power cars used for this project can be easily identified as they are still fitted with buffers. They were then transferred to Virgin Cross Country, and put in storage when Virgin replaced its HST fleet with Bombardier Voyagers (though Arriva, upon later taking over the franchise, acquired ten power cars, four of which were buffered). Grand Central bought six of these for services from Sunderland to London, the remaining two having been integrated into Network Rail's New Measurement Train.

After the privatisation of British Rail the HST sets continued to be used. 193 of the 197 locomotives built remain in service. The four units that were not in service, 43173, 43011, 43019 and 43140, were written off by fatal rail accidents in 1997, 1999, 2004 and 2020 respectively.

 
GWR Castle HST set at Plymouth

All HSTs operating with Great Western Railway (GWR), London North Eastern Railway were replaced by Class 800/801/802s in 2018/2019. Twenty-seven sets each with four or five carriages moved from Great Western Railway to Abellio ScotRail and be refurbished with controlled emission tanks and plug automatic doors. They will operate on services from Edinburgh and Glasgow to Aberdeen and Inverness.[19][20][21][22] The first two were delivered to Craigentinny TMD for crew training in September 2017.[23] The first entered service in October 2018.[24]

GWR retained 24 power cars to form 11 four-carriage formations known as "Castle Class" sets for use on local services between Cardiff and Penzance.[25]

FutureEdit

GB Railfreight have expressed interest in the possibility of converting displaced HST sets for use carrying parcels and other mail.[26]

In 2021, RailAdventure acquired the six 43/4 power cars, plus an additional two for spares, for use on stock movements as part of its entrance into the UK market through the acquisition of Hanson and Hall Rail Services.[27][28] Two were exported to Germany in September 2021.[29]

On 25 November 2022, GWR announced they would be retiring their ‘Castle’ fleet. The withdrawals are expected to take place over a two year period.[30]

FleetEdit

SummaryEdit

Some of the Class 43 fleet are listed below.

Status/Operator Image Number Unit nos. Notes
CrossCountry   12[31] 43184, 43207, 43208, 43239, 43285, 43301, 43303-43304, 43321, 43357, 43366, 43378
Locomotive Services Limited   7 43046, 43047, 43049, 43055, 43058, 43059, 43083[32] Former East Midlands Railway power cars.
RailAdventure   8 43296, 43308, 43423, 43465, 43467-43468, 43480, 43484[33]
Preserved   13 43002, 43018, 43044-43045, 43048, 43056, 43071, 43073, 43081-43082, 43089, 43102 (43302), 43159
Scrapped 14 43011, 43019, 43030, 43053,[43] 43061,[44] 43069, 43070,[43] 43075,[44] 43079,[43] 43140, 43173, 43193, 43197, 43313

ListEdit

Key: In service Stored Scrapped Preserved
Original Number New Number Name Operator Previous Operator Livery Status Notes
43002 Sir Kenneth Grange[51] National Railway Museum Great Western Railway InterCity Blue & Grey Preserved Preserved at the National Railway Museum. Part of the National Collection.
43003 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service Formerly Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
43004 Caerphilly Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway
43005 St. Michael's Mount
43006 43206 London North Eastern Railway InterCity Blue & Grey Stored Used in LNER HST charity railtour along with 43312.
Stored at Ely.
43007 43207 CrossCountry Midland Mainline CrossCountry In service
43008 43208 London North Eastern Railway Formerly Lincolnshire Echo. Nameplate sold in 2020.[52]
43009 Nunney Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway In service 43010 formerly named TSW Today, denamed January 1993, after TSW stopped broadcasting.
43010 Lydford Castle
43011 First Great Western FGW 'Fag Packet' Scrapped Scrapped after the Ladbroke Grove Rail Crash.
43012 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43013 Mark Carne OBE[53] Network Rail Virgin CrossCountry Network Rail Yellow Used for the New Measurement Train. Buffered.[53]
43014 The Railway Observer[53]
43015 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail
43016 Powderham Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway
43017 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored Stored at Ely.
43018 The Red Cross[51] Crewe Heritage Centre Great Western Railway Intercity Blue and Grey Preserved Preserved at Crewe Heritage Centre.
43019 First Great Western First Great Western Scrapped Scrapped after the Ufton Nervet Rail Crash.
43020 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored Stored at Ely.
43021 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43022 Nether Stowey Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway
43023 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored
43024 Stored at Ely.
43025
43026 ScotRail Great Western Railway Formerly City of Westminster and Michael Eavis.
43027 Acton Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway First Great Western In service Formerly Westminster Abbey and Glorious Devon.
43028 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43029 Caldicot Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway First Great Western In service
43030 Great Western Railway ScotRail Scrapped Scrapped after the Stonehaven derailment[54]
43031 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43032
43033 Formerly Driver Brian Cooper.
43034
43035
43036
43037
43038 43238 East Midlands Railway LNER all red Stored Formerly National Railway Museum 40 Years 1975-2015. Nameplate sold in 2020.[52]
43039 43239 CrossCountry London North Eastern Railway Crosscountry In service
43040 Berry Pomeroy Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway Vinyled in a Falklands 40 livery in June 2022.[55]
43041 St Catherine's Castle
43042 Tregenna Castle
43043 East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Stored
43044 Edward Paxman[51] 125 Group East Midlands Railway InterCity Executive Preserved Purchased by the 125 Group in 2021.[56] Currently stored at the Nottingham Heritage Railway.
43045 Colas Rail East Midlands Trains Entered preservation at the Long Marston Rail Innovation Centre.[40]
43046 Geoff Drury 1930-1999
Steam Preservation and Computerised Track Recording Pioneer
Locomotive Services Limited East Midlands Railway Blue Pullman Blue Pullman livery.[57]
43047 East Midlands Trains
43048 125 Group Preserved at 125 Group. Formerly T.C.B. Miller MBE.
43049 Neville Hill Locomotive Services Limited InterCity Swallow
43050 Colas Rail East Midlands Trains Stored Stored at Long Marston.
43051 43251 Colas Rail East Midlands Railway LNER In service
43052 East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Stored
43053 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored at Long Marston. Formerly University of Worcester.
43054 East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains
43055 Locomotive Services Limited East Midlands Railway Blue Pullman Preserved Blue Pullman livery.[57]
43056 Welsh Railways Trust Great Western Railway First Great Western Preserved Stored at Laira. Donated to the Welsh Railways Trust in 2021 and based at the Gwili Railway.[40][41] Formerly Royal British Legion.
43057 43257 Colas Rail East Midlands Railway LNER In service Formerly Bounds Green. Nameplate sold in 2020.[52]
43058 Locomotive Services Limited[58] East Midlands Railway Rail Charter Services Green & Silver Preserved Painted green with a silver stripe in 2021.[58]
43059
43060 Colas Rail East Midlands Trains Stored Stored at Long Marston.
43061 East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Scrapped Scrapped at Sims Metal, Newport October 2021.
43062 - John Armitt[53] Network Rail Virgin CrossCountry Network Rail Yellow In service Used for the New Measurement Train.[53]
43063 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored Stored at Laira & Long Marston
43064 East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains
43065 43465 RailAdventure EMR Plain Blue Buffered.
43066 East Midlands Trains
43067 43467 Nottinghamshire Fire and Rescue Service
British Transport Police Nottingham
RailAdventure Buffered.
One name on each side. Named after the crews responding to the Nottingham station fire on 12 January 2018.[59]
43068 43468 Buffered.
43069 Great Western Railway First Great Western Scrapped Used as a spares donor for Great Western Railway's fleet of ‘Castle’ power cars at Plymouth Laira depot, taken for scrapping at Sims Metal, Newport on 31 May 2022.[48]
43070 First Great Western Stored Stored at Laira.
43071 Colne Valley Railway Great Western Railway First Great Western Preserved Preserved by 125 Heritage in November 2021.[42] Formerly 'Forward Birmingham' after the Exmouth based Trent.
43072 43272 Colas Rail East Midlands Railway LNER In service Based at Derby R.T.C.
43073 Neville Hill HST Depot 42 Years Colne Valley Railway East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Preserved Preserved by 125 Heritage in November 2021.[42]
43074 43274 Colas Rail East Midlands Railway EMR Purple In service Formerly Spirit of Sunderland, nameplate sold in 2020.[52] Based at Derby R.T.C.
43075 East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Scrapped Scrapped at Sims Metal, Newport October 2021.
43076 East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Stored
43077 43277 Colas Rail LNER Stored at Derby R.T.C.
43078 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored at Laira.
43079
43080 43480 West Hampstead PSB RailAdventure East Midlands Railway RailAdventure Buffered, exported to Germany September 2021.[29] Returned to Eastleigh in 2022.
43081 Crewe Heritage Centre East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Preserved Preserved at Crewe Heritage Centre.[37]
43082 Colne Valley Railway The Railway Children[51] Preserved by 125 Heritage Ltd in October 2021.[42]
43083 Locomotive Services Limited
43084 43484 RailAdventure East Midlands Railway RailAdventure In service Buffered, exported to Germany September 2021.[29] Returned to Eastleigh in 2022.
43085 43285 CrossCountry Midland Mainline Crosscountry In service
43086 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored at Laira
43087 Stored at Laira.
43088 Dartmouth Castle Great Western Railway Virgin CrossCountry Great Western Railway In service
43089 125 Group East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Preserved Previously Hayabusa diesel-battery hybrid testbed.[60]
Preserved at 125 Group.
43090 43290 Network Rail East Midlands Railway LNER In service Formerly MTU Fascination of Power, nameplate sold in 2020.[52]
43091 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored Stored at Laira.
43092 Cromwell's Castle Great Western Railway Virgin CrossCountry Great Western Railway In service
43093 Berkeley Castle Formerly Old Oak Common HST Depot 1976-2018
43094 St Mawes Castle
43095 43295 East Midlands Railway LNER Stored
43096 43296 RailAdventure East Midlands Trains Stored. To be used as a spares donor.
43097 Castle Drogo Great Western Railway Virgin CrossCountry Great Western Railway In service Formerly Environment Agency.
43098 Walton Castle
43099 43299 Network Rail East Midlands Railway LNER
43100 43300 London North Eastern Railway LNER Stored

Damaged in a collision with 800109 at Neville Hill on 13 November 2019.[61] Formerly named Craigentinny, nameplate sold in 2020.[52]

43101 43301 CrossCountry Virgin CrossCountry Crosscountry In service
43102 43302 The Journey Shrinker
148.5 MPH The Worlds Fastest Diesel Train
National Railway Museum East Midlands Railway InterCity Swallow Preserved Along with 43159, 43102 (43302) holds the world record for the fastest diesel locomotive in the world. Repainted into InterCity Swallow livery in February 2021.[62] Donated to the National Railway Museum after withdrawal from service in May 2021 and currently on display at Shildon.[63][64][35]
43103 43303 CrossCountry Virgin CrossCountry Crosscountry In service
43104 43304 Midland Mainline
43105 43305 East Midlands Railway LNER Stored
43106 43306
43107 43307
43108 43308 RailAdventure Stored. To be used as a spares donor. Formerly named BBC Television Railwatch and later named Highland Chieftain, nameplate auctioned in 2020.[52]
43109 43309
43110 43310
43111 43311 London North Eastern Railway
43112 43312 British Rail Blue & Grey Used in LNER HST charily railtour along with 43206.
Stored at Ely.
43113 43313 London North Eastern Railway LNER Scrapped Damaged in a collision on 31 October 2019.[65] Was previously stored for use as a source of spare parts for CrossCountry.[66] Taken for scrapping at Sims Metal, Newport on 23 February 2022.[50]
43114 43314 East Midlands Railway Stored
43115 43315 London North Eastern Railway
43116 43316 East Midlands Railway
43117 43317
43118 43318 Celebrating Forty Years
43119 43319
43120 43320
43121 43321 CrossCountry Virgin CrossCountry Crosscountry In service
43122 Dunster Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway
43123 43423 Valenta 1972-2010 RailAdventure East Midlands Railway East Midlands Trains Stored
43124 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43125
43126
43127
43128
43129
43130
43131
43132
43133
43134 Gordon Aikman BEM Named in June 2021.[67]
43135
43136
43137
43138
43139 Formerly Driver Stan Martin.
43140 ScotRail Abellio Scotrail Scrapped Scrapped after the Stonehaven derailment.
43141 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43142
43143
43144
43145
43146
43147
43148
43149
43150
43151 Formerly known as Blue Peter II.
43152
43153 Chûn Castle Great Western Railway First Great Western Great Western Railway Formerly The English Riviera
43154 Compton Castle
43155 Rougemont Castle Formerly The Red Arrows
43156 Maen Castle Great Western Railway First Great Western First Great Western In service Formerly Dartington International Summer School
43157 43357 CrossCountry Virgin CrossCountry Crosscountry In service
43158 Kingswear Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway
43159 125 Group Great Western Railway First Great Western Preserved Donated to the 125 Group in 2021,[39] currently stored awaiting restoration at the Nottingham Heritage Railway.
Along with 43102 (43302), 43159 holds the world record for the fastest diesel locomotive in the world.
43160 Castle-an-Dinas Great Western Railway Virgin CrossCountry Great Western Railway In service Formerly Porterbrook and Moir Lockhead.
43161 - Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored at Laira
43162 Caerhays Castle Great Western Railway Virgin CrossCountry Great Western Railway In Service Formerly 'Storm Force' named after the RNLI club for children.
43163 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail Involved in the Southall Rail Crash.
43164
43165 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored Stored at Ely.
43166 43366 HST 40
Celebrating 40 years of High Speed Train services on the CrossCountry Network
[68]
CrossCountry Midland Mainline Crosscountry In service
43167 43367 London North Eastern Railway LNER Stored Formerly Deltic 50 1965-2005.
43168 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43169
43170 Chepstow Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway
43171 Raglan Castle
43172 Tiverton Castle Formerly Harry Patch.
43173 Great Western Trains Great Western Trains 'Merlin'[69] Scrapped Scrapped after the Southall Rail Crash.
43174 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored Stored at Ely.
43175 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43176
43177
43178 43378 CrossCountry Midland Mainline Crosscountry
43179 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail
43180 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored Stored at Laira.
43181 ScotRail Great Western Railway ScotRail In service
43182
43183
43184 43384 CrossCountry Midland Mainline InterCity Executive Painted in current livery in 2022.[70]
43185 Great Western Railway InterCity Swallow Stored Formerly Great Western.
43186 Taunton Castle Great Western Railway Great Western Railway In service
43187 Cardiff Castle Formerly Y Cymru The Welshman
43188 Newport Castle / Y Cymru The Welshman / Geraint Thomas
43189 Launceston Castle
43190 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored
43191 Stored at Ely.
43192 Trematon Castle Great Western Railway - Great Western Railway In service
43193 Great Western Railway First Great Western Scrapped Used as a spares donor for Great Western Railway's fleet of ‘Castle’ power cars at Plymouth Laira depot, taken for scrapping at Sims Metal, Newport on 31 May 2022.[48]
43194 Okehampton Castle Great Western Railway Virgin CrossCountry Great Western Railway In service
43195 Great Western Railway First Great Western Stored Stored as a source of spare parts at Plymouth Laira after hitting a tree.
43196 Great Western Railway Virgin CrossCountry Great Western Railway Stored at Laira
43197 Great Western Railway First Great Western Scrapped Used as a spares donor for Great Western Railway's fleet of ‘Castle’ power cars at Plymouth Laira depot, taken for scrapping at Sims Metal, Newport on 31 May 2022.[48]
43198 Driver Brian Cooper 15 June 1947 - 5 October 1999
Driver Stan Martin 25 June 1950 - 6 November 2004.
Great Western Railway Virgin CrossCountry Great Western Railway In service One name on each side. Formerly Oxfordshire 2007.

Fortieth anniversaryEdit

 
Sir Kenneth Grange on 2 October 2016, with InterCity 125 power car 43185, the bodyshell of which was designed by him in the 1970s, and which had just been repainted in the Intercity Swallow livery carried between 1987-1996.

On 2 May 2016 an open day was held at Bristol St Philip's Marsh depot with a line up of Class 43s from each operator (except CrossCountry) to celebrate the HST's fortieth anniversary. Several locomotives and passenger trains also appeared, such as 150 247 and 166 214 both in their new GWR liveries, 158 798 in its Springboard Opportunity Group livery and the prototype Class 41 HST. At the event, power car 43002 (Numbered 253 001 as a Diesel Multiple Unit) was unveiled in original Intercity 125 livery, and named Sir Kenneth Grange after the Class 43's bodyshell designer.[71] On 2 October 2016, power car 43185 was unveiled in InterCity Swallow livery.[72] Both were operated by Great Western Railway (First Great Western) and 43002 is now preserved.

AccidentsEdit

There have also been four serious incidents involving Class 43s; these accidents resulted in four power cars being written off.

There have been minor incidents involving Class 43s, among which have been:

  • On 28 August 1979, power car 43110 derailed south of Northallerton. The cause was attributed to low gearbox oil lubricant which caused the pinion to fail and lock the leading wheels on the train in place. With the rear power car pushing the train, this caused the locked wheels to skid, wearing a groove which developed false flanges on their outsides, one of which struck the points south of the station, which buckled the rail.[75]
  • On 16 March 1986, power car 43118 received collision damage after running through a buffer stop and derailing, while leaving Neville Hill TMD.[76]
  • On 20 August 2017, 43188 partly derailed on departure at Paddington while forming the rear power car of the 11:57 Great Western Railway service to Penzance. This was due to a track fault.[77]
  • On 31 December 2017, 43195 hit a tree near Hemerdon, Plymouth.[78][79]
  • On 17 April 2018, 43138 suffered damage due to an engine fire whilst at Penzance station.[80]
  • On 6 April 2019, 43045 caught fire at Leicester whilst working 1B53 1445 Nottingham-London St Pancras.[81][82][83]
  • On 13 June 2019, 43054 collided with aggregate that had been washed-out from a cutting slope near Corby, Northamptonshire.[84][85]
  • On 13 November 2019, 43300 collided with an LNER Class 800 Azuma at Neville Hill TMD, Leeds.[86]
  • On 10 April 2021, 43012 was derailed near Dalwhinnie. The line between Aviemore and Pitlochry was closed.[87][88]

Power car 43160 had two minor incidents, which happened at the South West England region.

  • On 3 April 2016, the power car was involved in what was described as a 'low impact' collision at Plymouth railway station. A local commuter service collided with a Plymouth to London Paddington train at low speed and the power car received damage to its nose and valancing.[89]
  • On 14 September 2017, around 1 year and 5 months after the 'low impact' collision incident, the power car was severely damaged by a fire in Exeter.[90]

ReplacementEdit

 
Hitachi Class 800 Super Express undergoing testing at Old Dalby test track. These trains replaced most of the HST units on the Great Western Main Line and all the HST units on the East Coast Main Line.

The HST fleet is now in its sixth decade, and replacements are underway. This project, the Intercity Express Programme, is being spearheaded by the Department for Transport. A consortium headed by Hitachi has designed and built the new units, initially named "Super Express Train". Various formations are being built; both electric and bi-mode (electro-diesel) versions in five- or nine-coach lengths. The first batches have replaced HSTs on the Great Western Main Line and the East Coast Main Line.

On the Greater Western franchise, the last of the full-length HSTs was withdrawn in June 2019. Between 12 and 20 HST sets were originally to be retained and refurbished to carry on providing services between London, Devon and Cornwall, where no electrification was planned, and where the Class 800's diesel engines would not be capable of negotiating the steep gradients along the South Devon Banks, through to the mid-2020s.[91] A report published in 2011 concluded that the Mark 3 coaches could remain in service as late as 2035, subject to some minor rewiring and enhancements required under disability legislation.[92] However, it was announced in March 2015 that the HST would instead be replaced with the Class 802, a more powerful derivative of the bi-mode Class 800s.[93]

Initially, high-speed Bombardier Voyager and Alstom Class 180 Adelante replaced numerous HST units, but all locomotives and sets were brought back into service as a result of increasing demand. Some Great Western sets were cascaded to Abellio ScotRail to replace the Class 170 units, while others were retained by GWR to operate local services.[94]

Grand Central Railway leased five more Class 180 units cascaded from GWR to replace its HST trains and increase its overall fleet size.[95] This in turn allowed the HSTs to be cascaded to East Midlands Trains.[96] The East Midlands Trains sets were passed to the new East Midlands Railway franchise, which announced it would replace them with a combination of Class 180 and Class 222 units, enabled owing to the electrification of the MML as far north as Corby, to be replaced ultimately by Class 810 bi-mode units.[97]

Upon being retired, unit 43002 was preserved by the National Railway Museum in York.[98] It was joined by 43102 (43302)[63]

PreservationEdit

Thirteen Class 43 power cars have currently been saved for preservation.

The National Railway Museum in York has preserved 43002, the first production power car.[99] The Railway Heritage Designation Advisory Board nominated 43102 (43302) for preservation as holder of the record for being the fastest diesel locomotive on the planet[100] The power car was donated to the NRM upon its withdrawal from service in May 2021,[35] and it is currently located at the NRM's museum at Shildon.

Angel Trains donated 43018 to Crewe Heritage Centre following its use as a spares donor for Abellio ScotRail.[36] Porterbrook also donated 43081, the 8,000th locomotive built at Crewe, to the museum in 2021. Porterbrook donated 43048 and 43089 to the 125 Group. Both moved to the group when their lease ended with East Midlands Railway.[101] The group later purchased 43044 from Porterbrook in 2021,[56] with 43159 being donated in June that year.[39]

43045 has been preserved at the Long Marston Rail Innovation Centre following its period in service with Colas Rail and its time in storage.[40]

The University of Birmingham used 43056 for use as a research & development vehicle.[102] In November 2021, the power car was donated to the Welsh Railways Trust based at the Gwili Railway.[41] 125 Heritage Ltd, based at the Colne Valley Railway, has saved three power cars, 43071, 43073 and 43082.[42]

In addition to these twelve, Locomotive Services Limited have saved seven power cars, 43046, 43047, 43049, 43055, 43058, 43059 and 43083 along with three sets of Mark 3 coaches for use on excursion trains. 43046 and 43055 have been refurbished as a recreation of the Midland Pullman train.

Model railwaysEdit

In 1977 Hornby Railways launched its first version of the BR Class 43 (HST) in OO gauge.[103][104]

Lima have released an HST model in OO gauge.[105]

Dapol have released an HST model in N gauge.[106]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "FROM THE ARCHIVES: "Everybody is sad to see them go"". RAIL. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  2. ^ "HST Diesel Train World Speed Record - Art Print". 125 Group. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Prototype HST to run again". The Railway Magazine. 15 May 2011. Archived from the original on 14 April 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  4. ^ Project Miller 41001 Engine Lift (S508) June 2012. 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  5. ^ "Prototype HST Power Car 41001 to return to York". 125 Group. 9 October 2019. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  6. ^ Heelas, Gary (13 June 2012). "Power trip". Rail. No. 698. pp. 44–47.
  7. ^ Fox, Peter (1989). Coaching Stock Pocket Book (12th ed.). Sheffield: Platform 5 Publications. p. 9. ISBN 0-906579-89-9.
  8. ^ Fox 1989, p. 54
  9. ^ Fox, Peter (1984). Departmental Coaching Stock (1st ed.). Sheffield: Platform 5 Publishing. pp. 20, 23, 26. ISBN 0-906579-37-6.
  10. ^ "Grand farewell for Grand Central HST fleet | Grand Central Rail". www.grandcentralrail.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  11. ^ a b c Paxman and Diesel Rail Traction (A New Engine for the InterCity 125) Archived 27 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine - Paxman History Pages - Paxman and Diesel Rail Traction. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  12. ^ brpaxman.jpg Archived 6 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine - Railfaneurope.net. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  13. ^ Privatisation 1993 - 2005 Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine - 125 Group. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  14. ^ Grantham, Andrew (4 May 2007). "Hybrid HST unveiled". Railway Gazette International. Archived from the original on 20 May 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  15. ^ "V-Train 2". www.hitachirail-eu.com. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  16. ^ Hirofumi Ojima (February 2008). "Towards Sustainable Technology in Transport Sector - Developing Trains with lower CO2 Emissiosn" (PDF). Hitachi Europe. 4. Hybrid diesel train – Trial in UK. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  17. ^ "Fitting the MTU power unit into the HSTs". RailwayPeople.com. 15 August 2008. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  18. ^ "New engines and new look for Grand Central HSTs". Rail. No. 654. Peterborough. 6 October 2010. p. 11.
  19. ^ "Abellio awarded ScotRail franchise". Railway Gazette. London. 8 October 2014. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016.
  20. ^ "Cheaper advance fares among Abellio ScotRail plans". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. 8 October 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021.
  21. ^ "Quality and more trains key to Abellio's SR franchise". Rail. No. 760. 29 October 2014. p. 10.
  22. ^ "More Details of SR HSTs". Today's Railways UK. No. 181. January 2017. p. 67.
  23. ^ "First HST for ScotRail arrives in Scotland". Rail. 1 September 2017. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021.
  24. ^ "ScotRail HSTs ready to enter service". Railway Gazette International. 10 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018.
  25. ^ "GWR to retain 11 HSTs for local services". Today's Railways UK. No. 181. January 2017. p. 67.
  26. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Rail industry urged to back HSTs for freight plan". Rail. 28 March 2018. Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  27. ^ "Class 43 locomotives unveiled in RailAdventure livery". railadvent.co.uk. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  28. ^ "RailAdventure moves into the UK". Rail Insider. Archived from the original on 17 October 2021. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  29. ^ a b c Stock Update The Railway Magazine issue 1447 October 2021 page 95
  30. ^ Holden, Michael (25 November 2022). "'Castle' HSTs to be withdrawn by Great Western Railway". RailAdvent. Archived from the original on 25 November 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  31. ^ Marsden, Colin J (2013). Rail Guide. Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 978 0 7110 3739 7.
  32. ^ "LSL acquires more power cars". Rail. No. 931. 19 May 2021. p. 27.
  33. ^ "RailAdventure announces new UK partnership – purchases 8 Class 43 power cars". Railcolor News. 19 April 2021. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  34. ^ "High-speed locomotive Sir Kenneth Grange Joins National Railway Museum collection". National Railway Museum (Press release). Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  35. ^ a b c Banks, Georgia (27 May 2021). "World's fastest diesel engine donated to Shildon museum". The Northern Echo. Newsquest Media Group Ltd. Archived from the original on 27 May 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  36. ^ a b "Angel Trains donate a HST power car". Crewe Heritage Centre. 21 October 2020. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  37. ^ a b "Museum Acquires 8,000th Built Locomotive". Crewe Heritage Centre. 13 September 2021. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  38. ^ "125 Group acquires third power car". Rail Express. No. 299. April 2021. p. 27.
  39. ^ a b c "Porterbrook's generous donation completes HST story showcase". 125 Group. 20 June 2021. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  40. ^ a b c d Preserved locomotives and & multiple units (additions) Today's Railways UK issue 242 April 2022, p. 77.
  41. ^ a b c Smith, Roger (20 November 2021). "Porterbrook donates an HST power car to the Welsh Railways Trust". Rail Advent. Archived from the original on 7 December 2021. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  42. ^ a b c d e "Our Vehicles". 125 Heritage. Archived from the original on 7 December 2021. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  43. ^ a b c "Class 43s taken for scrap". Rail. No. 949. 26 January 2022. p. 30.
  44. ^ a b "'43s' taken on their final journey". Rail. No. 944. 17 November 2021. p. 30.
  45. ^ "Paddington 43 is first scrapped". Rail. No. 445. 2 October 2002. p. 54.
  46. ^ "43019 heads for scrap". Entrain. No. 45. September 2005. p. 52.
  47. ^ "HST Power Car Round Up". Railways Illustrated. No. 240. February 2023. p. 19.
  48. ^ a b c d "More HST power cars head for the breakers yard". Railways Illustrated. Issue 234 August 2022 p.14.
  49. ^ "Carmont accident Mk3s and a power car scrapped". Rail. No. 931. 19 May 2021. p. 25.
  50. ^ a b "43313 to Newport". Today's Railways UK issue 242 April 2022 p. 64.
  51. ^ a b c d "The 125 Group names 43044 in advance of engine installation". Railways Illustrated. No. 237. November 2022. p. 24.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g Holden, Michael (17 November 2020). "LNER HST nameplates raise £41,000 for CALM charity as "record prices" are paid". RailAdvent. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  53. ^ a b c d e "Porterbrook fits ETCS to NMT '43s'". Modern Railways. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  54. ^ "NR recovers wrecked vehicles from Carmont crash". Rail. No. 914. 23 September 2020. p. 6.
  55. ^ Smith, Roger (26 June 2022). "GWR dedicates train in tribute to those who served in Falklands War". RailAdvent. Archived from the original on 26 June 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  56. ^ a b "Mission Complete (Well, Almost.....)". 125 Group. 19 February 2021. Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  57. ^ a b "LSL HST set for Pullman Blue Livery as new railtour announced". RailAdvent. 1 August 2020. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  58. ^ a b Holden, Michael (12 July 2021). "Immaculate HST livery unveiled for Skipton to Carlisle Staycation Express". RailAdvent. Archived from the original on 12 July 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  59. ^ "Ex-Grand Central HST named after Nottingham fire heroes". The Railway Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  60. ^ Hayabusa ("Falcon" in Japanese) project between Hitachi Rail/Porterbrook/Network Rail/Brush Traction Falcon Works operating on Great Central Railway (heritage railway) and New Measurement Train. Operated coupled with Mark 3 48 kWh battery trailer AZA 977996 (previously TGS 44062), and subsequently retired to Bachmann Branchline in Barwell, Leicestershire
  61. ^ "Train collision at Neville Hill". RAIB. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  62. ^ "East Midlands Railway unveil iconic livery for Class 43 locomotive 43102 and confirms future at York's railway museum". RailAdvent. 18 February 2021. Archived from the original on 20 February 2021. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  63. ^ a b Milner, Chris, ed. (December 2019). "LNER HST to receive historic BR livery". Headline News. The Railway Magazine. Vol. 165, no. 1425. Horncastle: Morton's Media Group. p. 7. ISSN 0033-8923.
  64. ^ East Midlands Railway unveil iconic livery for Class 43 locomotive 43102 and confirms future at York's railway museum Archived 20 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine - RailAdvent. 27 February 2021.
  65. ^ LNER HST power car’s future uncertain after accident Rail issue 892 p. 30.
  66. ^ Another HST power car is sent for scrap Railways Illustrated issue 231 May 2022 page 16
  67. ^ Stephen, Phyllis (26 June 2021). "Scotrail names high speed train in honour of Gordon Aikman". The Edinburgh Reporter. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  68. ^ Holden, Michael. "Class 43 and Class 66 locomotive named at Kidderminster station on the Severn Valley Railway". RailAdvent. 28 September 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  69. ^ Heeding the Warnings of Southall, Rail issue 835 page 60
  70. ^ Holden, Alan (5 July 2022). "Photos: CrossCountry High Speed Train power car unveiled in new livery at Exeter St Davids". RailAdvent. Archived from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  71. ^ "GWR celebrates 40th anniversary of iconic HST". www.railmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  72. ^ "Celebrate 40 years of high speed trains at the National Railway Museum" (Press release). National Railway Museum. 23 September 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  73. ^ "Three dead, six injured in horrific Scottish HST derailment". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 166, no. 1434. Horncastle: Mortons Media Ltd. September 2020. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0033-8923.
  74. ^ "'Serious injuries' after train derails during storms". BBC News. 12 August 2020. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  75. ^ King, A.G.B. (8 June 1983). "Report on the Derailment that occurred on 28th August 1979 at Northallerton" (PDF). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  76. ^ "Works report". Rail Enthusiast. No. 57. EMAP National Publications. June 1986. p. 19. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.
  77. ^ Nagesh, Ashitha. "Train derails as it leaves London Paddington Station". Metro. Associated Newspapers Ltd. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  78. ^ News Round-Up Rail Express issue 265 JUne 2018 page 81
  79. ^ "HST train cab struck by tree in Plymouth". RailStaff. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  80. ^ "Live updates - Train on fire at Penzance railway station". Plymouth Herald. 17 April 2018. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  81. ^ "TRAIN FIRE LEICESTER - Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service". Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  82. ^ "Trains came to a standstill after train caught fire at Leicester station". Nottinghamshire Live. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  83. ^ "Fire on train stops all services at Leicester station". Leicestershire Live. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  84. ^ "England flooding: Flood passengers stranded on rescue train". BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  85. ^ "Train collision with washed-out aggregate, Corby". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 28 June 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  86. ^ "LNER delays after trains crash at Leeds depot". BBC News Online. 14 November 2019. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  87. ^ Mitchell, Jenness. "Railway line closed after train derails during testing". STV. Archived from the original on 10 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  88. ^ Rail Accident Investigation Branch [@raibgovuk] (10 April 2021). "RAIB is deploying inspectors to gather evidence following the #derailment of a test train at #Dalwhinnie on the Highland Line in Scotland. The train consisted of a short-form HST that was travelling south when the last two vehicles derailed in proximity to points" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  89. ^ "Plymouth 'low impact' train crash leaves 18 injured". BBC News. 4 April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  90. ^ Hebditch, John. "'New era' of ScotRail starts with train fire". Press and Journal. Aberdeen Journals Ltd. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  91. ^ "First pledges co-operation as franchise end nears". Modern Railways. London. August 2011. p. 36.
  92. ^ "HSTs are good to 2035". Railway Gazette. 8 April 2011. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  93. ^ Demanyk, G. (23 March 2015). "New train fleet to replace Devon, Cornwall and Somerset's ageing inter-cities". Western Morning News. Plymouth. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  94. ^ "ScotRail HST fleet plans". Rail. Peterborough. 1 September 2015. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  95. ^ "Grand Central to acquire five FGW 180s". Rail. No. 759. Peterborough. 15 October 2014. p. 11.
  96. ^ Pritchard, Robert (December 2017). "GC HSTs set for March withdrawal and transfer to EMT". Today's Railways UK. No. 192. Sheffield. p. 67.
  97. ^ "Abellio selected for East Midlands franchise". International Railway Journal. 10 April 2019. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019.
  98. ^ "NRM stops main line diesel operation". Rail. No. 876. 10 April 2019. p. 19.
  99. ^ "HST joins National Collection". Rail Express. No. 282. November 2019. p. 6.
  100. ^ "Second HST power car designated by RHDAB". Rail Express. No. 285. February 2020. p. 77.
  101. ^ "Porterbrook donates power cars to 125 Group". Rail Express. No. 283. December 2019. p. 78.
  102. ^ "HST Leased to University". Rail Express. No. 282. November 2019. p. 8.
  103. ^ "Hornby 1977 - B.R. High Speed Train Set". Hornby Railways Collector Guide. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  104. ^ "HST - InterCity 125 (Class 43)". Hornby Railways Collector Guide. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  105. ^ "www.hattons.co.uk - Lima L106506 Class 43 HST in Virgin livery 4 car train pack 43122 & 43178". www.hattons.co.uk. Archived from the original on 7 August 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  106. ^ "HST". www.dapol.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2021.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit