The black squirrel monkey (Saimiri vanzolinii), also known as the blackish squirrel monkey or black-headed squirrel monkey, is a small New World primate, endemic to the central Amazon in Brazil. It largely resembles the female of the far more common Bolivian squirrel monkey, though the latter lacks the black central back.
|Black squirrel monkey|
This squirrel monkey has one of the most restricted geographical distributions for a primate, living in várzea forest in the confluence of the Japura and Solimões rivers. Its entire range is within the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve. It resides in the reserve with two other Saimiri species. It is a social primate that travels with other black squirrel monkeys in large troops within its habitat. Its small size makes it an easy target for its predators; however, it may resist predators when it travels in large troops.
Its species overall has positive effects on the economy.
Black squirrel monkeys are small primates. They have blackish-gray fur over most of their body except for their legs and stomach. Their legs can be yellow or have a reddish tint. Their stomachs will have a yellow tint. They have short and dense fur everywhere except for certain areas on the face. They lack hair in the areas of the nostrils and lips, and the skin is black in these areas. Black squirrel monkeys tend to be 27 to 32 centimeters in length not including the length of their tails. Their full length, including their tails, can be about 40 centimeters longer than their length without their tails. Male black squirrel monkeys range in weight anywhere from 0.64 to 1.22 kilograms (1.4 to 2.7 pounds). Female black squirrel monkeys have a weight range of 0.64 to 0.86 kg (1.4 to 1.9 lb).
Distinctive characteristics edit
They get their name from the strip of black that extends from their head to the end of their tail. The black fur above their eyes forms a shallow arch and is lower on their foreheads than other species. Their tails are specifically distinct from the Saimiri sciureus species because black squirrel monkeys have much thinner tails.
UCLA scientists and colleagues concluded that black squirrel monkeys are a distinct species of Saimiri when it was originally considered the same species as Saimiri boliviensis.
Black squirrel monkeys reside within the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve in Brazil. The várzea forest of this specific area experiences a consistent cycle of flooding. The patterns of rain can cause a typical buildup of around 35 feet of flooding in the forest. Atypical flooding due to excessive floods over a longer amount of time can threaten black squirrel monkeys' habitat.
Two species, Humboldt's squirrel monkey and Ecuadorian squirrel monkey, take residence in the reserve in cohabitation with black squirrel monkeys. The black squirrel monkeys inhabit a smaller ranged area than the other two species within the reserve. All three species interact with one another but sexual interaction and reproduction between two different species has not been observed.
The black squirrel monkey species is declared endangered because of their limited range in the várzea forest. The change in climate due to global warming is also affecting the lives of the black squirrel monkey species.
They are interactive primates. They exist in large groups of 40–50, and can exist in groups as large as 500 monkeys. Travelling in big groups allows these monkeys to resist their predators more effectively. They have more eyes on their surroundings which allows them to more easily and quickly alert the pack if they sense danger. If the pack is big enough, the pack may be able to surround certain predators.
Breeding season falls between the months of September and November. During this season, the male monkeys with fattened stomachs are desired more by the female monkeys. A female monkey's pregnancy will last about 140 to 170 days, and the time of birth falls at the same time that rainfall and food availability are at their peaks.
Ecological role edit
Economic importance edit
Black squirrel monkeys have a positive effect on the economy by serving as subjects of biomedical research, being sold to serve as an individual's pet, and serving as a source of food. There are no negative impacts of the species on the economy because of the species' small habitation range that they occupy.
- Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 139. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
- Lynch, J.W.; Paim, F.P.; Rabelo, R.M.; Silva Júnior, J.S.; de Queiroz, H.L. (2021). "Saimiri vanzolinii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T19839A17940474. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T19839A17940474.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
- Ayres, J.M. (1985). "On a new species of squirrel monkey, genus Saimiri, from Brazilian Amazonia (Primates, Cebidae)". Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 36: 147-164.
- Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonia Press. ISBN 0-9648825-0-7.
- Paim, Fernanda Pozzan; Valenta, Kim; Chapman, Colin A.; Paglia, Adriano Pereira; de Queiroz, Helder Lima (2018-03-10). "Tree community structure reflects niche segregation of three parapatric squirrel monkey species (Saimiri spp.)". Primates. 59 (4): 395–404. doi:10.1007/s10329-018-0659-6. ISSN 0032-8332. PMID 29525834. S2CID 3796269.
- Shangari, Nina (June 2018). "Black headed squirrel monkey". New England Primate Conservancy. Archived from the original on 2019-03-27. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- Williams, Abby (2006). "Saimiri vanzolinii (black squirrel monkey)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- Cawthon Lang, Kristina (2006-03-16). "Primate Factsheets: Squirrel monkey (Saimiri) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology". pin.primate.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- Wolpert, Stuart (2015-01-15). "Endangered monkeys in the Amazon are more diverse than previously thought, UCLA study finds". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- Information about the geographical distribution of the Black Squirrel Monkey on Natureserve.com Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine