Black squirrel monkey

The black squirrel monkey (Saimiri vanzolinii), also known as the blackish squirrel monkey or black-headed squirrel monkey, is a small New World primate, endemic to the central Amazon in Brazil.[2] It largely resembles the female of the far more common Bolivian squirrel monkey, though the latter lacks the black central back.[4]

Black squirrel monkey[1]
Saimiri vanzolinii Mamiraua 2.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cebidae
Genus: Saimiri
Species:
S. vanzolinii
Binomial name
Saimiri vanzolinii
Ayres, 1985[3]
Saimiri vanzolinii distribution.svg
Geographic range

This squirrel monkey has one of the most restricted geographical distributions for a primate, living in várzea forest in the confluence of the Japura and Solimões rivers. Its entire range is within the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve.[2] It resides in the reserve with two other Saimiri species.[5] It is a social primate that travels with other black squirrel monkeys in large troops within its habitat.[6] Its small size makes it an easy target for its predators; however, it may resist predators when it travels in large troops.[6]

Its species overall has positive effects on the economy.[7]

DescriptionEdit

Black squirrel monkeys are small primates.[6] They have blackish-gray fur over most of their body except for their legs and stomach.[7] Their legs can be yellow or have a reddish tint.[7] Their stomachs will have a yellow tint.[6] They have short and dense fur everywhere except for certain areas on the face.[7] They lack hair in the areas of the nostrils and lips, and the skin is black in these areas.[7] Black squirrel monkeys tend to be 27 to 32 centimeters in length not including the length of their tails.[6] Their full length, including their tails, can be about 40 centimeters longer than their length without their tails.[7] Male black squirrel monkeys range in weight anywhere from 0.64 to 1.22 kilograms (1.4 to 2.7 pounds).[6] Female black squirrel monkeys have a weight range of 0.64 to 0.86 kg (1.4 to 1.9 lb).[6]

Distinctive characteristicsEdit

They get their name from the strip of black that extends from their head to the end of their tail.[8] The black fur above their eyes forms a shallow arch and is lower on their foreheads than other species.[8] Their tails are specifically distinct from the Saimiri sciureus species because black squirrel monkeys have much thinner tails.[8]

LifespanEdit

On average, black squirrel monkeys live up to 15 years in their natural habitat, the várzea forest.[6] They can live about 5 to 10 years longer than that when they are kept in captivity.[6]

TaxonomyEdit

The black squirrel monkey falls under the genus, Saimiri.[7] There are four other species that fall under this same genus with the black squirrel monkey.[8]

UCLA scientists and colleagues concluded that black squirrel monkeys are a distinct species of Saimiri when it was originally considered the same species as Saimiri boliviensis.[9]

HabitatEdit

Black squirrel monkeys reside within the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve in Brazil.[6] The várzea forest of this specific area experiences a consistent cycle of flooding.[9] The patterns of rain can cause a typical buildup of around 35 feet of flooding in the forest.[9] Atypical flooding due to excessive floods over a longer amount of time can threaten black squirrel monkeys' habitat.[9]

ObservationsEdit

Two species, Humboldt's squirrel monkey and Ecuadorian squirrel monkey, take residence in the reserve in cohabitation with black squirrel monkeys.[5] The black squirrel monkeys inhabit a smaller ranged area than the other two species within the reserve.[5] All three species interact with one another but sexual interaction and reproduction between two different species has not been observed.[5]

VulnerabilityEdit

The black squirrel monkey species is declared endangered because of their limited range in the várzea forest.[6] The change in climate due to global warming is also affecting the lives of the black squirrel monkey species.[9]

BehaviourEdit

They are interactive primates.[6] They exist in large groups of 40–50, and can exist in groups as large as 500 monkeys.[6] Travelling in big groups allows these monkeys to resist their predators more effectively.[6] They have more eyes on their surroundings which allows them to more easily and quickly alert the pack if they sense danger.[7] If the pack is big enough, the pack may be able to surround certain predators.[7]

CommunicationEdit

Black squirrel monkeys are typically quiet primates.[7] The only times they make noise are when they sense danger or are trying to call out to other members of their group.[7]

ReproductionEdit

Breeding season falls between the months of September and November.[7] During this season, the male monkeys with fattened stomachs are desired more by the female monkeys.[6] A female monkey's pregnancy will last about 140 to 170 days, and the time of birth falls at the same time that rainfall and food availability are at their peaks.[7]

Ecological roleEdit

The black squirrel monkey is preyed upon by snakes, raptors, and felids.[6]

This black squirrel monkeys is omnivorous.[7] It prefers fruit and insects, but also eats leaves, flowers, seeds, eggs, and small vertebrates.[6][7]

Economic importanceEdit

Black squirrel monkeys have a positive effect on the economy by serving as subjects of biomedical research, being sold to serve as an individual's pet, and serving as a source of food.[7] There are no negative impacts of the species on the economy because of the species' small habitation range that they occupy.[7]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 139. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c Lynch, J.W., Paim, F.P., Rabelo, R.M., Silva Júnior, J.S. & de Queiroz, H.L. (2021). "Saimiri vanzolinii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T19839A17940474. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T19839A17940474.en.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Ayres, J.M. (1985). "On a new species of squirrel monkey, genus Saimiri, from Brazilian Amazonia (Primates, Cebidae)". Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 36: 147-164.
  4. ^ Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonia Press. ISBN 0-9648825-0-7.
  5. ^ a b c d Paim, Fernanda Pozzan; Valenta, Kim; Chapman, Colin A.; Paglia, Adriano Pereira; de Queiroz, Helder Lima (2018-03-10). "Tree community structure reflects niche segregation of three parapatric squirrel monkey species (Saimiri spp.)". Primates. 59 (4): 395–404. doi:10.1007/s10329-018-0659-6. ISSN 0032-8332. PMID 29525834. S2CID 3796269.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Shangari, Nina (June 2018). "Black headed squirrel monkey". New England Primate Conservancy. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Williams, Abby (2006). "Saimiri vanzolinii (black squirrel monkey)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  8. ^ a b c d Cawthon Lang, Kristina (2006-03-16). "Primate Factsheets: Squirrel monkey (Saimiri) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology". pin.primate.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  9. ^ a b c d e Wolpert, Stuart (2015-01-15). "Endangered monkeys in the Amazon are more diverse than previously thought, UCLA study finds". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 2019-03-08.

External linksEdit