Black-capped squirrel monkey

  (Redirected from Saimiri boliviensis)

The Black-capped squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) is a species of New-World monkey native to the upper Amazon basin in Bolivia, western Brazil and eastern Peru[4]. They weigh between 365 and 1135 grams and measure, from the head to the base of the tail, between 225 and 370mm[5]. Black-capped squirrel monkeys are primarily tree-dwelling and are found in both native and plantation forests as well as some farmed areas near running water.[4] Their diet is omnivorous and mostly contains flowers, fruit, leaves, nuts, seeds, insects, arachnids, eggs and small vertebrates.[6]They mostly live in female-dominated troops of around 40 to 75 monkeys, with males having been observed to disperse to live in all-male troops after reaching sexual maturation.[7] Their current conservation status according to the IUCN is 'Least Concern'.[8] The species belongs to the genus Saimiri and has two subspecies, S. b. boliviensis (the Bolivian squirrel monkey) and S. b. peruviensis (the Peruvian squirrel monkey)[9]

Black-capped squirrel monkey[1]
Black-capped Squirrel Monkeys in tree.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cebidae
Genus: Saimiri
Species:
S. boliviensis
Binomial name
Saimiri boliviensis
Saimiri boliviensis distribution.svg
Geographic range
Synonyms[3]
  • Saimiri sciureus boliviensis
  • Callithrix boliviensis
  • Callithrix entomophagus
  • Saimiri boliviensis nigriceps
  • Saimiri boliviensis pluvialis

Evolutionary HistoryEdit

Saimiri boliviensis is thought to have diverged from the Saimiri genus approximately 1.5 million years ago[10][11]. It has been hypothesised that this diversification occurred due to environmental changes in the Pleistocene period which allowed for thicker vegetation to appear in the Amazonian rainforest.[11]

FossilsEdit

Several different fossils have been linked to the genus Saimiri through examinations of their dental and cranial morphology, including the Early Miocene fossil Dolichocebus which was discovered  in Gaiman, Argentina and dated to around 20.5 million years ago, and the Middle Miocene fossil of the genus Neosaimiri discovered in La Venta, Colombia, which has been dated to between 12.1 and 12.5 million years ago.[11]

Taxonomic classificationEdit

Originally all squirrel monkeys were considered to be of the same species;[12] they were first divided into two different ‘types’ - ‘Roman’ and ‘Gothic’ - in Paul D. Maclean’s article ‘Mirror Display in the Squirrel Monkey, Saimiri sciureus’, published in 1964[13]. Many different opinions on the taxonomic classification of Saimiri boliviensis as a separate species have been published[12], however various studies conducted by several researchers have concluded that Saimiri boliviensis is one of at most seven different species of Saimiri[14][12]. Two sub-species of Saimiri boliviensis - S. b. boliviensis and S. b. peruviensis - were described by Philip Hershkovitz in 1984[9]. The dispute over the taxonomic and genetic classification of the Black-capped squirrel monkey has become increasingly relevant as they have become more often used for the purpose of biomedical research, due to the fact that hybridisation may have an effect on the fertility of the monkey.[15]

Alternative or previously used taxonomic names include:[3]

  • Saimiri sciureus boliviensis
  • Callithrix boliviensis (monkeys from Bolivia)
  • Callithrix entomophagus  (monkeys from Tefé, Brazil)
  • Saimiri boliviensis nigriceps (monkeys from Cosnipata, Peru)
  • Saimiri boliviensis pluvialis (monkeys from the Rio Jurua in Brazil)

Physical DescriptionEdit

The Black-capped squirrel monkey displays sexual dimorphism, with males normally weighing between 550 and 1135 grams and females weighing between 365 and 750 grams[5][6]. Infants typically weigh between 80 and 140 grams when they are born[16]. Adults of the species measure in length (from the head to the base of the tail) between 250 and 370mm for males and 225 and 295mm for females. The coat of the monkey is short, soft and dense, and the majority of the fur covering the back of the monkey is a grey to olive-brown hue, while the undersides are typically white, yellow or ochre[6]. The head is characteristically black with white arches over the eyes. The tail is the same colour as the body with a black tufted tip and is not prehensile; it usually measures around 350 to 425mm.[4]

 
The Black-capped squirrel monkey exhibits the rounded 'roman type' white arch pattern over the eyes.

Distinguishing FeaturesEdit

Physically, the black-capped squirrel monkey is very similar to other species of squirrel monkey, but is distinguishable from other species by a number of features. The most noticeable of these are the black cap and the white ‘Roman type’ arches over the monkey’s eyes, which are more narrow and rounded than those belonging to the ‘Gothic type’ species[17]. The tail of the ‘Roman type’ species is also narrower than that of the ‘Gothic type’.[9]

LocomotionEdit

Black-capped squirrel monkeys are mostly found in trees and are capable of moving swiftly through dense vegetation at a four-legged walk or run. They will often leap 1-2 metres between branches. They will occasionally adopt a stationary bipedal stance at ground level while foraging. The monkey’s tail is usually used for balance, or by infants to secure them to their mother’s tail or abdomen.[16]

BehaviourEdit

Saimiri boliviensis are mostly arboreal but will occasionally also be found on the forest floor. They are diurnal and have been observed to be most active during the early to mid-morning, before resting for one or two hours in the afternoon, followed by another period of activity from the early afternoon to evening.[4]

Social systemsEdit

The Black-capped squirrel monkey is found in female dominated troops of around 45 to 75 monkeys, unlike its relative the Common squirrel monkey which habitually lives in male dominated troops of around 15 to 50[10].  In contrast to most other species of monkeys, female Saimiri boliviensis will remain in the troop into which they are born, while males are more likely to be excluded by more dominant females[18].  When they reach sexual maturity, male Black-capped squirrel monkeys will disperse from their natal troop into smaller male-dominated groups, and will eventually join a larger troop of both genders with the same male group[7]. Black-capped squirrel monkey troops display high levels of aggression between females[10]. Female monkeys will often compete with other female members of the troop to determine access to resources,[7] however it has been observed that despite heavy competition for food they still prefer to live in large groups in order to reduce the likelihood of predation.[18]

ReproductionEdit

 
A family of Saimiri boliviensis

A Black-capped squirrel monkey will typically reach sexual maturation at around 3 years of age for females and 5 years of age for males.[4][6]The yearly reproductive cycle of mature Saimiri has been observed by several researchers to be affected by a number of environmental factors, including the cycles of rainfall and levels of illumination in their habitat. The mating season coincides with the dry season, and will typically result in a single infant being born to each mother.[8]It has been suggested that adult female monkeys are more receptive to environmental cues for the mating season to begin, and the response in males is in part attributed to behavioural and scent cues from the females.[16]  During the mating season, males of the species will gain a large amount of subcutaneous upper body fat, leading to what is known as a ‘fatted’ appearance. Males will also become more irritable and aggressive, fight more frequently for the purpose of achieving dominance within the troop, and engage in genital display towards less dominant males.[16] It has been observed in both natural and laboratory settings that the hierarchy of the troop may change up to as often as three times in a month, and this will often result in highly aggressive fights which may lead to the complete exclusion of younger adult males from the troop.[16] The scent and behavioural cues of a female monkey assist a male in his judgement of whether or not she will be receptive to his approach and attempt at mating with her. If she is not receptive, the female, sometimes with the aid of other nearby females, will usually chase the male away.[16]Consorting and copulation between a male and female monkey may last between one minute and over an hour depending on the presence of other monkeys and the environment in which it takes place. The gestation period of the monkey has been estimated to last between 160 and 170 days.[16]During the first week following its birth, an infant monkey will cling to its mother’s back and will seldom move or be attended to by the mother unless it is in some way in need of assistance.[16]

CommunicationEdit

Squirrel monkeys have been found to be some of the most vocal primates, with a large range of different types of calls documented throughout their lifespan.[4]Commonly used sounds include ‘chucks’[19], a variety of purrs and squawks elicited during the birthing and mating seasons, chirps and peeps used for alarm or attention, as well as aggressive screaming and ‘barking’.[4]Infant Black-capped squirrel monkeys tend to vocally communicate much more than adults.[19] The most common form of infant communication is a number of different ‘peeps’, which begin to occur most frequently at around 2 months of age when the infant starts to spend more time away from its mother.[19]After maturation, the most commonly used call for adult females is a variety of ‘chucks’, used to maintain contact in dense vegetation where visual identification is not possible.[20]

Food and foragingEdit

Black-capped squirrel monkeys are omnivorous. A typical squirrel monkey diet includes fruits, insects, eggs, small vertebrates, arachnids, leaves, flowers, nuts, and seeds;[4][6] however it has been observed that they prefer insects to fruit.[16] Mature Saimiri spend most of the day foraging. They will begin foraging at around 60 to 40 minutes before sunrise and will spend the first part of the day actively feeding on fruits and any insects they are able to hunt while foraging for fruit.[16]They will then adopt more sedate feeding behaviours and spend the rest of the day resting and hunting for more insects.  Often, when food is not scarce, they will stop and rest for an hour or two in the middle of the day when it is too hot to continue.[16]

Distribution and habitatEdit

 
The Black-capped squirrel monkey is typically arboreal.

Saimiri displaying the characteristic ‘Roman arch’ facial pattern of the Black-capped squirrel monkey have been documented throughout most of Bolivia, northern Peru, and between the Jurua and Purus Rivers in Brazil.[3] They are found in lowland tropical rainforests near water in densely forested and swampy regions[18][16]. They are predominantly arboreal, and while they utilise all levels of the forests they have been observed to keep mostly to the lower canopies for the purposes of travel and foraging[16] It has been proposed that matrilineal troops of Saimiri boliviensis are formed due to an abundance of fruit and insects present in their habitat, which is not present in the habitats of other species of the Saimiri genus.[18]

Conservation statusEdit

The Black-capped squirrel monkey population has been listed as being of ‘Least Concern’ by the IUCN, despite population numbers being in a general state of decline.[8] It has been determined that the Black-capped squirrel monkey is adapts easily to changes or potential threats to its environment, and is not subject to high levels of hunting by humans.[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Wallace, R.B.; Cornejo, F. & Rylands, A.B. (2008). "Saimiri boliviensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T41536A10494082. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41536A10494082.en.
  3. ^ a b c Thorington, Richard W. (1985), "The Taxonomy and Distribution of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri)", Handbook of Squirrel Monkey Research, Springer US, ISBN 978-1-4757-0814-1, retrieved 24 May 2020
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker's Primates of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press City. pp. 115–116. ISBN 9780801862519.
  5. ^ a b Napier, John R.; Napier, Prue H. (1967). Handbook of Living Primates. London: Academic Press.
  6. ^ a b c d e Schuler, A. Michele; Abee, Christian R. (2005). Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri). Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare. p. 2. ISBN 9780160759260.
  7. ^ a b c Boinski, Sue; Kauffman, Laurie; Ehmke, Erin; Schet, Steven; Arioene, Vreezam (May 2005). "Dispersal Patterns among Three Species of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii, S. boliviensis, and S. sciureus)". Behaviour. 142: 526. doi:10.1163/1568539054352888 – via BRILL.
  8. ^ a b c d "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Bolivian/peruvian Squirrel Monkey". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  9. ^ a b c Hershkovitz, Philip (1984). "Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys genus Saimiri (Cebidae, platyrrhini): A preliminary report with description of a hitherto unnamed form". American Journal of Primatology. 7 (2): 161–165. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350070212. ISSN 0275-2565.
  10. ^ a b c Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Weiss, Alexander (February 2018). "A comparison of personality in the common and Bolivian squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus and Saimiri boliviensis )". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 132 (1): 25. doi:10.1037/com0000093. ISSN 1939-2087.
  11. ^ a b c Chiou, Kenneth L.; Pozzi, Luca; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W.; Di Fiore, Anthony (June 2011). "Pleistocene diversification of living squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) inferred from complete mitochondrial genome sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 742. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.025. ISSN 1055-7903.
  12. ^ a b c Abee, Christian R. (1 January 1989). "The Squirrel Monkey in Biomedical Research". ILAR Journal. 31 (1): 14. doi:10.1093/ilar.31.1.11. ISSN 1084-2020.
  13. ^ MacLean, P. D. (13 November 1964). "Mirror Display in the Squirrel Monkey, Saimiri sciureus". Science. 146 (3646): 950–952. doi:10.1126/science.146.3646.950. ISSN 0036-8075.
  14. ^ Costello, Robert K.; Dickinson, C.; Rosenberger, A. L.; Boinski, S.; Szalay, Frederick S. (1993), "Squirrel Monkey (Genus Saimiri) Taxonomy", Species, Species Concepts and Primate Evolution, Springer US, pp. 177–210, ISBN 978-1-4899-3747-6, retrieved 24 May 2020
  15. ^ Vandeberg, John L.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Moore, Charleen M.; Cheng, Min-Lee; Abee, Christian R. (1990). "Genetic relationships among three squirrel monkey types: Implications for taxonomy, biomedical research, and captive breeding". American Journal of Primatology. 22 (2): 101–111. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350220204. ISSN 0275-2565.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Baldwin, John D. (1985), "The Behavior of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri) in Natural Environments", Handbook of Squirrel Monkey Research, Springer US, ISBN 978-1-4757-0814-1, retrieved 24 May 2020
  17. ^ Handbook of squirrel monkey research. Rosenblum, Leonard A., Coe, Christopher L. New York: Springer. 1985. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4757-0812-7. OCLC 840290131.CS1 maint: others (link)
  18. ^ a b c d Cropp, Susan; Sughrue, Karen; Selvaggi, Lara; Quatrone, Robert; Boinski, Sue; Henry, Malinda (2002). "An expanded test of the ecological model of primate social evolution: competitive regimes and female bonding in three species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii, S. boliviensis and S. sciureus)". Behaviour. 139 (2): 231. doi:10.1163/156853902760102663. ISSN 0005-7959.
  19. ^ a b c Biben, Maxeen; Bernhards, Deborah (1995), "Vocal Ontogeny of the Squirrel Monkey, Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis", Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication, Springer US, pp. 99–120, ISBN 978-1-4757-9932-3, retrieved 24 May 2020
  20. ^ Boinski, Sue; Mitchell, Carol L. (1997). "Chuck Vocalizations of Wild Female Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) Contain Information on Caller Identity and Foraging Activity". International Journal of Primatology. 18 (6): 975–993. doi:10.1023/A:1026300314739.

External linksEdit