Bhagat Sadhana

Bhagat Sadhna, also called Sadhna Qasai, was a north Indian[1][2][3] poet, saint, mystic and one of the devotees whose hymn was incorporated in Guru Granth Sahib. Venerated in the region of Punjab, among Sikhs and Ravidassias,[4] his devotional hymn is widely quoted by most preachers. His one hymn is present in Adi Granth Sahib, in Raga Bilaval.[5]

Devotee Sadhna
Mosque of Bhagat Sadhna at Sirhind.jpg
Mosque of Devotee Sadhna, Sirhind
Sehwan Sharif in Hyderabad Sindh province[1][2][3]
Sirhind, Punjab, India
Known for1 verse in Guru Granth Sahib.
Accepted Gurmat thought from Muslim thought

The followers of Bhagat Sadhna are called Sadhna Panthis.[6] His only memorial is a mosque at Sirhind, where he died.

Life historyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Sadhna was born in 1180 AD in Sehwan Sharif in Hyderabad, Sindh province in a Muslim family.[1][2][3] As his ancestors were butchers by profession, he continued the family profession of slaughtering goats (Dhabihah) and selling meat. It is said that there were shady trees and drinking water facility available near his shop. Due to this, in addition to customers, travelers, saints and even rogues used to take rest on passing. Sadhna was very interested in spirituality from his adolescence and as a result, he used to have spiritual discussions with such saints who stopped near his shop.[7]

Shaligram desecrationEdit

Sadhna got shaligram shilas and used them as weights in his profession. Sadhna annoyed vaishnav sadhus and pundits with this act.[1] On one side, he was of lower profession and caste, and on the other, he was belittling their idol worship by using idol in the flesh of animals, which is consider as sin by the Pundits. Those religious scholars always argued and debated with him, in which Sadhna always outwitted them.

It is recorded that one of vaishnav saint took shaligram stones with him. Sadhna had no issues with this and did not object. Vaishnav saint continued worshipping shaligram but got no internal pleasure and wisdom, as he had seen in state, behavior and thoughts of Sadhna. With dashing hopes he returned Shaligram Stones, the weights of Sadhna back.[8] Sadhna preached that "Shaligrams Stones" are not god as these are lifeless stones, and can not give any wisdom to a living being. His spiritual quest led him to renounce the life of a householder. He left Sehvan and roamed about the country preaching the love of God.

Dispute with Brahmin's lusty wifeEdit

This historical account is from the time when Sadhna was young and good looking with a strong body. During his travels in North India, his looks pleased a young married Brahmin lady, who wanted to have sex with him. When she asked Sadhna, he replied that he could not have sexual relation with anyone out of his marriage. She thought Sadhna might be fearing her husband. Without understanding Sadhna thoughts, she killed her husband. Came back to Sadhna and told what she did. Sadhna got shocked and left the area after sermonizing her. The lady felt ashamed, she burnt herself on husband's funeral pyre, so that people continued thinking her to be Sati-Savitri.[9][10] As per historical resources, Sadhna uttered that No one knows the ways of women, she kills her husband and became a sati, which then became popular as proverb and used by many poets and writers later on.[11][10][9]

According to few authors, he went to Punjab after this incident.[1]

Another view existed that Brahmin's wife complained to local administration that Sadhna raped her. Sadhna was arrested and the magistrate sentenced Bhagat Sadhna to have his hands cut off. After the punishment was carried out, Bhagat Sadhna was discharged. He set out without a frown on his forehead notwithstanding his barbarous mutilation. Bhagat Sadhna's devotions proved so successful that The Divine blessed him with new hands which sprouted from his body [12][13] but this claim is highly vague.


It is believed that Bhagat Sadhna preached in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Punjab areas.[7] Bhagat Sadhana spent his last day of life at Sirhind preaching his philosophy. At Sirhind, he died, where a mosque was built in his memory and preserved by Punjab Government.[14] The paintings in the mosque represent the 'T' art form. The mosque is made up of Sirhindi bricks and is situated in the northwestern part of town Sirhind near Level Crossing, district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab.[15]

Among RavidasisEdit

Ravidasis acknowledge Satgur Sadhna and preach his teaching and thought, as Guru Ravidas in his devotional hymn acknowledge and admire Satgur Sadhna as great devotee among Kabir, Sain, Namdev: Initially the Ravidassia revered the Guru Granth Sahib of the Sikhs, which was the only repository of Ravidass' devotional poetry.[16] However, following their schism from mainstream Sikhs, the Ravidassi compiled their own holy book of Ravidass' teachings, the Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji, and many Ravidassia temples now use this book in place of the Guru Granth Sahib. But they have not inserted Bhagat Sadhna Vani in it. But Dera Sach Khand Ballan of Jallandhar, Punjab on 30 January 2010 at the 633rd birth anniversary of Ravidass announced the objectives of Ravidassia religion as to propagate the bani and teachings of Ravidass, Balmiki, Namdev, Kabir, Trilochan, Sain and Sadhna.[4]


  1. ^ a b c d e Page 235, Selections from the Sacred Writings of the Sikhs- By K. Singh, Trilochan Singh
  2. ^ a b c Fareedkoti Teeka, Pundit Tara Singh Narotam
  3. ^ a b c Mahankosh, Kahn Singh Nabha
  4. ^ a b Ravidasia Website
  5. ^ Page 858, Adi Granth
  6. ^ A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West, HA ROSE
  7. ^ a b Dr Joginder Singh Dhami's article on Bhagat Sadhna
  8. ^ Bhagat Sadhna Ji, Dr Dharampal Singhal
  9. ^ a b History of the sect of Mahĝrĝjas: or Vallabhĝchĝryas, in western India By Karsandás Múljí, Ralph T. H. (Ralph)
  10. ^ a b Sketch on the religious sects of the Hindus: Volume 1 - Page 181 Horace Hayman Wilson, Reinhold Rost - 1861)
  11. ^ Asiatick researches, or, Transactions of the society instituted ..., Volume 16, By Asiatick Society (1828, Calcutta, India)
  12. ^ Bhagatmal
  13. ^ Bhagat Darshan
  14. ^ Sadhna Qasai Mosque at Punjab
  15. ^ Archived April 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Gerald Parsons (1993). The Growth of Religious Diversity: Traditions. Psychology Press. pp. 227–. ISBN 978-0-415-08326-3. Retrieved 10 April 2012.

External linksEdit