Bayelsa State

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Bayelsa is a state in southern part of Nigeria, located in the core of the Niger Delta region.[4][5] Bayelsa State was created in 1996 from Rivers State, making it one of the newest states in the federation. It share boundary with Rivers State to the east and Delta State to the west, with the beautiful waters of the Atlantic Ocean dominating its southern borders.[6] It has a total area of 10, 773 km2. The state comprises of eight Local Government Area, they are: Ekeremor, Kolokuma/Opokuma, Yenagoa, Nembe, Ogbia, Sagbama, Brass and Southern Ijaw.[6]The state borders Rivers State, of which it was formerly part, and Delta State.[7][8][9]

Bayelsa
Smoke from oil flare, Nembe Creek
Smoke from oil flare, Nembe Creek
Flag of Bayelsa
Nickname(s): 
Location of Bayelsa State in Nigeria
Location of Bayelsa State in Nigeria
CountryNigeria
Geopolitical ZoneSouth South
Created1 October 1996
CapitalYenagoa
Government
 • GovernorDouye Diri (PDP)
 • Deputy GovernorLawrence Ewhrudjakpo
Area
 • Total10,773 km2 (4,159 sq mi)
Area rank27th
Population
 (2006 census)
 • Total1,704,515[1]
 Ranked 35th
Demonym(s)Bayelsan
Dialing Code+234
ISO 3166 codeNG-BY
Total$4.34 billion[2]
Per capita$2,484[2]
HDI (2018)0.642[3]
medium · 6th of 37

Bayelsa state Is predominantly Ijaw,[10] with the Ijaw languages being widely spoken also Isoko and Urhobo spoke within their ancestral towns in the state. It is also the ancestral home of the Isoko people and the Urhobo people in the Sagbama local govt area. [11] The state is the smallest in Nigeria by population as of the 2006 census, as well as one of the smallest by area. Being in the Niger Delta region, Bayelsa State has a riverine and estuarine setting, with bodies of water within the state preventing the development of significant road infrastructure.[12]

As a state in the oil-rich Niger Delta the Bayelsa State's economy is dominated by the petroleum industry. The state is the site of Oloibiri Oilfield, where oil was first discovered in Nigeria,[13] and as of 2015 was estimated to produce 30-40% of the country's oil.[14] The state nicknamed “Glory of all Lands” has the largest gas reservoir (18 trillion cubic feet) in Nigeria.[15] Though being the site of one of the largest crude oil and natural gas deposits in the country contributes to local economic development, the state remains plagued by rampant poverty as well as pollution stemming from oil spills.[16][17]

HistoryEdit

During the 20th century, demands for a new, majority-Ijaw state to be drawn in the Niger Delta Region became common. Between 1941 and 1956, numerous Ijaw nationalist organizations supportive of an Ijaw-majority state in Southern Nigeria were founded. Isaac Adaka Boro, a prominent Ijaw rights activist during the 1960's who was born in Oloibiri, attempted to proclaim a "Niger Delta Peoples Republic" in 1966.[18][19]

[20]Bayelsa State was created out of Rivers State on October 1, 1996 by the Sani Abacha's military government. Its name was derived from the first few letters of the names of the major local government areas from which it was formed: Brass LGA (BALGA), Yenagoa LGA (YELGA) and Sagbama LGA (SALGA).[7]

On November 20, 1999, the Nigerian military committed what is now referred to as the Odi massacre. The death toll remains disputed to this day, though Nnimmo Bassey, Executive Director of Environmental Rights Action, claims that nearly 2500 civilians were killed.[21][22]

In response to environmental degradation in the state caused by the oil industry, movements such as the "Rise for Bayelsa" campaign have emerged to push for protecting the local water supply.[23] In 2019, the Bayelsa State government launched the first formal inquiry into the crisis of oil pollution in the state.[24][25]

EconomyEdit

Bayelsa State has one of the largest crude oil and natural gas deposits in Nigeria.[26][27] As a result, petroleum production is substantial in the state. Even though Bayelsa State is well-endowed with natural resources, the state "enjoys very minimal dividends from its oil wealth due to the structural inequities in the national revenue allocation system in the practice of fiscal federalism in the country".[28]

GeographyEdit

Bayelsa has a riverine and estuarine setting[citation needed]. Many communities are almost (and in some cases) surrounded by water, making them inaccessible by road. The state is home to the Edumanom Forest Reserve, in June 2008 the last known site for chimpanzees in the Niger Delta.[29]

Other important cities besides Yenagoa include Akassa, Lobia, Amassoma (the home of the Niger Delta University), Eniwari, Ekeremor, Aliebiri, Peretoru, Twon-Brass, Egwema-Brass, Kaiama, Nembe, Odi, Ogbia, Okpoama, Brass, Oporoma, Korokorosei, Otuan, Koroama, Okolobiri, Obunagha, Ogboloma, Sagbama, Olugbobiri, Peremabiri, Ekowe, and Swali.

The Akassa Lighthouse has stood since 1910.[30]

LanguagesEdit

The main language spoken is Ijaw with dialects such as Kolukuma, Mein, Bomu, Nembe, Epie-Atisa, and Ogbia. Like the rest of Nigeria, English is the official language.

Languages of Bayelsa State listed by LGA:[31]

 
Ekeremor, Bayelsa State
LGA Languages
Brass Abureni; Southeast Ijo; Ogbia; Kugbo
Ekeremor Izon
Kolokuma Opokuma Izon
Nembe Abureni; Southeast Ijo. Izon (Ijaw)
Ogbia Abureni; Southeast Ijo; Odual; Ogbia; Oruma
Sagbama Biseni; Isoko; Izon; Ogbah; Okodia; Urhobo
Southern Ijaw Southeast Ijo; Izon
Yenagoa Engenni; Epie; Izon; Ekpeye

Notable peopleEdit

DiasporaEdit

Due to massive overseas scholarship programs implemented by the old Rivers State in the 1970s and recent Bayelsa State governments, large numbers of Bayelsan professionals reside in Europe and North America. This is part of the general brain-drain trend affecting many African communities.

EducationEdit

The major tertiary institutions in Bayelsa state are:

 
Burning Gas Flare Nembe Creek, Nigeria

Local Government AreasEdit

Bayelsa State consists of eight local government areas:

ReferencesEdit

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  4. ^ "Yenagoa | Location, Facts, & Population". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-09-11.
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  8. ^ "Référence rapide des codes de la CITE-P et de la CITE-A dans la CITE 2011", Guide opérationnel CITE 2011, OECD, pp. 117–118, 2016-01-25, retrieved 2021-09-10
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External linksEdit

Coordinates: 4°45′N 6°05′E / 4.750°N 6.083°E / 4.750; 6.083 /ref>

LanguagesEdit

The main language spoken is Ijaw with dialects such as Kolukuma, Mein, Bomu, Nembe, Epie-Atisa, and Ogbia. Like the rest of Nigeria, English is the official language.

Languages of Bayelsa State listed by LGA: