Battenburg markings or Battenberg markings[a] are a pattern of high-visibility markings developed in the United Kingdom (UK) in the 1990s and now used on the sides of emergency service vehicles in the UK, Crown dependencies, British Overseas Territories and several other European countries such as Czech Republic, Sweden, Germany, Spain, Ireland and Belgium as well as in New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, and Trinidad and Tobago. The name comes from its similarity in appearance to the cross-section of a Battenberg cake.
Battenburg markings were developed in the mid-1990s in the United Kingdom by the Police Scientific Development Branch (now the Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology) at the request of the national motorway policing sub-committee of the Association of Chief Police Officers. They were first developed for traffic patrol cars for United Kingdom police forces; private organisations and civil emergency services have also used them since then.
The brief was to create a livery for motorway and trunk road police vehicles that would maximise the vehicles' visibility, from a distance of up to 500 metres (1,600 ft), when stopped either in daylight or under headlights, and which distinctively marked them as police vehicles.
The key objectives were to create markings that:
- Made officers and vehicles more conspicuous (e.g. to prevent collisions when stopped)
- Made police vehicles recognisable at a distance of up to 500 metres (1,600 ft) in daylight
- Assisted in high-visibility policing for public reassurance and deterrence of traffic violations
- Made police vehicles nationally recognisable
- Were an equal-cost option compared to existing markings
- Were acceptable to at least 75% of the staff
Battenburg design uses a regular pattern and the contrast between a light and a dark colour to increase conspicuity for the human eye. The lighter colour is daylight-fluorescent (such as fluorescent-yellow) for better visibility in daytime, dusk and dawn. For night-time visibility, the complete pattern is retroreflective.
The Battenburg design typically has two rows of alternating rectangles, usually starting with yellow at the top corner, then the alternating colour, along the sides of a vehicle. Most cars use two block rows in the design (so-called full-Battenburg scheme). Some car designs use a single row (so-called half-Battenburg scheme) or one and a half rows.
Unless precautions are taken, pattern markings can have a camouflage effect, concealing a vehicle's outline, particularly in front of a cluttered background. With Battenburg markings, this can be avoided by:
- Making rectangles large enough for optical resolution from distance—at least 600 × 300 mm. A typical car pattern consists of seven blocks along the vehicle side. (An odd number of blocks also allows both top corner blocks to be the same fluorescent colour.)
- Clearly marking cars' outlines in fluorescent colour along the roof pillars
- Avoiding designs with more than two block rows (even for higher vehicles) by including a large area of plain or daylight-fluorescent color.
- Avoiding hybrid designs of Battenburg markings and other high-visibility patterns or check patterns.
The Battenburg livery is not used on the rear of vehicles; upward-facing chevrons of yellow and red are most commonly used there.
In the development of Battenburg markings, one of the key goals was to clearly identify vehicles associated with police. In this regard, the pattern was reminiscent of the Sillitoe Tartan black-and-white or blue-and-white chequered markings first introduced by the City of Glasgow Police in the 1930s, which were subsequently adopted as a symbol of police services throughout the United Kingdom and as far away as Chicago, Australia, and New Zealand. (Although Sillitoe patterns identified vehicles associated with police and other emergency services, they were not highly visible.)
After the launch of Battenburg markings, police added retro-reflective Sillitoe tartan markings to their uniforms, usually in blue and white.
It is important for emergency vehicles to be conspicuous, to reduce accidents when they are in unusual traffic situations—e.g. stopped in fast-moving traffic, or moving at different speeds or in different directions. The Battenburg side markings, often with chevron front and rear markings, provide this conspicuity. Several criticisms of the Battenburg scheme were raised at the 3rd Annual US Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Safety Summit in October 2010 about their use on ambulances, including:
- The difficulty of applying them to small, curved, and oddly-shaped surfaces
- The high costs of adopting the markings
- The confusing pattern caused when several parked Battenburg vehicles visually overlap
- Obscuring the vehicle's shapes against complex backgrounds, or with open doors and hatches
- Combinations other than police yellow/blue being less effective, and sometimes even making emergency personnel harder to see
- Confronting the public with unfamiliar markings
The pattern's use by services other than UK police, and in other countries, was also criticised.
The high-visibility chevrons often used on the rear and front of Battenburg-marked vehicles, "through popular opinion rather than by a scientific process of testing and research", were found ineffective at reducing rear-end collisions. Stationary vehicles on high-speed roads were likely to be noticed, but not the fact that they were stopped. Parking at an angle was found a far more effective way of indicating the vehicles were stopped.
In Western Australia, St John Ambulance Western Australia uses green/yellow markings, while New South Wales Ambulance uses red/white Battenburg markings on ambulances and patient transport vehicles. Western Australia and New South Wales are the few states in Australia that utilise Battenburg markings, with most other emergency departments of other states utilising the similar Sillitoe tartan markings.
|Common Battenburg markings|
used in Australia
|St John Ambulance Western Australia||Yellow / Green|
|New South Wales Ambulance||Red / White|
In response to the terrorist attacks on 13 November 2015 in Paris and 22 March 2016 in Brussels, the Belgian federal government conducted an analysis on the functioning of the emergency services during terrorist attacks. The main issue identified regarding the emergency medical services was that their recognizability (of both vehicles and personnel) had to improve, so that emergency workers would be able to identify qualified medical providers quicker during an intervention. An agreement was made between the federal government and the Communities and Regions to implement the same new vehicle markings and uniforms. Specifically, emergency ambulances and response vehicles would keep the yellow base color, whilst non-emergency ambulances would get a white base color. Both types of vehicles would be marked with retroreflective yellow/green Battenburg markings, similar to British ambulances. A new uniform for medical personnel was also introduced, with different colors for the Star of Life for the different types of workers.
Aside from medical vehicles, some new fire brigade, Civil Protection and highway services vehicles also use respectively yellow/red, blue/orange and yellow/black Battenburg markings.
|Common Battenburg markings|
used in Belgium
|Emergency medical services||Yellow / Green|
|Uncommon Battenburg markings|
used in Belgium
|Fire services||Yellow / Red|
Taxicabs in Brussels
|Yellow / Black|
|Belgian Civil Protection||Orange / Blue|
All rescue vehicles in Bavaria, which have been procured uniformly since 2017 have a foiling in the Battenburg marker. From 2019 the ambulance service in Schleswig-Holstein started to adapt the design.
|Bavarian Red Cross
|Orange / Yellow|
Hong Kong was a British Dependent Territory until 1997. Some emergency vehicles and special vehicles in the Hong Kong Police Force, Hong Kong Fire Services Department, Auxiliary Medical Service, and Hong Kong St. John Ambulance use Battenburg markings.
In Ireland, a similar system to the UK is used with some variations.
|Garda Síochána (police)||Yellow / Blue|
|HSE National Ambulance Service||Yellow / Green|
|Fire Brigade||Yellow / Red|
|Civil Defence||Blue / Orange|
|Coast Guard||Orange / Yellow|
|Mountain Rescue||White / Orange|
|Red Cross||Red / Blue|
The New Zealand Police use yellow/blue Battenburg markings on some vehicles. Until October 2008 general duties vehicles were marked in orange and blue, with yellow and blue for highway patrol units; orange and blue was phased out in 2014. Vehicles of New Zealand's St John's Ambulance Service/ Wellington Free Ambulance are marked with green and Yellow Battenburg markings or rows of green and yellow half-chevrons. On 1 July 2017, New Zealand's urban and rural firefighting organisations amalgamated into Fire and Emergency New Zealand, with new a brand including Battenburg markings to be rolled out to the fleet.
|Police||Yellow / Blue|
|St John Ambulance/Wellington Free Ambulance||Yellow / Green|
|Fire and Emergency New Zealand||Yellow / Red|
Originally Swedish Police vehicles were painted with black roofs and doors or black roofs, bonnet, and boot. This was a necessity due to the heavy snows Sweden experiences. During the 1980s the cars became white with the word "Polis" written on the side in a semi-futuristic typeface. Later the livery became simply blue and white, then in 2005 was changed to a light blue and fluorescent yellow Battenburg livery. Most Swedish police cars are either Volvos or Saabs, with the same livery all over Sweden. A recent Swedish trend is to also use Battenburg markings on road maintenance vehicles. These are then marked with orange/blue, as in the UK rail response type shown above. A study by the Swedish Road Administration showed a significant traffic calming effect when using orange/blue Battenburg marking to improve the visibility of road maintenance vehicles.
|Common Battenburg markings|
used in Sweden
|Police||Yellow / Blue|
|Ambulance||Yellow / Green|
|Fire Brigade||Yellow / Red|
|Road maintenance||Blue / Orange|
The first Swiss ambulance service with Battenburg markings was the emergency medical services in Zofingen. Since 2008, they have Battenburg markings on a Volkswagen Crafter and a Mercedes Sprinter. They use white and red markings on their ALS units.
Another Swiss service with Battenburg markings is the Swiss Border Guard agency, which uses yellow block markings on its vehicles.
|Common Battenburg markings|
used in Switzerland
|Swiss Border Guard||Yellow / Navy Blue|
In the United Kingdom, the majority of the emergency services have adopted the Battenburg style of markings; nearly half of all police forces adopted the markings within three years of their introduction, and over three quarters were using it by 2003.
In 2004, following the widespread adoption and recognition of the Battenburg markings on police vehicles, the Home Office recommended that all police vehicles, not just those on traffic duty, use "half-Battenburg" livery, formalising the practice of a number of forces.
In the United Kingdom each emergency service has been allocated a specified darker colour in addition to yellow, with the police continuing to use blue, ambulances using green, and the fire service their traditional red. Other government agencies such as immigration enforcement have adopted a variation, without using the reflective yellow.
The use of these colours in retro-reflective material is controlled by the Road Vehicle Lighting Regulations 1989, with vehicles only legally allowed the use of amber reflective material (and red near the rear of the vehicle), A number of civilian organisations have also adopted the pattern, which is not legally protected, and a number of these also use other reflective colours.
An alternative to the use of reflective materials is the use of fluorescent or other non-reflective markings, which may be used by any vehicle.
|Police Forces||Yellow / Blue|
|Ambulance and Doctors||Yellow / Green|
|Fire and Rescue||Yellow / Red|
|NHS Blood and Transplant, Blood Bikes||Yellow / Orange|
|Highways Agency Traffic Officers, Welsh Government Traffic Officers and DVSA||Yellow / Black|
|Rail Response||Orange / Blue|
|Mountain Rescue and Lowland Rescue||White / Orange|
|HM Coastguard||Yellow / Navy Blue|
|Immigration Enforcement||Sky Blue / Navy Blue|
|Highways England contractors||Pink / Black|
Battenburg markings on law enforcement vehicles in the US are rare; however, the Miami Township Police Department in Ohio has previously used ones similar to those found in the UK on their police cars.
- Harrison, Paul (2004). "High-Conspicuity Livery for Police Vehicles" (PDF). Home Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2009. Cite journal requires
- Evaluating new trends in emergency vehicle markings - Advertising agency visibility, Battenburg markings and the Chevron debate, John Killeen. Summary for the Colorado, US EMSAC community of information presented at the October 2010 3rd Annual US EMS Safety Summit
- "Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Study, FA-323" (PDF). U.S. Department of Homeland Security. August 2009. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
- "The difference between Battenburg high-visibility markings and Sillitoe chequers on Police, Fire & Ambulance vehicles". 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
- "Evaluating new trends in emergency vehicle markings" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-01-26.
- Emergency Vehicle Markings in Australia
- "Ambulances en personeel letterlijk in een nieuw jasje" [Ambulances and personnel get a new look]. De Standaard (in Dutch). 2017-03-28. Retrieved 2017-11-19.
- "Rettungswagen Bayern 2017" [Ambulances in Bavaria 2017]. BRK (in German). 2016-12-13. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
- "New Zealand police vehicle markings and livery". Driving Tests Resources. 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
- Binning, Elizabeth (11 November 2008). "Arresting image update to save police force $800,000". New Zealand Herald.
- "Getting to the heart of who were are – Fire and Emergency's new identity" (PDF). The FENZ Transition Project. 2017-04-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-01-28. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "Improved visibility of road maintenance vehicles using Battenburg markings (report in Swedish)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-22.
- Photograph of Home Office Immigration Enforcement vehicle
- "Road Vehicles Lighting Regulations 1989: Schedule 17".
- although the emergency services operate under temporary special orders under section 44 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 to use their own colours, with moves underway as of 2008[update] to formalise this in legislation and extend the use of other colours to civilian operators.Burrows, Adrian (2008-03-07). "Impact Assessment of the Road Vehicle Lighting Regulations covering reflective markings on emergency vehicles" (PDF). Department for Transport. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-03. Cite journal requires
- "Emergency Services". Vehicle Livery Solutions. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016. Illustrations of patterns supplied to emergency services.
- "Mountain Rescue". Uk Emergency Vehicles. 24 August 2010. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
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