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Bandar-e Mahshahr

Bandar-e Mahshahr (Persian: بندرماهشهر‎, also Romanized as Bandar-e Māhshahr, Bandar-e Ma‘shūr, Bandar Mah-Shahr, Bandar Mah Sharh, Bandar-mashoor, Bandar-Mashour, Bandar Ma‘shūr, Bandar Mashur; also known as Bār Andāz, Māhshahr, Mah Shahr, and Mashur)[2] is a city and capital of Mahshahr County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

Bandar-e Mahshahr

بندرماهشهر
City
20140519-MGI 3211.jpg
Bandar-e Mahshahr is located in Iran
Bandar-e Mahshahr
Bandar-e Mahshahr
Coordinates: 30°33′32″N 49°11′53″E / 30.55889°N 49.19806°E / 30.55889; 49.19806Coordinates: 30°33′32″N 49°11′53″E / 30.55889°N 49.19806°E / 30.55889; 49.19806
Country Iran
ProvinceKhuzestan
CountyMahshahr
BakhshCentral
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
162,797 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Area code(s)+98

Bandar-e Mahshahr is an ancient city and port in the Khuzestan province in south-western Iran. Originally known as Reyshahr and then Machuleh, it eventually came to be known as Bandar-e Ma'shoor. The name changed again in 1965, this time to Bandar-e Mah Shahr. "Bandar-e" means "the port".

The word Mah-shahr is Persian and means "moon city". The city's port is one of the most important in Iran, exporting gas and refinery products from Abadan.

Mahshahr has two universities. Islamic Azad University of Mahshahr and Amirkabir University of Technology, Mahshahr campus. Both universities concentrate on engineering programs, especially petroleum and petrochemical engineering. Most of its people are Persian-speaking. Local Persians are mostly of Behbahani, Qanavati, and Bandari families. There is also a local Arab-speaking minority whose roots go back to Qabban in Iraq.[3]

ClimateEdit

On July 31, 2015 at around 4:30 PM Iran Daylight Time (3:10 PM apparent solar time), the air temperature measured at the Bandar-e Mahshahr airport was 46 °C (115 °F), the dew point was 32 °C (90 °F), and the relative humidity was 49%. This corresponds to a wet-bulb temperature of 34.6 °C (94.3 °F), slightly below the 35 °C (95 °F) mark that is considered the maximum humans can tolerate, above which extended exposure will lead to death.[4][5] Together, the city had a heat index of 74 °C (165 °F), the second highest heat index ever recorded anywhere in the world.[4]

Climate data for Bandar-e Mahshahr (1987-2005)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.5
(79.7)
29.6
(85.3)
35.2
(95.4)
42.0
(107.6)
48.0
(118.4)
51
(124)
54
(129)
53
(127)
49.0
(120.2)
42.8
(109.0)
35.8
(96.4)
28.0
(82.4)
54
(129)
Average high °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
20.1
(68.2)
24.8
(76.6)
32.1
(89.8)
39.2
(102.6)
43.8
(110.8)
45.2
(113.4)
44.6
(112.3)
41.3
(106.3)
35.3
(95.5)
26.5
(79.7)
19.6
(67.3)
32.5
(90.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
14.8
(58.6)
19.1
(66.4)
25.5
(77.9)
31.3
(88.3)
34.8
(94.6)
36.8
(98.2)
36.2
(97.2)
32.4
(90.3)
27.5
(81.5)
19.9
(67.8)
14.6
(58.3)
25.5
(77.9)
Average low °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
9.4
(48.9)
13.3
(55.9)
19.0
(66.2)
23.4
(74.1)
25.8
(78.4)
28.4
(83.1)
27.8
(82.0)
23.5
(74.3)
19.6
(67.3)
13.4
(56.1)
9.6
(49.3)
18.5
(65.3)
Record low °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
−2.6
(27.3)
1.4
(34.5)
7.6
(45.7)
14.0
(57.2)
18.0
(64.4)
23.0
(73.4)
20.0
(68.0)
15.0
(59.0)
8.8
(47.8)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−2.6
(27.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 53.5
(2.11)
28.2
(1.11)
29.6
(1.17)
12.2
(0.48)
1.9
(0.07)
0.1
(0.00)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.01)
6.1
(0.24)
30.9
(1.22)
50.7
(2.00)
213.4
(8.40)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.7 3.6 3.7 1.9 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 2.5 5.9 24.8
Average relative humidity (%) 74 60 52 42 29 26 31 35 35 42 53 70 45
Mean monthly sunshine hours 183.4 212.4 233.4 236.7 301.7 344.5 342.8 336.0 302.8 269.9 215.1 182.4 3,161.1
Source: Iran Meteorological Organization (records),[6] (temperatures),[7] (precipitation),[8] (humidity),[9] (days with precipitation),[10] (sunshine)[11]

2019 ProtestsEdit

In the 2019 Iranian fuel protests, Amnesty International confirmed that security forces killed 14 protestors in Bandar-e Mahshahr, a deathtoll higher than that of larger cities such as Tehran or Shiraz;[12] the New York Times reports between 40 and 100 protestors were killed in Mahshahr.[13]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. ^ Bandar-e Mahshahr can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3055128" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ Kanʻānī Hindījānī, ʻAbd al-Ḥamīd. 2002. Tārīkh va jughrāfiyā-yi sarʹzamīn-i kuhan bā tamaddunī dīrīnah az Arjān tā Qabān, Hindījān, Bandar Māhshahr, Shādagān. Shīrāz: Navīd-i Shīrāz.
  4. ^ a b Samenow, Jason. "Iran city hits suffocating heat index of 165 degrees, near world record". The Washington Post. July 31, 2015.
  5. ^ Christoph Schär (2016). "Climate extremes: The worst heat waves to come". Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/nclimate2864.
  6. ^
  7. ^ *"Average Maximum temperature in Bandar-e Mahshahr by Month 1987–2005". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  8. ^ "Monthly Total Precipitation in Bandar-e Mahshahr by Month 1987–2005". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  9. ^ "Average relative humidity in Bandar-e Mahshahr by Month 1987–2005". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  10. ^ "No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Bandar-e Mahshahr by Month 1987–2005". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  11. ^ "Monthly total sunshine hours in Bandar-e Mahshahr by Month 1987–2005". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  12. ^ https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2019/11/iran-more-than-100-protesters-believed-to-be-killed-as-top-officials-give-green-light-to-crush-protests/
  13. ^ Fassihi, Farnaz; Gladstone, Rick (1 December 2019). "With Brutal Crackdown, Iran Convulsed by Worst Unrest in 40 Years". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2019.