Baena is a town and municipality of Spain located in the province of Córdoba, Andalusia. It is situated near the river Marbella on the slope of a hill 52 kilometres (32 mi) southeast of Córdoba by road. The population of the town is 20,266 (2012).
|Comarca||Campiña de Baena|
|• Mayor||María Jesús Serrano Jiménez (PSOE)|
|• Total||362.5 km2 (140.0 sq mi)|
|405 m (1,329 ft)|
|• Density||53/km2 (140/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST (GMT +2))|
|Area code||+34 (Spain) + 957 (Córdoba)|
The site of the Roman town (Baniana or Biniana) could still be traced as late as the First World War, with various Roman antiquities excavated from the site. In 1833, a subterranean vault was discovered, containing twelve cinerary urns with inscriptions commemorating members of the Pompeian family.
The hill is crowned by fortifications. In 1292, Nasrid Granada, ruled by Mahommed II, unsuccessfully besieged the citadel, which was held for Sancho IV; the five Moorish heads in its coat-of-arms commemorates the occasion. The castile was a base for Gonzalo de Cordova and was held in the 19th century by the Altamira family. At that time, it held four parish churches and three schools conducted by sisters of charity. The girls' school held a high reputation in its province, despite not going beyond reading, writing, arithmetic, and religious instruction. Its population was around 12,000 in the 1870s and 15,000 by the turn of the century. Grain and olive oil were the principal articles of commerce in the 19th century; by the time of the First World War, horse-breeding and linen-weaving had also developed, despite the nearest railroad station being at Luque.
At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War the town was the scenario of the Baena Massacre, a ruthless mass-execution of Spanish republicans where about 700 loyalists were murdered by the orders of rebel Colonel Sáenz de Buruaga. Other estimates mention up to 2,000 victims following the brutal repression in Baena.
- Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
- EB (1878).
- EB (1911).
- Martín Escudero 2002, p. 44.
- Martín Escudero 2002, p. 45.
- Sevilla FC Forum
- The massacre of Baena Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
- Paul Preston (2012). The Spanish Holocaust. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06476-X.
- No solo corrieron rios de sangre en Badajoz
- Martín Escudero, Fátima (2002). "Baena en época islámica: fuentes, arqueología, documentos..." Arqueología y Territorio Medieval. Jaén: UJA Editorial. 9: 37–51. doi:10.17561/aytm.v9i0.1571. ISSN 1134-3184.
- Baena at andalucia.com
- Baynes, T. S., ed. (1878), Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 3 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 229. ,
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 3 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 191. ,