Baena is a town and municipality of Spain located in the province of Córdoba, Andalusia. It is situated near the river Marbella [es] on the slope of a hill 52 kilometres (32 mi) southeast of Córdoba by road. The population of the town is 20,266 (2012).

Baena
Baena. Córdoba (cropped).jpg
Flag of Baena
Coat of arms of Baena
Baena is located in Spain
Baena
Baena
Baena is located in Andalusia
Baena
Baena
Coordinates: 37°37′10″N 4°19′34″W / 37.61944°N 4.32611°W / 37.61944; -4.32611
CountrySpain
Autonomous communityAndalusia
ProvinceCórdoba
ComarcaCampiña de Baena
Government
 • MayorMaría Jesús Serrano Jiménez (PSOE)
Area
 • Total362.5 km2 (140.0 sq mi)
Elevation405 m (1,329 ft)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total19,338
 • Density53/km2 (140/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST (GMT +2))
Postal code
14850
Area code+34 (Spain) + 957 (Córdoba)
WebsiteTown Hall

HistoryEdit

The site of the Roman town (Baniana or Biniana)[2] could still be traced as late as the First World War, with various Roman antiquities excavated from the site.[3] In 1833, a subterranean vault was discovered, containing twelve cinerary urns with inscriptions commemorating members of the Pompeian family.[2]

Following the demise of the Caliphate of Córdoba, the town was ravaged by Berbers, bringing its prosperity to an end.[4]

Once conquered Córdoba, Ferdinand III rapidly acquired a number of towns in the Campiña—including Baena—in 1241, probably meeting no resistance.[5]

The hill is crowned by fortifications. In 1292, Nasrid Granada, ruled by Mahommed II, unsuccessfully besieged the citadel, which was held for Sancho IV;[3] the five Moorish heads in its coat-of-arms commemorates the occasion.[2] The castile was a base for Gonzalo de Cordova and was held in the 19th century by the Altamira family.[2] At that time, it held four parish churches and three schools conducted by sisters of charity. The girls' school held a high reputation in its province, despite not going beyond reading, writing, arithmetic, and religious instruction.[2] Its population was around 12,000 in the 1870s[2] and 15,000 by the turn of the century.[3] Grain and olive oil were the principal articles of commerce in the 19th century;[2] by the time of the First World War, horse-breeding and linen-weaving had also developed, despite the nearest railroad station being at Luque.[3]

At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War the town was the scenario of the Baena Massacre, a ruthless mass-execution of Spanish republicans where about 700 loyalists were murdered by the orders of rebel Colonel Sáenz de Buruaga.[6][7][8] Other estimates mention up to 2,000 victims following the brutal repression in Baena.[9]

High-quality olive oil continues to be the mainstay of the local economy.[citation needed] Sierras Subbéticas Natural Park is located to the south of the town.[citation needed]

Notable residentsEdit

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. ^ Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i EB (1878).
  3. ^ a b c d EB (1911).
  4. ^ Martín Escudero 2002, p. 44.
  5. ^ Martín Escudero 2002, p. 45.
  6. ^ Sevilla FC Forum
  7. ^ The massacre of Baena Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Paul Preston (2012). The Spanish Holocaust. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06476-X.
  9. ^ No solo corrieron rios de sangre en Badajoz
Bibliography

Coordinates: 37°37′N 4°19′W / 37.617°N 4.317°W / 37.617; -4.317