Assembly of the Republic (Portugal)

(Redirected from Assembleia da República)

The Assembly of the Republic (Portuguese: Assembleia da República, pronounced [ɐsẽˈblɐjɐ ðɐ ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ]), commonly referred to as simply Parliament (Portuguese: Parlamento), is the unicameral parliament of Portugal. According to the Constitution of Portugal, the parliament "is the representative assembly of all Portuguese citizens". The constitution names the assembly as one of the country's organs of supreme authority.

Assembly of the Republic

Assembleia da República
16th Assembly of the Republic
Emblem and Flag of the Assembly
Logo of the Assembly
Type
Type
Leadership
Vice-Presidents
Structure
Seats230
Current Structure of the Assembly of the Republic
Political groups
Government (80)
  •   PPD/PSD (78)
  •   CDS-PP (2)

Opposition (150)

Elections
Closed list proportional representation
D'Hondt method
Last election
10 March 2024
Next election
On or before 8 October 2028
Meeting place
Assembleia da República (Portugal) Palácio de São Bento, Lisboa.JPG
São Bento Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
Website
parlamento.pt

It meets in a historical building in Lisbon, the Palácio de São Bento (Palace of Saint Benedict), the site of an old Benedictine monastery. The Palácio has been the seat of the Portuguese parliaments since 1834 (Cortes until 1910, Congress from 1911 to 1926 and National Assembly from 1933 to 1974).

Powers and duties of the Assembly edit

The Assembly of the Republic's powers derive from its ability to dismiss a government through a vote of no confidence, to change the country's laws, and to amend the constitution (which requires a majority of two-thirds). In addition to these key powers, the constitution grants to the Assembly extensive legislative powers and substantial control over the budget, the right to authorize the government to raise taxes and grant loans, the power to ratify treaties and other kinds of international agreements, and the duty to approve or reject decisions by the President of the Republic to declare war and make peace. The assembly also appoints many members of important state institutions, such as ten of the thirteen members of the Constitutional Court and seven of the sixteen members of the Council of State.

The constitution requires the assembly to quickly review and approve an incoming government's program. Parliamentary rules allow the assembly to call for committees of inquiry to examine the government's actions. Political opposition represented in the assembly has the power to review the cabinet's actions, even though it is unlikely that the actions can be reversed. Party groups can also call for interpellations that require debates about specific government policies.

Structure edit

The assembly has 230 MPs. It originally consisted of 250 MPs, but the constitutional reforms of 1989 reduced its number to between 180 and 230. Members are elected by popular vote for legislative terms of four years from the country's twenty-two constituencies. There are eighteen in mainland Portugal corresponding to each district, one each for the autonomous regions of Azores (Portuguese: Açores) and Madeira, and two for Portuguese people living abroad (one covering Europe and one covering the rest of the world).[a] Except for the constituencies for Portuguese living abroad, which are fixed at two representatives each, the number of MPs is determined by the number of voters registered in a constituency, using the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. Constituencies vary greatly in size; from as large as the district of Lisbon, which returns 48 representatives, to as small as the district of Portalegre, which elects just two.

For the 2024 legislative elections, the MPs were distributed by districts as follows:[3]

District Number of MPs Map
Lisbon 48  
Porto 40
Braga and Setúbal 19 each
Aveiro 16
Leiria 10
Coimbra, Faro and Santarém 9 each
Viseu 8
Madeira 6
Azores, Viana do Castelo and Vila Real 5 each
Castelo Branco 4
Beja, Bragança, Évora and Guarda 3 each
Portalegre, Europe and Outside Europe[a] 2 each

According to the constitution, members of the assembly represent the entire country, not the constituency from which they are elected. This directive has been reinforced in practice by the strong role of political parties in regard to members of the assembly. Party leadership, for example, determines in which areas candidates are to run for office, thus often weakening members' ties to their constituencies. Moreover, members of the assembly are expected to vote with their party and to work within parliamentary groups based on party membership. Party discipline is strong, and insubordinate members can be coerced through a variety of means. A further obstacle to members' independence is that their bills first have to be submitted to the parliamentary groups, and it is these groups' leaders who set the assembly's agenda.

The President of the Assembly of the Republic is the second hierarchical figure in the Portuguese state, after the President of the Portuguese Republic, and is elected by secret vote of the members of parliament. The President of the Assembly is aided by four vice presidents, nominated by the other parties represented in the parliament, and is usually the speaker.[original research?] When they are not present, one of the vice presidents takes the role of speaker. When the President of the Republic is, for any reason, unable to perform the job, the President of the Assembly of the Republic becomes the substitute.

Current composition edit

 
Plenary chamber.
Party Parliamentary group leader Seats %
Social Democratic Party Hugo Soares 78 33.5
Socialist Party Alexandra Leitão 78 33.5
CHEGA Pedro Pinto 50 21.7
Liberal Initiative Mariana Leitão 8 3.5
Left Bloc Fabian Figueiredo 5 2.2
Portuguese Communist Party Paula Santos 4 1.7
LIVRE Isabel Mendes Lopes 4 1.7
CDS - People's Party Paulo Núncio 2 0.9
People-Animals-Nature Inês Sousa Real 1 0.4
 Total 230 100.0

Latest election result edit

Summary of the 10 March 2024 Assembly of the Republic elections results
 
Parties Votes % ±pp swing MPs MPs %/
votes %
2022 2024 ± % ±
Democratic Alliance (PSD/CDS–PP/PPM)[b] 1,814,002 28.01  1.7 74 77  3 33.48  1.3 1.20
Madeira First (PSD/CDS–PP)[c] 52,989 0.82  0.1 3 3  0 1.30  0 1.59
People's Monarchist[d] 451 0.01  0.0 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
Total Democratic Alliance[e] 1,867,442 28.84  1.8 77 80  3 34.78  1.3 1.21
Socialist 1,812,443 27.98  13.4 120 78  42 33.91  18.3 1.21
CHEGA 1,169,781 18.06  10.9 12 50  38 21.74  16.5 1.20
Liberal Initiative 319,877 4.94  0.0 8 8  0 3.48  0 0.70
Left Bloc 282,314 4.36  0.0 5 5  0 2.17  0 0.50
Unitary Democratic Coalition 205,551 3.17  1.1 6 4  2 1.74  0.9 0.55
LIVRE 204,875 3.16  1.9 1 4  3 1.74  1.3 0.55
People–Animals–Nature 126,125 1.95  0.4 1 1  0 0.43  0 0.22
National Democratic Alternative 102,134 1.58  1.4 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
React, Include, Recycle 26,092 0.40  0.0 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
Together for the People 19,145 0.30  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
New Right 16,456 0.25 0 0.00 0.00
Portuguese Workers' Communist 15,491 0.24  0.0 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
Volt Portugal 11,854 0.18  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
Rise Up 6,030 0.09  0.0 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
Alternative 21 (Earth Party/Alliance) 4,265 0.07  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
Labour 2,435 0.04  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
We, the Citizens! 2,399 0.04  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0 0.00
Socialist Alternative Movement[4] 0 0.00  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Total valid 6,194,709 95.64  1.8 230 230  0 100.00  0
Blank ballots 89,847 1.39  0.3
Invalid ballots 192,396 2.97  1.5
Total 6,476,952 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 10,813,643 59.90  8.5
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições[5]

Elected Composition of the Assembly of the Republic since 1975 edit

Legislatures since 1975
Election No. Parliament Parties represented Term
Government Opposition
Constituent
1975
    PS (116)
  PPD (81)
  PCP (30)
  CDS (16)
  MDP (5)
  UDP (1)
  ADIM (1)
1975–1976
1976 1st     PS (107)   PPD (73)
  CDS (42)
  PCP (40)
  UDP (1)
1976–1978
  PS (107)
  CDS (42)
  PPD/PSD (73)
  PCP (40)
  UDP (1)
1978
Presidential appointed governments   PS (107)
  PPD/PSD (73)
  CDS (42)
  PCP (40)
  UDP (1)
1978–1979
1979     PPD/PSD (80)
  CDS (43)
  PPM (5)
  PS (74)
  PCP (44)
  MDP (3)
  UDP (1)
1979–1980
1980 2nd     PPD/PSD (82)
  CDS (46)
  PPM (6)
  PS (66)
  PCP (39)
  UEDS (4)
  ASDI (4)
  MDP (2)
  UDP (1)
1980–1983
1983 3th     PS (94)
  PPD/PSD (75)
  UEDS (4)
  ASDI (3)
  PCP (41)
  CDS (30)
  MDP (3)
1983–1985
1985 4th     PPD/PSD (88)
  PRD (45)[f]
  CDS (22)[f]
  PS (57)
  PCP (35)
  MDP (3)
1985–1987
1987 5th     PPD/PSD (148)   PS (60)
  PCP (29)
  PRD (7)
  CDS (4)
  PEV (2)
1987–1991
1991 6th     PPD/PSD (135)   PS (72)
  PCP (15)
  CDS (5)
  PEV (2)
  PSN (1)
1991–1995
1995 7th     PS (112)   PPD/PSD (88)
  CDS–PP (15)
  PCP (13)
  PEV (2)
1995–1999
1999 8th     PS (115)   PPD/PSD (81)
  CDS–PP (15)
  PCP (15)
  PEV (2)
  BE (2)
1999–2002
2002 9th     PPD/PSD (105)
  CDS–PP (14)
  PS (96)
  PCP (10)
  BE (3)
  PEV (2)
2002–2005
2005 10th     PS (121)   PPD/PSD (71)
  CDS–PP (12)
  PCP (12)
  BE (8)
  PEV (2)
  PPM (2)
  MPT (2)
2005–2009
2009 11th     PS (97)   PPD/PSD (81)
  CDS–PP (21)
  BE (16)
  PCP (13)
  PEV (2)
2009–2011
2011 12th     PPD/PSD (108)
  CDS–PP (24)
  PS (74)
  PCP (14)
  BE (8)
  PEV (2)
2011–2015
2015 13th     PPD/PSD (89)
  CDS–PP (18)
  PS (86)
  BE (19)
  PCP (15)
  PEV (2)
  PAN (1)
2015
  PS (86)
  BE (19)[f]
  PCP (15)[f]
  PEV (2)[f]
  PPD/PSD (89)
  CDS–PP (18)
  PAN (1)
2015–2019
2019 14th     PS (108)   PPD/PSD (79)
  BE (19)
  PCP (10)
  CDS–PP (5)
  PAN (4)
  PEV (2)
  CH (1)
  IL (1)
  L (1)
2019–2022
2022 15th     PS (120)   PPD/PSD (77)
  CH (12)
  IL (8)
  PCP (6)
  BE (5)
  PAN (1)
  L (1)
2022–2024
2024 16th     PPD/PSD (78)
  CDS–PP (2)
  PS (78)
  CH (50)
  IL (8)
  BE (5)
  PCP (4)
  L (4)
  PAN (1)
2024–present

Evolution graphic edit

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1975
1976
1979
1980
1983
1985
1987
1991
1995
1999
2002
2005
2009
2011
2015
2019
2022
2024
  •   CH
  •   ADIM
  •   PPM
  •   CDS-PP
  •   IL
  •   PSN
  •   MPT
  •   PPD/PSD
  •   ASDI
  •   PRD
  •   PAN
  •   PS
  •   UEDS
  •   L
  •   PCP
  •   PEV
  •   BE
  •   MDP
  •   UDP

Presidents of the Assembly of the Republic edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b All of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bermuda, Cyprus, Denmark (including the Faroe Islands and Greenland), France (including Overseas France), Georgia, Lebanon, Netherlands (including the Dutch Caribbean), Russia (including its Asian part), Spain (including the Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla), Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey (including its Asian part), Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are included in the constituency of Europe, despite being partially or entirely outside geographic Europe. All of Kazakhstan, including its geographically European part, is included in the constituency of Outside Europe.[1][2]
  2. ^ In Azores, the PSD, the CDS–PP, and the People's Monarchist Party (PPM) contested the elections in a coalition called Democratic Alliance (Aliança Democrática).
  3. ^ In Madeira, the PSD and the CDS–PP contested the elections in a coalition called Madeira First (Madeira Primeiro).
  4. ^ PPM list only in Madeira
  5. ^ Democratic Alliance results are compared to the combined totals of the Social Democratic Party, the Democratic and Social Centre and the People's Monarchist Party in the 2022 election.
  6. ^ a b c d e Confidence & supply gov't

References edit

  1. ^ Number of voters by district/island/continent, council/country, parish/consulate and consular post, Ministry of Internal Administration of Portugal, 31 December 2023 (in Portuguese).
  2. ^ Number of voters and consular posts by electoral constituency, for the election to the Council of Portuguese Communities of 26 November 2023, National Elections Commission of Portugal (in Portuguese).
  3. ^ "Official map no. 1-A/2024" (PDF) (in Portuguese). National Elections Commission of Portugal. 16 January 2024.
  4. ^ "MAS de Renata Cambra está impedido de concorrer às legislativas de 10 de março" Archived 14 February 2024 at the Wayback Machine, Visão, 9 February 2024. Retrieved 9 February 2024.
  5. ^ "Comissão Nacional de Eleições Mapa Oficial n.º 2-A/2024" (PDF). Comissão Nacional de Eleições. 23 March 2024. Retrieved 23 March 2024.

External links edit