Assembly of the Republic (Portugal)

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The Assembly of the Republic (Portuguese: Assembleia da República, pronounced [ɐsẽˈblɐjɐ dɐ ʁɛˈpublikɐ]), commonly referred to as simply Parliament (Portuguese: Parlamento), is the unicameral parliament of Portugal. According to the Constitution of Portugal, the parliament "is the representative assembly of all Portuguese citizens". The constitution names the assembly as one of the country's organs of supreme authority.

Assembly of the Republic

Assembleia da República
15th Assembly of the Republic
Coat of arms or logo
Emblem of the Assembly of the Republic
Logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Augusto Santos Silva, PS
since 29 March 2022
Vice-Presidents
Structure
Seats230
Current Structure of the Assembly of the Republic
Political groups
Government (120)
  •   PS (120)

Opposition (110)

Elections
Closed list proportional representation
D'Hondt method
Last election
30 January 2022
Next election
11 October 2026 or earlier
Meeting place
Parlamento-IPPAR1.jpg
São Bento Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
Website
parlamento.pt

It is located in a historical building in Lisbon, referred to as Palácio de São Bento (Palace of Saint Benedict), the site of an old Benedictine monastery. The Palácio de São Bento has been the seat of the Portuguese parliaments since 1834 (Cortes until 1910, Congress from 1911 to 1926 and National Assembly from 1933 to 1974).

Powers and duties of the AssemblyEdit

The Assembly of the Republic's powers derive from its ability to dismiss a government through a vote of no confidence, to change the country's laws, and to amend the constitution (which requires a majority of two-thirds). In addition to these key powers, the constitution grants to the Assembly extensive legislative powers and substantial control over the budget, the right to authorize the government to raise taxes and grant loans, the power to ratify treaties and other kinds of international agreements, and the duty to approve or reject decisions by the President of the Republic to declare war and make peace. The assembly also appoints many members of important state institutions, such as ten of the thirteen members of the Constitutional Court and seven of the sixteen members of the Council of State.

The constitution requires the assembly to quickly review and approve an incoming government's program. Parliamentary rules allow the assembly to call for committees of inquiry to examine the government's actions. Political opposition represented in the assembly has the power to review the cabinet's actions, even though it is unlikely that the actions can be reversed. Party groups can also call for interpellations that require debates about specific government policies.

StructureEdit

The assembly originally consisted of 250 MPs, but the constitutional reforms of 1989 reduced its number to between 180 and 230. Members are elected by popular vote for legislative terms of four years from the country's twenty-two constituencies. There are eighteen in mainland Portugal corresponding to each district, one each for the autonomous regions of Azores (Portuguese: Açores) and Madeira, and two for Portuguese people living abroad (one covering Europe and one covering the rest of the world).[a] Except for the constituencies for Portuguese living abroad, which are fixed at two representatives each, the number of MPs is determined by the number of voters registered in a constituency, using the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. Constituencies vary greatly in size; from as large as the district of Lisbon, which returns 48 representatives, to as small as the district of Portalegre, which elects just two.

For the 2022 legislative elections, the MPs distributed by districts were as follows:[3]

District Number of MPs Map
Lisbon 48  
Porto 40
Braga 19
Setúbal 18
Aveiro 16
Leiria 10
Coimbra, Faro and Santarém 9 each
Viseu 8
Madeira and Viana do Castelo 6 each
Azores and Vila Real 5 each
Castelo Branco 4
Beja, Bragança, Évora and Guarda 3 each
Portalegre, Europe and Outside Europe[a] 2 each

According to the constitution, members of the assembly represent the entire country, not the constituency from which they are elected. This directive has been reinforced in practice by the strong role of political parties in regard to members of the assembly. Party leadership, for example, determines in which areas candidates are to run for office, thus often weakening members' ties to their constituencies. Moreover, members of the assembly are expected to vote with their party and to work within parliamentary groups based on party membership. Party discipline is strong, and insubordinate members can be coerced through a variety of means. A further obstacle to members' independence is that their bills first have to be submitted to the parliamentary groups, and it is these groups' leaders who set the assembly's agenda.

The President of the Assembly of the Republic is the second hierarchical figure in the Portuguese state, after the President of the Portuguese Republic, and is elected by secret vote of the members of parliament. The President of the Assembly is aided by four vice presidents, nominated by the other parties represented in the parliament, and is usually the speaker.[original research?] When they are not present, one of the vice presidents takes the role of speaker. When the President of the Republic is, for any reason, unable to perform the job, the President of the Assembly of the Republic becomes the substitute.

Current compositionEdit

Party Parliamentary group leader Seats %
Socialist Party Eurico Brilhante Dias 120 52.2
Social Democratic Party Joaquim Miranda Sarmento 77 33.5
CHEGA Pedro Pinto 12 5.2
Liberal Initiative Rodrigo Saraiva 8 3.5
Portuguese Communist Party Paula Santos 6 2.6
Left Bloc Pedro Filipe Soares 5 2.2
People–Animals–Nature Inês Sousa Real 1 0.4
LIVRE Rui Tavares 1 0.4
 Total 230 100.0

2022 electionEdit

National summaryEdit

Summary of the 30 January 2022 Assembly of the Republic elections results
Parties Votes % ±pp swing MPs MPs %/
votes %
2019 2022 ± % ±
Socialist 2,302,601 41.38  5.1 108 120  12 52.17  5.2 1.26
Social Democratic[b] 1,539,415 27.66  1.3 74 72  2 31.30  0.8 1.13
CHEGA 399,659 7.18  5.9 1 12  11 5.22  4.8 0.73
Liberal Initiative 273,687 4.92  3.6 1 8  7 3.48  3.0 0.71
Left Bloc 244,603 4.40  5.1 19 5  14 2.17  6.2 0.49
Unitary Democratic Coalition 238,920 4.29  2.0 12 6  6 2.61  2.6 0.61
People's[b] 89,181 1.60  2.4 5 0  5 0.00  2.2 0.0
People–Animals–Nature 88,152 1.58  1.7 4 1  3 0.43  1.3 0.26
LIVRE 71,232 1.28  0.2 1 1  0 0.43  0.0 0.33
Madeira First (PSD/CDS–PP)[c] 50,636 0.91  0.2 3 3  0 1.30  0.0 1.43
Democratic Alliance (PSD/CDS–PP/PPM)[d] 28,330 0.51  0.1 2 2  0 0.87  0.0 1.71
React, Include, Recycle 23,233 0.42  0.3 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Portuguese Workers' Communist 11,265 0.20  0.5 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
National Democratic Alternative[e] 10,874 0.20  0.0 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Together for the People 10,786 0.19  0.0 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Earth 7,561 0.14  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Volt Portugal 6,240 0.11 0 0.00 0.0
Socialist Alternative Movement 6,157 0.11  0.0 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Rise Up[f] 5,043 0.09  0.2 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
We, the Citizens! 3,880 0.07  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Labour 3,533 0.06  0.1 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Alliance 2,467 0.04  0.7 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
People's Monarchist[g] 260 0.00  0.2 0 0  0 0.00  0.0 0.0
Total valid 5,417,715 97.36  2.3 230 230  0 100.00  0
Blank ballots 63,103 1.13  1.4
Invalid ballots 83,721 1.50  0.9
Total 5,564,539 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 10,813,246 51.46  2.9
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições
Vote share
PS
41.38%
PSD
27.66%
CH
7.18%
IL
4.92%
BE
4.40%
CDU
4.29%
CDS-PP
1.60%
PAN
1.58%
L
1.28%
MF
0.91%
AD
0.51%
Others
1.66%
Blank/Invalid
2.63%
Parliamentary seats
PS
52.17%
PSD
31.30%
CH
5.22%
IL
3.48%
CDU
2.61%
BE
2.17%
MF
1.30%
AD
0.87%
PAN
0.43%
L
0.43%

Distribution by constituencyEdit

Results of the 2022 election of the Portuguese Assembly of the Republic by constituency
Constituency % S % S % S % S % S % S % S % S % S % S Total
S
PS PSD CH IL CDU BE MF[c] AD[d] PAN L
Azores 42.8 3 5.9 - 4.1 - 1.5 - 4.3 - 33.9 2 1.4 - 0.9 - 5
Aveiro 39.5 8 35.7 7 5.6 1 4.5 - 1.8 - 4.6 - 1.3 - 0.8 - 16
Beja 43.7 2 15.9 - 10.3 - 2.1 - 18.4 1 3.7 - 0.9 - 0.7 - 3
Braga 42.0 9 34.8 8 5.8 1 4.3 1 2.6 - 3.7 - 1.2 - 0.8 - 19
Bragança 40.3 2 40.3 1 8.6 - 1.6 - 1.4 - 2.1 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 3
Castelo Branco 47.7 3 27.4 1 8.3 - 2.6 - 2.9 - 4.3 - 1.0 - 0.8 - 4
Coimbra 45.2 6 29.1 3 6.1 - 3.6 - 3.4 - 5.1 - 1.2 - 1.0 - 9
Évora 44.0 2 21.4 1 9.2 - 2.5 - 14.6 - 3.3 - 0.8 - 0.6 - 3
Faro 39.9 5 24.4 3 12.3 1 4.6 - 4.8 - 5.8 - 2.2 - 1.1 - 9
Guarda 45.1 2 33.5 1 8.0 - 1.9 - 1.8 - 3.1 - 0.7 - 0.5 - 3
Leiria 35.7 5 34.7 4 8.0 1 5.3 - 3.1 - 4.5 - 1.3 - 1.1 - 10
Lisbon 40.8 21 24.2 13 7.8 4 7.9 4 5.1 2 4.7 2 2.0 1 2.4 1 48
Madeira 31.5 3 6.1 - 3.3 - 2.0 - 3.2 - 39.8 3 1.6 - 0.7 - 6
Portalegre 47.2 2 23.2 - 11.5 - 2.1 - 7.6 - 2.9 - 0.6 - 0.6 - 2
Porto 42.5 19 32.3 14 4.4 2 5.1 2 3.3 1 4.8 2 1.7 - 1.2 - 40
Santarém 41.2 5 26.9 3 10.9 1 3.8 - 5.4 - 4.6 - 1.2 - 0.9 - 9
Setúbal 45.7 10 16.2 3 9.0 1 5.1 1 10.1 2 5.8 1 2.0 - 1.4 - 18
Viana do Castelo 42.1 3 34.2 3 6.1 - 2.9 - 3.0 - 3.5 - 1.0 - 0.7 - 6
Vila Real 41.3 3 40.0 2 7.2 - 1.8 - 1.7 - 2.3 - 0.8 - 0.6 - 5
Viseu 41.5 4 36.8 4 7.8 - 2.5 - 1.6 - 2.8 - 0.9 - 0.6 - 8
Europe[h] 33.0 2 15.0 - 7.1 - 2.5 - 1.3 - 2.4 - 2.7 - 1.4 - 2
Outside Europe 29.8 1 37.5 1 9.6 - 3.6 - 1.4 - 2.6 - 4.5 - 1.0 - 2
Total 41.4 120 27.7 72 7.2 12 4.9 8 4.3 6 4.4 5 0.9 3 0.5 2 1.6 1 1.3 1 230
Source: Election Results

Elected Composition of the Assembly of the Republic since 1975Edit

Presidents of the Assembly of the RepublicEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b All of Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bermuda, Cyprus, Denmark (including the Faroe Islands and Greenland), France (including Overseas France), Georgia, Lebanon, Netherlands (including the Dutch Caribbean), Russia (including its Asian part), Spain (including the Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla), Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey (including its Asian part), Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are included in the constituency of Europe, despite being partially or entirely outside geographic Europe. All of Kazakhstan, including its geographically European part, is included in the constituency of Outside Europe.[1][2]
  2. ^ a b Only in mainland Portugal
  3. ^ a b In Madeira, the PSD and the CDS–PP contested the elections in a coalition called Madeira First (Madeira Primeiro).
  4. ^ a b In Azores, the PSD, the CDS–PP, and the People's Monarchist Party (PPM) contested the elections in a coalition called Democratic Alliance (Aliança Democrática).
  5. ^ In September 2021, the Democratic Republican Party (PDR) changed its name to the National Democratic Alternative (ADN).
  6. ^ In July 2020, the National Renovator Party (PNR) changed its name to Rise Up (E).
  7. ^ PPM list only in Madeira
  8. ^ Original election annulled by the Constitutional Court. A rerun was conducted during March 2022.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Correction declaration no. 83/2017, Diário da República, 31 January 2017 (in Portuguese).
  2. ^ Number of voters by district/island/continent, council/country, parish/consulate and consular post, for the legislative elections to the Assembly of the Republic of 30 January 2022, Ministry of Internal Administration of Portugal, 15 January 2022 (in Portuguese).
  3. ^ "Official map no. 1-C/2021" (PDF) (in Portuguese). National Elections Commission of Portugal. 6 December 2021.

External linksEdit