Asimina triloba

Asimina triloba, the American papaw, pawpaw, paw paw, or paw-paw, among many regional names, is a small deciduous tree native to the eastern United States and Canada, producing a large, yellowish-green to brown fruit.[3][4][5] Asimina is the only temperate genus in the tropical and subtropical flowering plant family Annonaceae, and Asimina triloba has the most northern range of all.[6] Well-known tropical fruits of different genera in family Annonaceae include the custard-apple, cherimoya, sweetsop, ylang-ylang, and soursop.

Asimina triloba
Asimina triloba3.jpg
Asimina triloba in fruit

Secure (NatureServe)[2]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae
Genus: Asimina
Species:
A. triloba
Binomial name
Asimina triloba
Asimina triloba range map 1.png
Natural range of Asimina triloba

The pawpaw is a patch-forming (clonal) understory tree of hardwood forests, which is found in well-drained, deep, fertile bottomland and also hilly upland habitat.[7] It has large, simple leaves with drip tips, more characteristic of plants in tropical rainforests than within this species' temperate range.[8] Pawpaw fruits are the largest edible fruit indigenous to the United States[9][10] (not counting gourds, which are typically considered vegetables rather than fruit for culinary purposes, although in botany they are classified as fruit).[11]

Pawpaw fruits are sweet, with a custard-like texture, and a flavor somewhat similar to banana, mango, and pineapple. They are commonly eaten raw, but are also used to make ice cream and baked desserts. The bark, leaves, and seeds contain the insecticidal neurotoxin annonacin.[12]

NamesEdit

 
Asimina triloba flower parts and stages (from female at bottom to pollen-rich male at right)
 
Ripe fruit of Asimina triloba, cut open to reveal the large seeds

This plant's scientific name is Asimina triloba. The genus name Asimina is adapted from the Native American (probably Miami-Illinois[13]) name assimin or rassimin[14] through the French colonial asiminier.[15] The specific epithet triloba in the species' scientific name refers to the flowers' three-lobed calyx (green in photo at right) and doubly three-lobed corollas,[14] the shape not unlike a tricorne hat.

The common name of this species is variously spelled pawpaw, paw paw, paw-paw, and papaw. It probably derives from the Spanish papaya, an American tropical and subtropical fruit (Carica papaya) sometimes also called "papaw",[16] perhaps because of the superficial similarity of their fruits and the fact that both have very large leaves. The name pawpaw or papaw, first recorded in print in English in 1598, originally meant the giant herb Carica papaya or its fruit (as it still commonly does in many English-speaking communities, including Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa). Daniel F. Austin's Florida Ethnobotany[17] states that:

The original "papaw" ... is Carica papaya. By 1598, English-speaking people in the Caribbean were calling these plants "pawpaws" or "papaws" ... [yet later, when English-speakers settled in] the temperate Americas, they found another tree with a similarly aromatic, sweet fruit. It reminded them of the "papaya", which had already become "papaw", so that is what they called these different plants ... By 1760, the names "papaw" and "pawpaw" were being applied to A. triloba.

Yet A. triloba has had numerous local common names, many of which compare it to a banana rather than to Carica papaya. These include: wild banana, prairie banana, Indiana banana, Hoosier banana, West Virginia banana, Kansas banana, Kentucky banana, Michigan banana, Missouri banana, Appalachian banana, Ozark banana, Indian banana, banango, and the poor man's banana, as well as American custard apple, asimoya,[18] Quaker delight, and hillbilly mango.[19]

Due to increased interest in the foraging and locavore food movement during the late 2010s and the COVID-19 pandemic,[20] the pawpaw has been referred to tongue-in-cheek as the "hipster banana".[21]

Several tribes of Native Americans have terms for the pawpaw such as riwahárikstikuc (Pawnee),[22] tózhaⁿ hu (Kansa),[23] and umbi (Choctaw).[24]

DescriptionEdit

 
Pawpaw blossoms as new leaves just begin to emerge
 
Pawpaw flowers begin with the female receptive stage at the central tip of the flower (top), then conclude with pollen production by ripened anthers (bottom).

A. triloba is a large shrub or small tree growing to a height of 35 ft (11 m), rarely as tall as 45 ft (14 m), with trunks 8–12 in (20–30 cm) or more in diameter. The large leaves of pawpaw trees are clustered symmetrically at the ends of the branches, giving a distinctive imbricated appearance to the tree's foliage.[14][25]

The leaves of the species are simple, alternate and spirally arranged, entire, deciduous, obovate-lanceolate, 10–12 in (25–30 cm) long, 4–5 in (10–13 cm) broad, and wedge-shaped at the base, with an acute apex and an entire margin, with the midrib and primary veins prominent. The petioles are short and stout, with a prominent adaxial groove. Stipules are lacking. The expanding leaves are conduplicate, green, covered with rusty tomentum beneath, and hairy above; when fully grown they are smooth, dark green above, and paler beneath. When bruised, the leaves have a disagreeable odor similar to a green bell pepper. In autumn, the leaves are a rusty yellow, allowing pawpaw groves to be spotted from a long distance.[11][14][25]

Pawpaw flowers are perfect, about 1–2 in (3–5 cm) across, rich red-purple or maroon when mature, with three sepals and six petals. They are borne singly on stout, hairy, axillary peduncles. The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as or slightly before the new leaves appear, and have a faint fetid or yeasty smell.[11][14][25][26]

The fruit of the pawpaw is a large, yellowish-green to brown berry, 2–6 in (5–15 cm) long and 1–3 in (3–8 cm) broad, weighing from 0.7–18 oz (20–510 g), containing several brown or black seeds 12–1 in (15–25 mm) in diameter embedded in the soft, edible fruit pulp. The conspicuous fruits begin developing after the plants flower; they are initially green, maturing by September or October to yellow or brown. When mature, the heavy fruits bend the weak branches down.[11][14][25]

Other characteristics:

  • Calyx: Sepals three, valvate in bud, ovate, acuminate, pale green, downy[14][25]
  • Corolla: Petals six, in two rows, imbricate in the bud; inner row acute, erect, nectariferous; outer row broadly ovate, reflexed at maturity; petals at first are green, then brown, and finally become dull purple or maroon and conspicuously veiny[14][25]
  • Stamens: Indefinite, densely packed on the globular receptacle; filaments short; anthers extrorse, two-celled, opening longitudinally[25]
  • Pollen: Shed as permanent tetrads[27]
  • Pistils: Several, on the summit of the receptacle, projecting from the mass of stamens; ovary one-celled; stigma sessile; ovules many[25]
  • Branchlets: Light brown, tinged with red, marked by shallow grooves[25]
  • Winter buds: Small, of two kinds, the leaf buds pointed and closely appressed to the twigs, and the flower buds round, brown, and fuzzy[14]
  • Bark: Light gray, sometimes blotched with lighter gray spots, sometimes covered with small excrescences, divided by shallow fissures; inner bark tough, fibrous; bark with a very disagreeable odor when bruised[14][25]
  • Wood: Pale, greenish yellow, sapwood lighter; light, soft, coarse-grained and spongy with a specific gravity of 0.3969 and a density of 24.74 pounds per cubic foot (396.3 kg/m3)[14][25]
  • Longevity of fruit production: Undetermined[28]

Range and ecologyEdit

 
Pawpaw forms wild patches by growing shallow outward stems.
 
Stems of pawpaw at a wild patch in Michigan in early spring

The pawpaw is native to the Eastern, Southern, and Midwestern United States and adjacent Ontario, Canada, from New York west to southeastern Nebraska, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas.[11][29][30]

The tree is commonly found in the wild within floodplains and shady, rich bottomlands,[31] but it requires somewhat elevated slopes because it has a deep-reaching taproot. Owing to its shallow, horizontally spreading stems (rhizomes), the species tends to become a clonal patch of small, leaning trees through time. (See photos at right.)

Pawpaws are not the first to colonize a disturbed site, but because they are capable of growing in deep shade, they can establish from seed beneath mature hardwood trees and then spread into a subcanopy patch. They may even become dominant through time by depriving native canopy trees from re-establishing via seed after tree-fall, owing to the dense shade within a pawpaw patch. Under such circumstances, the pawpaw subcanopy becomes the forest canopy.[32] Accessing full sunlight, the patch is then capable of producing more fruit.[33]

The fruits of the pawpaw are eaten by a variety of mammals, including raccoons, gray foxes, opossums, squirrels, and black bears.[32]

The strong-smelling leaves, twigs, and bark of pawpaws contain natural insecticides known as acetogenins.[34] Pawpaw leaves and twigs are seldom consumed by rabbits, deer, or goats,[35] or by many insects.[11] However, mules have been seen eating pawpaw leaves in Maryland.[36]

Larvae of the zebra swallowtail (Protographium marcellus), a butterfly, feed exclusively on young leaves of A. triloba and various other pawpaw (Asimina) species, but never occur in great numbers on the plants.[35] Chemicals in the pawpaw leaves confer protection from predation throughout the butterflies' lives, as trace amounts of acetogenins remain present, making them unpalatable to birds and other predators.[37]

Other insects which have evolved the ability to consume pawpaws include Talponia plummeriana, the pawpaw peduncle borer, whose larvae can be found in flowers, and Omphalocera munroei, the asimina webworm, whose larvae mostly feed upon leaves.[38]

PollinationEdit

 
Downward-hanging pawpaw flowers attract many kinds of insects that are not effective cross-pollinators.

The floral scent of Asimina triloba has been described as "yeasty," which is one of several features that signify a "beetle pollination syndrome."[39] Other floral features of pawpaw indicative of beetle pollination include petals that curve over the downward-pointing flower center, along with food-rich fleshy bases of the inner whorl of petals. A "pollination chamber" is thereby created at a depth that only small beetles can access during the initial female-receptive stage of floral bloom. As with other well-studied species of Annonaceae, the delay in the shift from female to male floral stage offers beetles a secure, and possibly thermogenic, residence in which not only to feed but also to mate.[40] Receptive stigmas at their arrival, followed by pollen-shedding stamens during pollinator departure is regarded as an early form of mutualism (biology) evolved between plants and insects that is still dominant in the most ancient lineages of flowering plants, including the Magnoliids (of which Annonaceae is the most species-rich taxonomic family).[41]

 
Glischrochilus quadrisignatus, "Four-spotted sap beetle," is one of two tiny beetle species documented deep inside pawpaw flowers in Michigan.[42]

Beetles are the dominant form of pollinator ascribed for genera and species within Family Annonaceae. However, two species of genus Asimina (Asimina triloba and Asimina parviflora) bear a floral character that has given rise to an alternative hypothesis that carrion or dung flies are their effective pollinators. That floral characteristic is the dark maroon color of the petals.[43][44] Hence, while no scholarly papers have documented carrion or dung flies as effective pollinators in field observations, the strength of this hypothesis has led to placement of carrion during the bloom time in pawpaw orchards by some horticultural growers.[45][8]

Professional papers on genus Asimina and its species have warned of the difficulties in discerning whether insects observed on or collected from flowers are effective pollinators or merely casual and thus opportunistic visitors.[44][46][47]

Conservation statusEdit

 
All the stems in view are part of a wild pawpaw patch in Michigan.

On a global (range-wide) scale, the common pawpaw (A. triloba) has a NatureServe global conservation rank of G5 (very common). The species is, however, listed for conservation concern in the northernmost parts of its range, owing to the happenstance of where governmental boundaries exist. In the United States, the species has an N5 (very common), but is considered a threatened species in New York, and an endangered species in New Jersey. In Canada, where the species is found only in portions of southern Ontario, it has a rank of N3 (vulnerable), and a NatureServe subnational conservation rank of S3 (vulnerable) in Ontario. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources has given the species a general status of "Sensitive", and its populations there are monitored.

In areas in which deer populations are dense, pawpaws appear to be becoming more abundant locally, since the deer avoid them, but consume seedlings of most other woody plants.[36][48]

HistoryEdit

The natural seed dispersal of the common pawpaw in North America, prior to the ice ages and lasting until roughly 10,000 years ago, occurred via the dung of certain megafauna (such as mastodons, mammoths, and giant ground sloths) until they became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event[49] — a parallel case in North America to that of the avocado in South and Central America.[50][51] After the arrival of humans and the subsequent extinction of megafauna that were distributing A. triloba, the probable distribution of these large fruit-bearing plants has been by humans.[52][53][54][31]

Indigenous peoples value pawpaw not only for its fruit but also for its bark. The bark has traditionally been used as a fiber source. Now that the exotic emerald ash borer beetle is destroying black ash trees (Fraxinus nigra), a basketmaker of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians in northern Michigan has begun planting pawpaw seeds on tribal lands several hundred miles north of pawpaw's historically native range.[55]

The earliest documented mention of pawpaws is in the 1541 report of the Spanish de Soto expedition, who found Native Americans east of the Mississippi River cultivating what some have identified as the pawpaw.[56] The tree's scientific name (Asimina triloba) comes from the Powhatan word Assimina, which a Jamestown settler transcribed in 1612 as “wheat plum".[57] The Lewis and Clark Expedition consumed pawpaws during their travels.[56] Thomas Jefferson planted it at Monticello, his plantation in Virginia.[56] Legend has it that chilled pawpaw fruit was a favorite dessert of George Washington.[58]

ResearchEdit

Kentucky State University (KSU) has the only full-time pawpaw research program in the world; it was started in 1990 with the aim of developing pawpaw as a new tree-fruit crop for Kentucky. Pawpaw is the largest native fruit in North America and has very few diseases compared to other orchard crops. KSU is the site of the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina species and the pawpaw orchards at KSU contain over 1,700 trees. Research activities include germplasm collection and variety trials, and efforts are directed towards improving propagation, understanding fruit ripening and storage, and developing orchard management practices. Cultivation is best in hardiness zones 5-9 and trees take 7–8 years from seedling to fruiting. KSU has created the three cultivars KSU-'Atwood', KSU-'Benson', and KSU-'Chappell', with foci on better flavors, higher yields, vigorous plants, and low seed-to-pulp ratios.[59][9][60][61][62][63]

CultivationEdit

 
A row of pawpaw cultivars in a Michigan orchard. (A tall sugar maple and evergreen conifers in background.)

Cultivation is best in hardiness zones 5-9[9] and trees take 7–8 years from seedling to fruiting. Cross-pollination of at least two different genetic varieties of the plant is recommended.[11] Scholarly research is insufficient for horticulturalists to adopt best methods for attracting insect pollinators, as effective pollinators have not yet been distinguished from casual insect visitors.[44][46][47] Therefore, some growers resort to hand pollination or use pollinator attractants, such as spraying fish emulsion or hanging chicken necks or other meat near the open flowers to attract pollinators.[45][8]

While pawpaws are larval hosts for the zebra swallowtail butterfly, these caterpillars are usually present only at low density, and not detrimental to the foliage of the trees.[35]

Pawpaws have not been cultivated for their fruits on the scale of apples or peaches, primarily because pawpaw fruits ripen to the point of fermentation soon after they are picked, and only frozen fruit stores or ships well. Other methods of preservation include dehydration, production of jams or jellies, and pressure canning (using the numerical values for bananas). Methods of separating seeds from the pulp are still in the experimental phase. Mechanical methods are most efficient, but any splitting or injury of seeds can contaminate the remaining pulp with seed poisons.

Cultivation of pawpaws for fruit production has attracted interest, particularly among organic growers, as a fruit with few to no pests that can successfully be grown in its native environment without pesticides. The commercial cultivation and harvesting of pawpaws is strong in southeastern Ohio[64] and also being explored in Kentucky[11] and Maryland,[36] as well as various areas outside the species' native range, including California,[35] the Pacific Northwest,[35] and Massachusetts.[65] The pawpaw is used for landscaping due to its distinctive growth habit, the appeal of its fresh fruit, and its relatively low maintenance needs once established.[26]

PropagationEdit

 
Germinating pawpaw in a shallow pot results in the seed rising up into the air, as the growing taproot keeps pushing against the bottom.

Trees are easily grown from seed. Seeds should not be permitted to dry, as they lose viability if they dehydrate to 5% moisture.[66] The seeds need to be stratified by moist cold storage for 60–100 days at 35–45 °F (2–7 °C) (some publications suggest 90–120 days).[66][62][61] They will lose their viability if stored for 3 years or more; some seeds survive if stored for 2 years. Germination is hypogeal and cotyledons remain within the seed coat. Strictly speaking, hypogeal means the cotyledons stay in the soil, acting as a food store for the seedling until the plumule emerges from the soil on the epicotyl or true stem. Because the large seeds contain enough energy to produce a long taproot prior to seeking photosynthetic opportunities above ground, the seed itself will be pushed upward and into the air if germinated in standard pots. (See photo at right.)

Propagation using cuttings has generally not been successful.[66][62]

Desirable cultivars are propagated by chip budding or whip grafting onto a root stock. Pawpaw seeds do not grow "true to type" — each individual seed in a fruit is genetically different from the others and from its parent tree. Purchased cultivars do not produce seeds true to type, either, which is why cultivars are all grafted trees. Root sucker seedlings, however, are all genetically identical to their host.[62][61]

Commercial nurseries usually ship seedlings in containers, usually grafted cultivars, but other nurseries such as the Kentucky Division of Forestry ship bareroot seedlings for reforestation projects and area homeowners.[67][61]

Harvesting seedlings from the forest floor is tricky because most forest-floor seedlings are actually root suckers with few roots, and those seedlings that did grow from a seed have deep taproots.[62][61]

CultivarsEdit

Over the years, many cultivars of A. triloba have been developed or discovered.[68] Many have been lost and are no longer available commercially.[56][69][63]

The named varieties producing large fruit and performing well in Kentucky per research trials are 'NC-1', 'Overleese', 'Potomac', 'Shenandoah', 'Sunflower', 'Susquehanna', 'Wabash', KSU-'Atwood', KSU-'Benson', and KSU-'Chappell'.[61]

Habitat restorationEdit

Pawpaws are sometimes included in ecological restoration plantings, since this tree grows well in wet soil and has a strong tendency to form well-rooted clonal thickets.

UsesEdit

 
A. triloba is often called wild banana, Indiana banana, or prairie banana because of its banana-like creamy texture and flavor.
Paw paw, raw with skin
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
18.8 g
Dietary fiber2.6 g
1.2 g
1.2 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
11%
87 μg
Thiamine (B1)
1%
0.01 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
8%
0.09 mg
Niacin (B3)
7%
1.1 mg
Vitamin C
22%
18.3 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
6%
63 mg
Iron
54%
7 mg
Magnesium
32%
113 mg
Manganese
124%
2.6 mg
Phosphorus
7%
47 mg
Potassium
7%
345 mg
Zinc
9%
0.9 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

FruitsEdit

As described by horticulturist Barbara Damrosch, the fruit of the pawpaw "looks a bit like mango, but with pale yellow, custardy, spoonable flesh and black, easy-to-remove seeds."[65] Wild-collected pawpaw fruits, ripe in late August to mid-September, have long been a favorite treat throughout the tree's extensive native range in eastern North America, and on occasion are sold locally at farmers' markets.[11][65] Pawpaw fruits have a sweet, custard-like flavor somewhat similar to banana, mango, and cantaloupe,[11][14] varying significantly by source or cultivar,[11] with more protein than most fruits.[11] Nineteenth-century American agronomist E. Lewis Sturtevant described pawpaws as

... a natural custard, too luscious for the relish of most people[36]

Ohio botanist William B. Werthner noted that

The fruit ... has a tangy wild-wood flavor peculiarly its own. It is sweet, yet rather cloying to the taste and a wee bit puckery – only a boy can eat more than one at a time.[14]

Fresh fruits of the pawpaw are commonly eaten raw, either chilled or at room temperature. However, they can be kept only 2–3 days at room temperature, or about a week if refrigerated.[26][70] The easily bruised pawpaw fruits do not ship well unless frozen.[11][65] Where pawpaws grow, the fruit pulp is also often used locally in baked dessert recipes, with pawpaw often substituted with volumetric equivalency in many banana-based recipes. Pawpaws may also be blended into ice cream[26] or included in pancakes.[26]

NutritionEdit

According to a report from the KSU Pawpaw Program (right table), raw pawpaw (with skin) is 19% carbohydrates, 1% protein, 1% fat, and 79% water (estimated). In a 100-g reference amount, the raw fruit provides 80 Calories and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin C (22% DV), magnesium (32% DV), iron (54% DV), and manganese (124% DV). The fruit also contains a moderate amount of vitamin A (11% DV).

PhytochemicalsEdit

 
Zebra swallowtail butterflies (Eurytides marcellus) with pawpaw foliage

Phytochemical extracts of the leaves and fruit contain acetogenins, including the neurotoxin annonacin.[71] The seeds and bark contain the chemical asimitrin[72] and other acetogenins, including asimin, asiminacin and asiminecin.[71][73]

Effect on insectsEdit

Due to the presence of acetogenins, the leaves, twigs, and bark of pawpaw trees can be used to make an organic insecticide.[34] The only insect species immune to these insecticidal compounds is the zebra swallowtail butterfly (Protographium marcellus), whose larvae feed on the leaves of various species of Asimina, conferring protection from predation throughout the butterflies' lives, as trace amounts of acetogenins remain present, making them unpalatable to birds and other predators.[37]

Historical usesEdit

The tough, fibrous inner bark of the pawpaw was used by Native Americans and settlers in the Midwest for making ropes, fishing nets, and mats,[14][36] and for stringing fish.[15]

Pawpaw logs have been used for split-rail fences in Arkansas.[14]

The hard, brown, shiny lima-bean-sized seeds were sometimes carried as pocket pieces in Ohio.[14]

Cultural significanceEdit

Old songEdit

A traditional American folk song portrays wild harvesting of pawpaws; Arty Schronce of the Georgia Department of Agriculture gives these lyrics:[26]

Where, oh where is dear little Nellie?
Where, oh where is dear little Nellie?
Where, oh where is dear little Nellie?
Way down yonder in the pawpaw patch

Pickin' up pawpaws, puttin' 'em in your pocket
Pickin' up pawpaws, puttin' 'em in your pocket
Pickin' up pawpaws, puttin' 'em in your pocket
Way down yonder in the pawpaw patch

He notes that "picking up pawpaws" refers to gathering the ripe, fallen fruit from beneath the trees, and that the "pocket" in the song is that of an apron or similar tie-on pocket, not a modern pants or blue-jeans pocket, into which pawpaws would hardly fit.[26] A "pawpaw patch" refers to the plant's characteristic patch-forming clonal growth habit.

Place namesEdit

The pawpaw is the basis for various place and school names in the United States, almost all using the older spelling variant "paw paw".

ArtEdit

 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Audubon)

OtherEdit

  • The third Thursday in September has been designated as National Pawpaw Day by the National Day Calendar.[80] It was announced on September 19, 2019,[81] at Kentucky State University's monthly sustainable agriculture workshop, the Third Thursday Thing.[82]
  • The pawpaw was designated as Ohio's state native fruit in 2009.[83]
  • Since 1999, the Ohio Pawpaw Growers' Association has sponsored an annual Ohio Pawpaw Festival at Lake Snowden, near Albany, Ohio.[84]
  • Since 2012, Delaware's Alapocas Run State Park has hosted an annual Pawpaw Folk Festival featuring tastings of the fruit.[85]
  • The larva of the Pawpaw sphinx moth feeds on pawpaw fruit.
  • Since 2019, the pawpaw has been the official state fruit tree of Missouri.[86]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Asimina triloba". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 208. e.T135958357A135958359. 2018. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T135958357A135958359.en. S2CID 242070317.
  2. ^ "NatureServe Explorer 2.0". explorer.natureserve.org. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  3. ^ Pomper, Kirk W (2019). "Pawpaw: Frequently Asked Questions". Kentucky State University, Cooperative Extension Program. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
  4. ^ "Asimina triloba". College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University. Archived from the original on April 6, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  5. ^ Layne, DR (February 24, 1998). "Pawpaw". NewCrop Factsheet, Purdue University. Archived from the original on July 11, 2019. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  6. ^ Huang, Hongwen; Layne, Desmond; Kubisiak, Thomas (July 2000). "RAPD Inheritance and Diversity in Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)". Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 125 (4): 454–459. doi:10.21273/JASHS.125.4.454.
  7. ^ "Native Pawpaw Tree". North Carolina State University. Retrieved October 6, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c Pankau, Ryan. "Pawpaw". Illinois Extension Service. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved October 6, 2022.
  9. ^ a b c Pomper, Kirk W.; Layne, Desmond R.; Peterson, R. Neal (1999). "The Pawpaw Regional Variety Trial". hort.purdue.edu. Archived from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  10. ^ Matthews, Elizabeth (September 21, 2021). "Pawpaw: Small Tree, Big Impact". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jones, Snake C.; Layne, Desmond R. (2019). "Pawpaw Description and Nutritional Information". Kentucky State University, Cooperative Extension Program. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
  12. ^ Avalos, J; Rupprecht, J. K.; McLaughlin, J. L.; Rodriguez, E (1993). "Guinea pig maximization test of the bark extract from pawpaw, Asimina triloba (Annonaceae)". Contact Dermatitis. 29 (1): 33–5. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1993.tb04533.x. PMID 8365150. S2CID 41590523.
  13. ^ Chamberlain, Alexander F. (December 1, 1902). "Algonkian Words in American English: A Study in the Contact of the White Man and the Indian". The Journal of American Folklore. American Folklore Society. 15 (59): 240–267. doi:10.2307/533199. ISSN 0021-8715. JSTOR 533199.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Werthner, William B. (1935). Some American Trees: An intimate study of native Ohio trees. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. xviii + 398 pp.
  15. ^ a b Sargent, Charles Sprague (1933). Manual of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico). Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company: The Riverside Press Cambridge. pp. xxvi + 910.
  16. ^ Harper, Douglas. "papaya". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  17. ^ CRC Press, 2004, p.122.
  18. ^ "The Asimoya". The Archives of the Rare Fruit Council of Australia. November 1, 1996. Archived from the original on March 29, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  19. ^ Schweitzer, Ally (September 15, 2017). "This Once-Obscure Fruit Is On Its Way To Becoming PawPaw-Pawpular". NPR. NPR. Archived from the original on April 5, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  20. ^ Haupt, Angela (September 17, 2021). "Four ways to learn about fungi and foraging in the D.C. area". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  21. ^ Schweitzer, Ally (September 12, 2017). "Once An Obscure Local Fruit, The Pawpaw Has A New Nickname: The Hipster Banana". WAMU. Retrieved September 11, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
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Further readingEdit

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