Annona squamosa

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Annona squamosa is a small, well-branched tree or shrub[7] from the family Annonaceae that bears edible fruits called sugar apples or sweetsops.[8] It tolerates a tropical lowland climate better than its relatives Annona reticulata and Annona cherimola[6] (whose fruits often share the same name)[3] helping make it the most widely cultivated of these species.[9] Annona squamosa is a small, semi-(or late) deciduous,[10] much-branched shrub or small tree 3 to 8 metres (10 to 26 feet) tall[7][10] similar to soursop (Annona muricata).[11] It is a native of tropical climate in the Americas and West Indies, and Spanish traders aboard the Manila galleons docking in the Philippines brought it to Asia.[12]

Annona squamosa
Cross section of the fruit shown on right
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Annonaceae
Genus: Annona
A. squamosa
Binomial name
Annona squamosa

Annona asiatica L.[3]
Annona cinerea Dunal
Guanabanus squamosus (L.)M.Gómez[4] Xylopia glabra L.[5]
Annona forskahlii DC.[6]

Michał Boym's drawing of, probably, the sugar-apple, in his Flora Sinensis (1655)

The fruit is spherical-conical, 5–10 centimetres (2–4 inches) in diameter and 6–10 cm (2+14–4 in) long, and weighing 100–240 grams (3.5–8.5 ounces), with a thick rind composed of knobby segments. The colour is typically pale green through blue-green, with a deep pink blush in certain varieties, and typically has a bloom. It is unique among Annona fruits in being segmented; the segments tend to separate when ripe, exposing the innards.

The flesh is fragrant and sweet, creamy white through light yellow, and resembles and tastes like custard. The seeds are coated with the flesh, It is found adhering to 13-to-16-millimetre-long (12 to 58 in) seeds forming individual segments arranged in a single layer around a conical core. It is soft, slightly grainy, and slippery. The hard, shiny seeds may number 20–40 or more per fruit and have a brown to black coat, although varieties exist that are almost seedless.[12][13] The seeds can be ground for use as an insecticide.[8]The stems run through the centre of the fruit connecting it to the outside. The skin is shaped like a Reuleaux triangle coloured green and rough in texture. Due to the soft flesh and structure of the sugar apple it is very fragile to pressure when ripe.

New varieties are also being developed in Taiwan and Hong Kong. The atemoya or "pineapple sugar-apple", a hybrid between the sugar-apple and the cherimoya, is popular in Taiwan, although it was first developed in the United States in 1908. The fruit is similar in sweetness to the sugar-apple, but has a very different taste. As its name suggests, it tastes like pineapple.

Description edit


The fruit of A. squamosa (sugar-apple) has sweet whitish pulp, and is popular in tropical markets.[10]

Stems and leaves edit

A. squamosa leaves

Branches with light brown bark and visible leaf scars; inner bark light yellow and slightly bitter; twigs become brown with light brown dots (lenticels – small, oval, rounded spots upon the stem or branch of a plant, from which the underlying tissues may protrude or roots may issue).[6]

Thin, simple, alternate leaves[11] occur singly,[6] 5 to 17 centimetres (2 to 6+34 inches) long and 2 to 6 cm (34 to 2+38 in) wide;[10][6] rounded at the base and pointed at the tip (oblong-lanceolate).[10] They are pale green on both surfaces and mostly hairless[6] with slight hairs on the underside when young.[7] The sides sometimes are slightly unequal and the leaf edges are without teeth, inconspicuously hairy when young.[6][11]

The leaf stalks are 0.4 to 2.2 cm (18 to 78 in) long,[10] green, and sparsely pubescent.[6]

Flowers edit

Solitary or in short lateral clusters of 2–4 about 2.5 cm (1 in) long,[10] greenish-yellow flowers on a hairy, slender[6] 2 cm (34 in) long stalk.[10] Three green outer petals, purplish at the base, oblong, 1.6 to 2.5 cm (58 to 1 in) long, and 0.6 to 0.75 cm (14 to 516 in) wide, three inner petals reduced to minute scales or absent.[7][10] Very numerous stamens; crowded, white, less than 1.6 cm (58 in) long; ovary light green. Styles white, crowded on the raised axis. Each pistil forms a separate tubercle (small rounded wartlike protuberance), mostly 1.3 to 1.9 cm (12 to 34 in) long and 0.6 to 1.3 cm (14 to 12 in) wide which matures into the aggregate fruit.[6]

Flowering occurs in spring-early summer[10] and flowers are pollinated by nitidulid beetles.[14] Its pollen is shed as permanent tetrads.[15]

Fruits and reproduction edit

Fruits ripen 3 to 4 months after flowering.[16]

Aggregate and soft fruits form from the numerous and loosely united pistils of a flower[6] which become enlarged[10] and mature into fruits which are distinct from fruits of other species of genus[6] (and more like a giant raspberry instead).

The round or heart-shaped[6] greenish yellow, ripened aggregate fruit is pendulous[10] on a thickened stalk; 5 to 10 cm (2 to 3+78 in)[6][7] in diameter[10][11] with many round protuberances[6] and covered with a powdery bloom. Fruits are formed of loosely cohering or almost free carpels (the ripened pistels).[7]

The pulp is white tinged yellow,[7] edible and sweetly aromatic. Each carpel containing an oblong, shiny and smooth,[6] dark brown[7] to black, 1.3 to 1.6 cm (12 to 58 in) long seed.[6]

Nutrition and uses edit

Sugar-apples, (sweetsop), raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy393 kJ (94 kcal)
23.64 g
Dietary fiber4.4 g
0.29 g
2.06 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.11 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.113 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.883 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.226 mg
Vitamin B6
0.2 mg
Folate (B9)
14 μg
Vitamin C
36.3 mg
24 mg
0.6 mg
21 mg
0.42 mg
32 mg
247 mg
9 mg
0.1 mg

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[17] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[18]

Sugar-apple is high in energy, an excellent source of vitamin C and manganese, a good source of thiamine and vitamin B6, and provides vitamin B2, B3 B5, B9, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in fair quantities.[19]

Chemistry edit

The diterpenoid alkaloid atisine is the most abundant alkaloid in the root. Other constituents of Annona squamosa include the alkaloids oxophoebine,[20] reticuline,[20] isocorydine,[21] and methylcorydaldine,[21] and the flavonoid quercetin-3-O-glucoside.[22]

Bayer AG has patented the extraction process and molecular identity of the annonaceous acetogenin annonin, as well as its use as a biopesticide.[23] Other acetogenins have been isolated from the seeds,[24] bark,[25] and leaves.[citation needed]

Distribution and habitat edit

Annona squamosa is native to the tropical Americas and West Indies, but the exact origin is unknown. It is now the most widely cultivated of all the species of Annona, being grown for its fruit throughout the tropics and warmer subtropics, such as Indonesia, Thailand, Taiwan, and China as far north as Suzhou;[26] it was introduced to southern Asia before 1590. It is naturalized as far north as southern Florida in the United States and as south as Bahia in Brazil, Bangladesh, and is an invasive species in some areas.[6][9][11]

Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Virgin Islands.
Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Northern South America: Suriname, French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela
Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Southern South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay[6]
Pacific: Samoa, Tonga
North America: Mexico, Belize
Afrotropic: Angola, Namibia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zanzibar, Kenya
Australasia: Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Indomalaya: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Palearctic: Cyprus, Greece, Lebanon, Malta,[6] Israel

Climate and cultivation edit

Like most species of Annona, it requires a tropical or subtropical climate with summer temperatures from 25 °C (77 °F) to 41 °C (106 °F), and mean winter temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F). It is sensitive to cold and frost, being defoliated below 10 °C (50 °F) and killed by temperatures of a couple of degrees below freezing. It is only moderately drought-tolerant, requiring at least 700 millimetres (28 in) of annual rainfall, and does not produce fruit well during droughts.

It will grow from sea level to an altitude of 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) and thrives in hot dry climates, differing in its tolerance of lowland tropics from many of the other fruit bearers in the Annona family.

It is quite a prolific bearer, and it produces fruit within as little as two to three years. A five-year-old tree can produce as many as 50 sugar apples. Poor fruit production has been reported in Florida because there are few natural pollinators (honeybees have a difficult time penetrating the tightly closed female flowers); however, hand pollination with a natural fibre brush is effective in increasing yield. Natural pollinators include beetles (coleoptera) of the families Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae and Scarabaeidae.[9][13]

Ecology edit

In the Philippines, the fruit is commonly eaten by the Philippine fruit bat (kabag or kabog), which then spreads the seeds from island to island.

It is a host plant for larvae of the butterfly Graphium agamemnon (tailed jay).

Uses edit

In traditional Indian, Thai, and Native American medicines, the leaves are boiled down with water, possibly mixed with other specific botanicals, and used in a decoction to treat dysentery and urinary tract infection.[27] In traditional Indian medicine, the leaves are also crushed for use as a poultice, and applied to wounds.[27] In Mexico, the leaves are rubbed on floors and put in hens' nests, to repel lice.[9] In Haiti, the fruit is known as cachiman and is used to simply make juice.[28] In Lebanon and Syria, it is made into a variety of desserts and sweets, referred to as ashta.[citation needed]

Gallery edit

References edit

  1. ^ Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI); IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group (2019). "Annona squamosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T146787183A146787185. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T146787183A146787185.en. Retrieved 16 December 2022.
  2. ^ Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Annona squamosa L". The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
  3. ^ a b "Annona squamosa". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
  4. ^ Dr. Richard Wunderlin, Dr. Bruce Hansen. "synonyms of Annona squamosa". Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Botany, University of Florida. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
  5. ^ Missouri Botanical Garden (1753). "Annona squamosa L". Tropicos. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Current name: Annona squamosa". AgroForestryTree Database. International Center For Research In Agroforestry. Archived from the original on 2011-05-26. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Compilation: Annona squamosa". Global Plants. JSTOR. Retrieved 2019-09-05.
  8. ^ a b The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants. United States Department of the Army. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. 2009. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-60239-692-0. OCLC 277203364.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  9. ^ a b c d Morton, Julia (1987). "Sugar Apple Annona squamosa". Fruits of warm climates. Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University. p. 69. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kral, Robert. "Annona squamosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 537. 1753". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 3. Retrieved 2019-09-05.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Annona squamosa". Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). 2008-01-05. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
  12. ^ a b Morton, Julia (1987). "Annona squamosa". Fruits of warm climates. p. 69. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Annona squamosa". AgroForestryTree Database. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  14. ^ McGregor, S.E. Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants USDA, 1976
  15. ^ Walker JW (1971) Pollen Morphology, Phytogeography, and Phylogeny of the Annonaceae. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, 202: 1-130.
  16. ^ Grant, Amy (2021). "What Is Sugar Apple Fruit: Can You Grow Sugar Apples". Gardening Know How. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  17. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  18. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ "Benefits of Custard apple". 22 December 2014.
  20. ^ a b Dholvitayakhun A, Trachoo N; et al. (2013). "Potential applications for Annona squamosa leaf extract in the treatment and prevention of foodborne bacterial disease". Natural Product Communications. 8 (3): 385–388. doi:10.1177/1934578X1300800327. PMID 23678817.
  21. ^ a b Yadav DK, Singh N; et al. (2011). "Anti-ulcer constituents of Annona squamosa twigs". Fitoterapia. 82 (4): 666–675. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2011.02.005. PMID 21342663.
  22. ^ Panda S, Kar A (2007). "Antidiabetic and antioxidative effects of Annona squamosa leaves are possibly mediated through quercetin-3-O-glucoside". BioFactors. 31 (3–4): 201–210. doi:10.1002/biof.5520310307. PMID 18997283. S2CID 38336427.
  23. ^ Moeschler HF, Pfluger W; et al. (August 1987). "Insecticide US 4689232 A". Retrieved 2014-12-03.
  24. ^ Chen Y, Xu SS; et al. (2012). "Anti-tumor activity of Annona squamosa seeds extract containing annonaceous acetogenin compounds". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 142 (2): 462–466. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.019. PMID 22609808.
  25. ^ Li XH, Hui YH; et al. (1990). "Bullatacin, bullatacinone, and squamone, a new bioactive acetogenin, from the bark of Annona squamosa". Journal of Natural Products. 53 (1): 81–86. doi:10.1021/np50067a010. PMID 2348205.
  26. ^ "Sweetsop (Annona squamosa)". January 2020.
  27. ^ a b Dholvitayakhun A, Trachoo N; et al. (2016). "Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of action of the medicinal plant Annona squamosa Linn". Journal of Herbal Medicine. 7: 31–36. doi:10.1016/j.hermed.2016.10.003.
  28. ^ "Cachiman (Annona reticulata L.)". Carib Fruits. Retrieved 8 November 2020.

External links edit

  Data related to Annona squamosa at Wikispecies