The Magnoliales are an order of flowering plants.

Temporal range: Aptian - recent[1]
A Magnolia flower, showing all the parts
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl[2]
Myristica fragrans tree from Myristicaceae in Goa, India

Classification edit

The Magnoliales include six families:

  • Annonaceae (custard apple family, over 2000 species of trees, shrubs, and lianas; mostly tropical but some temperate)
  • Degeneriaceae (two species of trees found on Pacific islands)
  • Eupomatiaceae (three species of trees and shrubs found in New Guinea and eastern Australia)
  • Himantandraceae (two species of trees and shrubs, found in tropical areas in Southeast Asia and Australia)
  • Magnoliaceae (about 225 species including magnolias and tulip trees)
  • Myristicaceae (several hundred species including nutmeg)

APG system edit

The APG system (1998), APG II system (2003), APG III system (2009), and APG IV system (2016) place this order in the clade magnoliids, circumscribed as follows:[2]

order Magnoliales
family Annonaceae
family Degeneriaceae
family Eupomatiaceae
family Himantandraceae
family Magnoliaceae
family Myristicaceae








The current composition and phylogeny of the Magnoliales.[3][4][5]

In these systems, published by the APG, the Magnoliales are a basal group, excluded from the eudicots.

Earlier systems edit

The Cronquist system (1981) placed the order in the subclass Magnoliidae of class Magnoliopsida (=dicotyledons) and used this circumscription:

The Thorne system (1992) placed the order in superorder Magnolianae, subclass Magnoliidae (= dicotyledons), in the class Magnoliopsida (= angiosperms) and used this circumscription (including the plants placed in order Laurales and Piperales by other systems):

The Engler system, in its update of 1964, placed the order in subclassis Archychlamydeae in class Dicotyledoneae (=dicotyledons) and used this circumscription:

  • order Magnoliales
    • family Amborellaceae
    • family Annonaceae
    • family Austrobaileyaceae
    • family Calycanthaceae
    • family Canellaceae
    • family Cercidiphyllaceae
    • family Degeneriaceae
    • family Eupomatiaceae
    • family Eupteleaceae
    • family Gomortegaceae
    • family Hernandiaceae
    • family Himantandraceae
    • family Illiciaceae
    • family Lauraceae
    • family Magnoliaceae
    • family Monimiaceae
    • family Myristicaceae
    • family Schisandraceae
    • family Trimeniaceae
    • family Tetracentraceae
    • family Trochodendraceae
    • family Winteraceae

The Wettstein system, latest version published in 1935, did not use this name although it had an order with a similar circumscription with the name Polycarpicae. This was placed in the Dialypetalae in subclass Choripetalae of class Dicotyledones. (See also Sympetalae).

From the above it will be clear that the plants included in this order by APG have always been seen as related. They have always been placed in the order Magnoliales (or a predecessor). The difference is that earlier systems have also included other plants, which have been moved to neighbouring orders (in the magnoliids) by APG.

References edit

  1. ^ "Magnoliales". Retrieved 2023-06-18.
  2. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. hdl:10654/18083.
  3. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (4): 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x.
  4. ^ Soltis, P. S.; D. E. Soltis (2004). "The origin and diversification of Angiosperms". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1614–1626. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1614. PMID 21652312.
  5. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001). "MAGNOLIALES Bromhead". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 13. Retrieved 30 December 2017.