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The Magnoliales comprise an order of flowering plants.

Magnoliales
Magnolia wieseneri.jpg
a Magnolia flower, showing all the parts
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl[1]
Families

Annonaceae
Degeneriaceae
Eupomatiaceae
Himantandraceae
Magnoliaceae
Myristicaceae

Contents

ClassificationEdit

The Magnoliales include six families:

APG systemEdit

The APG system (1998), APG II system (2003), and APG III system (2009) place this order in the clade magnoliids, circumscribed as follows:[1]

order Magnoliales
family Annonaceae
family Degeneriaceae
family Eupomatiaceae
family Himantandraceae
family Magnoliaceae
family Myristicaceae
Magnoliids

Canellales

Piperales

Magnoliales

Myristicaceae

Magnoliaceae

Degeneriaceae

Himantandraceae

Eupomatiaceae

Annonaceae

Laurales

The current composition and phylogeny of the Magnoliales.[2][3][4]

In these systems, published by the APG, the Magnoliales are a basal group, excluded from the eudicots.

Earlier systemsEdit

The Cronquist system (1981) placed the order in the subclass Magnoliidae of class Magnoliopsida (=dicotyledons) and used this circumscription:

The Thorne system (1992) placed the order in superorder Magnolianae, subclass Magnoliidae (= dicotyledons), in the class Magnoliopsida (= angiosperms) and used this circumscription (including the plants placed in order Laurales and Piperales by other systems):

The Engler system, in its update of 1964, placed the order in subclassis Archychlamydeae in class Dicotyledoneae (=dicotyledons) and used this circumscription:

  • order Magnoliales
    • family Amborellaceae
    • family Annonaceae
    • family Austrobaileyaceae
    • family Calycanthaceae
    • family Canellaceae
    • family Cercidiphyllaceae
    • family Degeneriaceae
    • family Eupomatiaceae
    • family Eupteleaceae
    • family Gomortegaceae
    • family Hernandiaceae
    • family Himantandraceae
    • family Illiciaceae
    • family Lauraceae
    • family Magnoliaceae
    • family Monimiaceae
    • family Myristicaceae
    • family Schisandraceae
    • family Trimeniaceae
    • family Tetracentraceae
    • family Trochodendraceae
    • family Winteraceae

The Wettstein system, latest version published in 1935, did not use this name although it had an order with a similar circumscription with the name Polycarpicae. This was placed in the Dialypetalae in subclass Choripetalae of class Dicotyledones. (See also Sympetalae).

From the above it will be clear that the plants included in this order by APG have always been seen as related. They have always been placed in the order Magnoliales (or a predecessor). The difference is that earlier systems have also included other plants, which have been moved to neighbouring orders (in the magnoliids) by APG.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (4): 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x.
  3. ^ Soltis, P. S.; D. E. Soltis (2004). "The origin and diversification of Angiosperms". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1614–1626. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1614. PMID 21652312.
  4. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001). "MAGNOLIALES Bromhead". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 13. Retrieved 30 December 2017.