Aranama language

Aranama (Araname), also known as Tamique, is an extinct unclassified language of Texas, USA. It was spoken by the Aranama and Tamique peoples at the Franciscan mission of Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga. It is only known from a two-word phrase from a non-native speaker: himiána tsáyi 'give me water!'.[1] Variations on the name are Taranames, Jaranames ~ Xaranames ~ Charinames, Chaimamé, Hanáma ~ Hanáme.[2]

Native toTexas
EthnicityAranama, Tamique
Extinctlate 19th century
Language codes
ISO 639-3xrt

Known wordsEdit

In 1884, Albert Gatschet recorded one word and a two-word phrase from "Old Simon," a Tonkawa man who also served as an informant for the Karankawa language, of which a short vocabulary was recorded. According to Old Simon, the words were from a language that he referred to as "Hanáma" (or "Háname"):[3]: 193 

  • himiyána ‘water’
  • Himiána tsýi! ‘Give me water!’


  1. ^ Swanton, John Reed (1940). "Linguistic material from the tribes of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico". Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin. 127: 1–145. hdl:10088/15429.
  2. ^ Craig H. Roell, "NUESTRA SENORA DEL ESPIRITU SANTO DE ZUNIGA MISSION," Handbook of Texas Online [1], accessed July 12, 2012. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  3. ^ Mithun, Marianne (2017). "Language Isolates". In Campbell, Lyle (ed.). Language Isolates of North America. Routledge Language Family Series. London: Routledge. pp. 193–228. doi:10.4324/9781315750026. ISBN 9781315750026.