Andimba Toivo ya Toivo
Herman Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (22 August 1924 – 9 June 2017) was a Namibian anti-apartheid activist, politician and political prisoner. He is a national hero of Namibia. Ya Toivo was active in the pre-independence movement, and is one of the co-founders of the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) in 1960, and its predecessor the Ovamboland People's Organization (OPO) in 1959.
Andimba Toivo ya Toivo
|Minister of Prisons and Correctional Services|
27 August 2002 – 2006
|Prime Minister||Theo-Ben Gurirab
|Preceded by||Marco Hausiku|
|Minister of Labour|
26 March 1999 – 27 August 2002
|Prime Minister||Hage Geingob|
|Preceded by||John Shaetonhodi|
|Succeeded by||Marco Hausiku|
|Minister of Mines and Energy|
21 March 1990 – 26 March 1999
|Prime Minister||Hage Geingob|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Jesaya Nyamu|
|Born||22 August 1924
Omangundu, Oshikoto Region, South West Africa
|Died||9 June 2017 (aged 92)
|Spouse(s)||Vicky Erenstein ya Toivo (m. 29 March 1990)|
After growing up in northern Namibia ya Toivo spent some time in Cape Town in the 1950s. He became politicised there and joined the African National Congress (ANC). Back in Namibia he became one of the early petitioners to the United Nations, advocating for the independence of Namibia. Due to his political activism he was tried in 1966 under the Terrorism Act, and sentenced to 20 years in prison. He served 16 years in Robben Island in the same section as Nelson Mandela, to whom he was a personal friend. He was released in 1984 and rejoined SWAPO in exile in Lusaka, Zambia. Ya Toivo returned to Namibia in 1989 in the wake of the country's independence and served as a Member of Parliament and as a Cabinet Minister in Sam Nujoma's government. He retired from active politics in 2006.
Andimba Toivo ya Toivo was born on 22 August 1924 as second of seven children in Omangundu in Ovamboland, northern South West Africa. He attended the church school at Onayena but was herding cattle often, as was common for boys in this area. He trained to become a carpenter at Ongwediva Industrial School between 1939 and 1942.
In 1942 during World War II ya Toivo voluntarily joined the Native Military Corps, a unit of the racially segregated army of the Union of South Africa. He fought on the British side of the Allied Forces. and attained the rank of a corporal during his service. When he was tried for terrorism in the 1960s he remembered his motivation thusly:
My lord, you found it necessary to brand me a coward. During the Second World War, when it became evident that both my country and your country were threatened by the dark clouds of Nazism, I risked my life to defend both of them, wearing a uniform with orange bands on it. But some of your countrymen, when called to battle to defend civilisation, resorted to sabotage against their own fatherland. I volunteered to face German bullets, and as a guard of military installations, both in South West Africa and the Republic, was prepared to be the victim of their sabotage. Today, they are our masters and are considered the heroes, and I am called the coward.
After the war he worked on a farm near Kalkfeld until he came back to Odibo and attended school at St Mary's Mission School to learn English. He had to change his religion from Lutheran to Anglican in order to be admitted. He completed Standard 6 but stayed on until 1950, graduating as a teacher, whereafter he successfully operated a store at Ondangwa. Toivo taught at St Cuthberth's School at Onamutayi and St. Mary's Odibo before travelling to South Africa for further studies in 1951.
Toivo left for Cape Town in 1951 and was employed as a railway police officer between 1952 and 1953. He joined political movements such as the Modern Youth Society (MYS) which was constituted by university students and trade unionists. He became the Deputy Chairman of the MYS, which organized festivals, lectures, discussion groups and night schools for activists who pursued further education. He joined the African National Congress (ANC) at Cape Town in 1957. Later that year, he co-founded the Ovamboland People's Congress (OPC), forerunner of the Ovamboland People's Organization (OPO). He also established close contacts with the two South African parties the Congress of Democrats and the Liberal Party. The OPC sought to fight for the rights of migrant workers, some of whom had defected from the South West African Native Labour Association (SWANLA). The organization also mobilized against the incorporation of Namibia into South Africa, and therefore shared a political allegiance with other organizations in South Africa. In December 1958, Toivo sent a petition to the United Nations, with the assistance of Mburumba Kerina and Michael Scott. Consequently, he was deported from Cape Town, first to Keetmanshoop and Windhoek and later to Ovamboland, where he was placed under house arrest in his home village Oniipa.
Toivo stayed in constant close contact with Leonard Auala from the Evangelical Lutheran Ovambo-Kavango Church (ELOC). Because of OPO's deep roots in the Ovambo people, ELOC subsequently gave its support to this national liberation movement. Members and supporters of OPO were also members of the congregation. The people, church and national liberation movement coincided. On its anniversary, 19 April 1960, OPO reconstituted itself as the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) in New York, Toivo was appointed Secretary General. After its reconstitution, SWAPO founded its military wing, the South West Africa Liberation Army (SWALA), in 1962, and oversaw the beginning of an armed insurgency against the South African administration in 1965. On 26 August 1966 the first armed clash of the South African Border War took place when the South African forces attacked SWAPO guerrillas at Omugulugwombashe.
Trial and incarcerationEdit
Because of his political activities in support of Namibian independence, Toivo was arrested in 1966 by the South African authorities. In his trial in August 1967, The state v. Tuhadeleni and 36 Others, he appeared as Accused No. 21. Eliaser Tuhadeleni, Nathaniel Maxuilili amongst other members of the Peoples Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN), the armed military wing of SWAPO, were tried in the first trial under South Africa's Terrorism Act of 21 June 1967. Ephraim Kapolo died during the trial in Pretoria. The Terrorism Act was applied retroactively to convict these political activists from Namibia. The speech he made on behalf of his group after his conviction gained renown for its pronouncements denying South Africa the right to try Southwest African citizens or to rule their country. His speech from the dock made headlines and became an internationally circulated key document to rally support for the Namibian liberation struggle.
Toivo was held in solitary confinement in Pretoria for more than a year before the sentence. On 26 January 1968, he was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment by the Pretoria Supreme Court. He was incarcerated at Robben Island, near Cape Town, where he spent most of his time isolated from his fellow countrymen. As a prisoner he was not an easy fellow, never showing remorse and often up for a fight with the authorities. Fellow Robben Island inmate Mike Dingake remembers:
A few meters from my cell, [...] warders tried to push Toivo ya Toivo intolerably around. Andimba unleashed a hard open-hand smack on the young warder's cheek, sending [his] cap flying and the young warder wailing 'Die kaffer het my geslaan'" [The nigger beat me]
On March 1, 1984, Toivo was released from Robben Island, having served 16 of his 20 years. Of all his fellow Namibian guerrillas he was serving the longest sentence on the notorious Robben Island prison. Nevertheless, on his day of release he had to be lured out of his cell, not happy to have gained freedom by himself with many comrades still behind bars. After a brief stay in Windhoek he left for Lusaka to rejoin his comrades in exile. He subsequently became a member of the SWAPO Central Committee and Politburo and was elected SWAPO Secretary General in 1984.
From 1984 to 1991, he was the Secretary General of the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO). In the advent of Namibia's independence, a showdown was expected between Sam Nujoma, who had spent many years in exile, and Toivo, incarcerated at Robben Island. Toivo avoided this conflict, "settling" for the post of Minister of Mines and Energy, leaving Nujoma the presidency.
Toivo was a SWAPO member of the Constituent Assembly, which was in place from November 1989 to March 1990, immediately prior to independence, and upon independence in March 1990 he became a member of the National Assembly. He was also Minister of Mines and Energy from 1990 until his appointment as Minister of Labour on 26 March 1999. After over three years in that position, he was appointed as Minister of Prisons on 27 August 2002, switching posts with Marco Hausiku; he remained Minister of Prisons until 2006.
Toivo received the eleventh-most votes—358—in the election to the Central Committee of SWAPO at the party's August 2002 congress. At SWAPO's November 2007 congress, Toivo failed to be elected to the SWAPO Politburo for the first time in the party's history. This was attributed to Toivo's purported link to the opposition Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), a party that had been founded as a split from SWAPO shortly before the congress. Toivo denied being linked to the RDP, but the claim was believed to have influenced the vote.
At the SWAPO Congress on 2 December 2012, Andimba ya Toivo was elected as a permanent member of the Central Committee.
After retiring from active politics, Toivo devoted his time to his wife, Vicki Erenstein, an American labor lawyer, and two daughters, Mutaleni and Nashikoto, and ran various businesses. He died on the evening of 9 June 2017 at his home in Windhoek at the age of 92 years.
Awards and honoursEdit
- Grand Companion of OR Tambo in Silver, awarded in 2009 for "his courageous contribution to the fight for independence and freedom in South Africa and Namibia"
- HMS Challenger, a ship renamed as MV Ya Toivo after him 
- Andimba Toivo ya Toivo Senior Secondary School
- the St Mary's Mission School dining hall in Odibo is named after ya Toivo
- In 2014 a Honorary Doctorate in Civil Law from the International University of Management, Namibia
- Shityuwete, Helao Joseph (22 August 2014). "Andimba Herman Toivo ya Toivo ‘My teacher, my mentor, my friend’" (PDF). The Namibian (ya Toivo 90th birthday supplement ed.). p. 5.
- Profile at Namibian Parliament website.
- Hopwood, Graham (12 June 2017). "Toivo ya Toivo ...gave meaning to the word icon". The Namibian. p. 6.
- Nembwaya, Hileni; Shivute, Oswald (22 August 2014). "Hilundwa and his best friend, ya Toivo" (PDF). The Namibian (ya Toivo 90th birthday supplement ed.). p. 10.
- Cowell, Alan (10 June 2017). "Andimba Toivo ya Toivo, Namibian Independence Leader, Dies at 92". The New York Times.
- Dingake, Mike (22 August 2014). "Prison authorities had to trick him out of the cell" (PDF). The Namibian (ya Toivo 90th birthday supplement ed.). p. 12.
- "Defiant and inspiring". The Namibian. 16 June 2017. p. 6.
- Nembwaya, Hileni (22 August 2014). "Ya Toivo gave me Namibia" (PDF). The Namibian (ya Toivo 90th birthday supplement ed.). p. 10.
- Tate Andimba in summary Confidente Newspaper, August 29, 2014
- "Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo: SWAPO Leader: August 2003". www.klausdierks.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- Helao Shityuwete, Never Follow the Wolf, The Autobiography of a Namibian Freedom Fighter, London 1990, pp. 246–47.
- Nakale, Albertina (12 June 2017). "World mourns death of Ya Toivo … the Namibian liberation icon". New Era.
- Dierks, Klaus. "Biographies of Namibian Personalities, T". klausdierks.com. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- List of members of the Constituent Assembly[permanent dead link], parliament.gov.na.
- "Two-prong strategy in latest reshuffle"[permanent dead link], The Namibian, 29 March 1999.
- Christof Maletsky, "Nujoma shuffles the Cabinet pack", The Namibian, 28 August 2002.
- Tangeni Amupadhi, "Major shift in Swapo leadership", The Namibian, 4 October 2004.
- "The ruling party's new Central Committee", The Namibian, 27 August 2002. Archived 4 January 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
- Christof Maletsky, "Swapo big names dropped", The Namibian, 3 December 2007. Archived 8 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "National Orders awards 27 March 2009". South African Government Information. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- "De Beers Marine Namibia Buys Namco Mining Assets For $20M". business.highbeam.com. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- Mvula, Toivo (27 September 2004). "School Renamed to Honour Ya Toivo". New Era. via allafrica.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2004.