An Túr Gloine
An Túr Gloine was conceived of in late 1901 and established January 1903 at 24 Pembroke Street, Dublin, Ireland, on the site of two former tennis courts.It was active throughout the first half of the 20th century. Affiliated artists included Michael Healy, Evie Hone, Beatrice Elvery, Wilhelmina Geddes, Harry Clarke, Catherine O'Brien, and founder Sarah Purser. The original impetus for the project, spurred by the Irish cultural activist Edward Martyn, was the building of the Roman Catholic cathedral in Loughrea, County Galway, which was to become St. Brendan's. Purser and Martyn hoped to provide an alternative to the commercial stained glass imported from England and Germany for Irish churches and other architectural projects. Purser's knowledge of French and English medieval glass, together with her social connections and organizational skills, were crucial to the success of the cooperative.
A writer for The Studio, a magazine of fine and applied art, called the recently formed An Túr Gloine "perhaps the most noteworthy example of the newly awakened desire to foster Irish genius," describing it as "at once a craft school, where instruction in every detail connected with the designing and production of stained glass is given to the workers, and a factory from which some beautiful work has already appeared." The writer also extolled the economic benefits of an Irish glass industry to supply churches. The studio is regarded as part of the Arts and Crafts Movement, but was infused also with the contemporary spirit of Irish revivalism and drew on the artistic tradition of Celtic manuscript illumination. Ireland became an internationally renowned center of stained-glass art at this time, to a large extent as a result of An Túr Gloine. The studio was run by Purser until 1940, and she was succeeded by Catherine O'Brien who ran it until 1944. After which time O'Brien bought the studio and leased a large section of it to Patrick Pollen.
National Irish Visual Arts Library holds significant material relating to An Túr Gloine including its foundation, files on the individual artists, a substantial collection of 35mm slides of stained glass windows designed and made by artists at the studio, and transcribed details of all the orders undertaken at the studio.
Relation to literary cultureEdit
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|“||Galway convent a little time ago refused a fine design for stained glass, sent from Miss Sarah Purser's studio, because of the personal life in the faces and in the attitudes, which seemed to them ugly, perhaps even impious. They sent to Miss Purser an insipid German chromo-lithograph, full of faces without expression or dignity, and gestures without personal distinction, and Miss Purser, doubtless because her enterprise was too new, too anxious for success, to reject any order, has carried out this ignoble design in glass of beautiful colour and quality.||”|
The following table provides examples of work commissioned from the studio or created by individual artists associated with An Túr Gloine.
|World War I memorial window||St. Bartholomew's Church||Ottawa, Canada||Wilhemina Geddes|
|Windows||Abbey Theatre||Dublin||An Túr Gloine|
|Door panel depicting a triad of candles symbolizing truth, knowledge, and wisdom||St. Enda's School, Cullenswood House||Ranelagh, Dublin||Sarah Purser and An Túr Gloine|
|St. Fanchea and St. Enda window||St. Brigid, Faughart Parish Church||Kilcurry, Ireland||Sarah Purser and An Túr Gloine|
|Window (commissioned 1922)||Presentation Sisters' convent||Green Street, Dingle||Harry Clarke|
|Katharine Temple Emmet & Richard Stockton Emmet Memorial Window||Christ Church||Pelham Manor, New York, America||Sarah Purser|
|Windows, three on the south side, one on the north aisle||St. Ann's Church, Dawson Street||Dublin||Wilhemina Geddes; north aisle with Ethel Rhind|
- Gordon Bowe, Nicola. "The Tower of Glass An Túr Gloine and the early 20th century stained glass revival in Ireland". Building Conservation. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Martin Wallace, 100 Irish Lives (Rowman & Littlefield, 1983), p. 122 online.
- Entry on stained glass, The Blackwell Companion to Modern Irish Culture, edited by W.J. McCormack (Wiley-Blackwell, 2001), p. 542 online.
- E.D. (initials only), The Studio 33 (15 October 1904), pp. 260 and 262 online.
- Ellen Mary Easton McLeod, In Good Hands: The Women of the Canadian Handicrafts Guild (McGill-Queen's Press, 1999), pp. 55 and 68 (note 24) online.
- Characterized, perhaps dismissively, as "romantic nationalist fervour" in The Blackwell Companion to Modern Irish Culture, p. 542.
- Terence Brown, Ireland: A Social and Cultural History, 1922 to the Present (Cornell University Press, 1985), p. 78 online; The Blackwell Companion to Modern Irish Culture, p. 542.
- Doyle, Carmel (2009). "O'Brien, Catherine Amelia". In McGuire, James; Quinn, James. Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- The Collected Letters of W.B. Yeats, edited by John Kelly and Ronald Schuchard (Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 259, note 2 online.
- The Collected Letters of W.B. Yeats, p. 973, note 4.
- Elaine Sisson, Pearse's Patriots: St Enda's and the Cult of Boyhood (Cork University Press, 2004), p. 210, note 20 online.
- Christine Casey and Alistair John Rowan, North Leinster: The Counties of Longford, Louth, Meath and Westmeath, The Buildings of Ireland series (Yale University Press, 1993), p. 348 online.
- St. Ann's Church, Dawson Street, visitors pamphlet.