Wilhelmina Geddes (1887–1955) was an Irish stained glass artist who was an important figure within the Irish Arts and Crafts movement and also the twentieth century British stained glass revival. Important achievements included windows at St. Bartholomew’s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, St. Peter's Church in Lampeter, Wales, and King Albert Memorial Window, Cathedral of St. Martin, Ypres, Belgium.
|Born||25 May 1887|
Leitrim, County Leitrim, Ireland
|Died||10 August 1955 (aged 68)|
London, United Kingdom
|Resting place||Cronmoney Cemetery, Ballyclare, County Antrim|
|Education||Belfast School of Art|
Dublin Metropolitan School of Art
|Known for||stained glass design|
Wilhelmina Margaret Geddes was born on her maternal grandparents farm at Drumreilly Cottage in Leitrim on the 25 May 1887. Eldest daughter of four children born to William Geddes (c.1852-1916) and his wife Eliza Jane Safford (1863-1955). The family who descended from Scotland migrated to Ireland and had been principally farmers. Her father was born a Methodist near his father's farm at Tandragee, County Armagh, emigrated to America as a young man, working as a labourer for the railway construction business. This later served purpose as he worked as a site engineer at the Cavan, Leitrim and Roscommon Railway Company. Still an infant her parents moved her to their native home in Belfast, so her father could set up work as a building contractor.
Geddes began drawing subjects from life and nature from the age of four. She learnt first how to draw from the school mistress in Ayrshire, where her father occasionally went shooting. She began her studies at Methodist College Belfast along with her three younger sisters. She later moved to the Belfast School of Art. Geddes was encouraged by Rosamond Praeger, a sculptor from County Down, to continue with her studies. Geddes was accepted as a student to study at the Belfast School of Art, Ulster University. This is where Geddes adapted and improved on her art and introduced to professional standard of art work.
Whilst still studying at the Belfast School of Art, Geddes took part in the Arts and Crafts Society of Ireland's fourth exhibition. For this exhinition, Geddes contributed a glowingly colored, illustration of the book Cinderella Dressing the Ugly Sister (Dublin City Gallery), which she had created. It was at this exhibition that Geddes' work was spotted by Sarah Purser, a well established painter, seeking newly trained students, to introduce to stained glass artistry. Purser, who eventually went on to be Geddes' lifelong mentor, invited the young Geddes to join her in Dublin, working under the established stained glass artist William Orpen.
Geddes joined Purser at the acclaimed stained glass workshop called An Túr Gloine in 1910. The workshop was held in Dublin's NCAD (National College of Art and Design). It was at An Túr Gloine, where Geddes discovered her passion for the craftsmanship of stained glass artistry and created her most important works.
During her early years at An Túr Gloine, "Geddes’s originality shone out, and important commissions came from St Ann’s Church in Dawson Street and the Presbyterian Church in Rathgar. Dogged by illness, she returned to Belfast before 1916 and lived between there and Dublin until moving in 1925 (as she had long wanted) to work in London at the Glass House in Fulham."
Her work was considered pioneering and represented a rejection of the Late Victorian approach. She created a new view of men in stained glass windows, portraying them with close-shaven crew cuts. "The muscularity and tension of her portraiture is matched by the radical design of her constructions. Ambitious large-scale projects, as at the cathedral in Ypres, are equalled by the drama of smaller-scale work at Wallasey (Lancashire) and Wallsend (Northumberland), or war memorial windows in obscure country churches."
War Memorial Window, St. Bartholomew's Church, Canada 1919Edit
This window was revealed at St.Bartholomew's by the HRH Prince of Wales. The window itself was commissioned by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught in 1916. This piece is located in Ontario Canada. The window is a memorial piece, depicting images of mourning men and women. Geddes uses primitive colours in her Ottawa Window, most prominent of the colours used are yellow and black. It is said by a critic that the colours used in this piece "give the window power and drama while strong, expressive drawing brings out the sense of action and facial expression." An article in Irish Life featured the window on the cover of its Christmas tree in 1919. The writer of the article considered this window to be 'one of the artistic triumphs of this century'. Geddes completed the entire window in Miss Pursor's glass works, Upper Pembroke Street in Dublin, Ireland.
St. Gabriel Window, All Saints Church, Dublin 1925Edit
This window was commissioned by Canon Henry Dobbs, who was Chaplain to the Armed Forces. This piece was given by parishioners to commemorate casualties from the congregation. The casualties were lost in World War one. As were two other windows, St.Michael and St.Raphael. Gabriel stands hard and solid displaying a warrior like, rugged face. He wears a blue an white mantle, which he wraps around himself. In St.Gabriel's hands he holds a branch given to him in Paradise and a mirror inscribed with an 'x', which signifies Christ letter in Greek. Geddes depicts the angel with a red halo and a stony-faced expression. The church in which this window remains is All Saints' Church, Blackrock, Co.Dublin In 1996 St.Gabriel and St.Raphael were reunited in the church's south wall.
Lampeter Window, St. Peter's Church, Lampeter, Wales 1943Edit
This piece was Geddes' last monumental work in stained glass and is located in the parish church of St.Peter's Lampeter. It measures: 20 ft and 4ins high by 11 ft 6 ins wide. It was commissioned in 1937 by Sir George Arthur Harford as a memorial to his father, Sir John Charles Harford, although Geddes' declining health and the interruptions of the war delayed its completion until 1943, and installation until 1946. She painted the figures on glass of incredible clarity and rich use of colour. The three dominant figures portrayed in this piece are: Christ, St.Peter and St.Andrew. These characters are portrayed to be occupied with thoughts beyond "mortal cares". Geddes herself declared that the window's subject was 'The Prophecy of Esaias' and the 'Calling of Peter and Andrew'. Christ is the central figure and stands taller than St.Peter and St.Andrew. Christ holds within his hands a pink and gold stone Byzantine church sat upon a rock. This church on a rock symbolism is referring to a Bible verse, in Matthew 16:16-19.
Later life and deathEdit
Geddes died on 10 August 1955 in London of a pulmonary embolism. She was buried in Cronmoney Cemetery, Ballyclare, Co. Antrim, along with her mother and sister Ethel. Geddes claimed even after moving to London, her native identity never wavered as she says she was always "a Belfast woman".
Stained Glass WindowsEdit
- Angel of Resurrection, St Ninnidh Church, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, 1912
- Seaman Memorial Window, St. Molaise Church, Monea, Northern Ireland, 1913
- Faith, Hope and Charity Window, Presbyterian Church, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1913-1914
- Dooner Memorial Windows, St. Ann's Church, Dublin, Ireland, 1913
- Margeret Horridge Memorial Window, Holy Trinity Church, Southport, Lancashire,1914
- Moorehouse Memorial Window, Karori Cemetery, Karori, New Zealand, 1914
- Stewart Memorial Window, Presbyterian Christ Church, Dublin, Ireland, 1914-1916
- Reed Memorial Window, St. Anne's Church, Dublin, Ireland 1916
- Cuthbert Memorial Window, Presbyterian Assembly Hall, Belfast, 1916
- War Memorial Window, St. Bartholomew's Church, Ottawa, Canada 1919
- Belfour Memorial Window, All Saints Church, Laleham, Middlesex, England, 1925
- St Patrick’s and Colomba, Larne, County Antrim, Ireland, 1923
- St. Brendan Window, Currane Church, Achill, Co. Mayo, Ireland, 1924
- Sargent Memorial Window, St Michael Church, Northchapel, West Sussex, 1930
- Wheeler Memorial Window, St Lawrence Church, Otterden, Kent, England, 1933
- Crichton Memorial Window, Egremont Presbyterian Church, Wallasey, Lancashire, 1934
- King Albert Memorial Window, Cathedral of St. Martin, Ypres, Belgium, 1938
- Harford Memorial Window, St Peter's Church , Lampeter, Wales, 1943
- Madonna and Child, All Hallows, Greenford, London, 1953-1954
- Gordon Bowe, Nicola (2015). Wilhelmina Geddes: Life and Work. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 9781846825323.
- Gordon Bowe, Nicola (August 2015). "Irish Arts Review". Irish Arts Review: 2–3. JSTOR 20492006.
- Hailes, Anne (4 January 2016). "Wilhelmina Geddes: Window on a remarkable life". The Irish News.
- Foster, Roy (23 January 2016). "Wilhelmina Geddes: Life and Work, by Nicola Gordon Bowe: awkward artist of many colours". Irish Times. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
- Bowe, Nicola Gordon (1988). "Wilhelmina Geddes, Harry Clarke, and Their Part in the Arts and Crafts Movement in Ireland". The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts. 8: 58–79. doi:10.2307/1503970. JSTOR 1503970.
- Shirley Anne Brown. “Wilhelmina Geddes Ottawa Window”. Irish Arts Review 1994 Vol 10.
- "The Church of St.Bartholomew". Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- Ann Brown, Shirley (1994). 'Irish Arts Review Yearbook'.
- WMG, SP (18 August 1924). Letter from WMG to SP. Purser MSS, NLI.
- Gordon Bowe, Nicola (2002). 'Irish Arts Review'. pp. 118–121.
- Martin., Crampin, (2017). Stained glass at the church of St Peter, Lampeter. Hammond, John. Sulien Books. ISBN 9781910675052. OCLC 982811784.
- "Classified ad 59 -- no title". The Irish Times. 13 August 1955.
- Gordon Bowe, Nicola (18 November 2015). "Belfast artist who created some of the city's most beautiful stained glass windows recognised in new book". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 23 November 2017.