Open main menu

The Amman Message (Arabic: رسالة عمان‎) is a statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan 1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan.[1] Subsequently, a three-point ruling was issued by 200 Islamic scholars from over 50 countries, focusing on issues of defining who is a Muslim, excommunication from Islam (takfir), and principles related to delivering religious opinions (fatāwa).[2]

ContentEdit

The Amman Message was delivered in Amman, Jordan, as a Ramadan sermon by Chief Justice Sheikh Iz-al-Din al-Tamimi in the presence of King Abdullah II and a number of Muslim scholars.[3] According to a report issued by the International Crisis Group, "The sermon stressed the need to re-emphasise Islam's core values of compassion, mutual respect, tolerance, acceptance and freedom of religion."[1] The next year, in July 2005, an Islamic convention brought together 200 Muslim scholars from over 50 countries who issued a three-point declaration (later known as 'Three Points of the Amman Message').[2] This declaration focused on:[4]

  1. The recognition of eight legal schools of sharia/fiqh (madhāhib) and the varying schools of Islamic theology viz.[5][6]
    1. Sunni Hanafi
    2. Sunni Maliki
    3. Sunni Shafi'i
    4. Sunni Hanbali
    5. Shia Jaʿfari
    6. Shia Zaydi
    7. Ẓāhirī
    8. Ibadi
    • Forbade declaring an apostate anyone who is a follower of:[5]
    1. the Ashʿari/Maturidi creed
    2. real Tasawwuf (Sufism)
    3. true Salafi thought
  2. The forbiddance from pronouncing disbelief (takfir) upon (or excommunicating) others recognized as Muslims
  3. The stipulations placed as preconditions to the issuing of religious edicts, intended to prevent the circulation of illegitimate edicts

Explaining why the message was issued, King Abdullah stated: "[W]e felt that the Islamic message of tolerance was being subjected to a fierce and unjust attack from some in the West who do not understand Islam's essence, and others who claim to be associated with Islam and hide behind Islam to commit irresponsible deeds."[7]

Conference and declarationsEdit

Following are conferences and declarations:[8]

  • The International Islamic Conference: True Islam and Its Role in Modern Society, (Amman, 27-29 Jumada II 1426 ah / 4–6 July 2005 ce)
  • Forum of Muslim 'Ulama' and Thinkers, (Mecca, 5-7 Sha'ban 1426 ah / 9–11 September 2005 ce)
  • First International Islamic Conference Concerning the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence and the Modern Challenges, (Al al-Bayt University, 13-15 Shawwal ah /15–17 November 2005 ce)
  • The Third Extraordinary Session of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, (5-6 Dhu'l-Qa'da 1426 ah / 7–8 December 2005 ce)
  • The Second International Conference of the Assembly for Moderate Islamic Thought and Culture, (25-27 1 Rabi' 1427 ah / 24–26 April 2006 ce)
  • The International Islamic Fiqh Academy Conference Seventeenth Session, (Amman, 28 Jumada I - 2 Jumada II 1427 ah / 24–28 June 2006 ce)
  • Muslims of Europe Conference, (Istanbul, 1–2 July 2006 ce)
  • The ninth session of the council of the Conference of Ministers of Religious Endowments and Islamic Affairs, (Kuwait, 20-21 1426 AH / 22–23 November 2005 CE)
  • Amman Message in the Eyes of Others: Dialogue, Moderation, Humanity, (The Hashemite University, September 20–21, 2006)

Fatwas and endorsementsEdit

Following is the list of some of the many individuals and organizations who have issued fatwas and endorsements in relation to the Amman Message[clarification needed] (as per official website listing):[9]

Sr No Name Title Country Sect Fiqh Endorsing Fatwa Website Image
1 Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy Grand Imam of Al-Azhar University   Egypt Sunni Shafiʿi Fatwa Official Website
2 Ali Gomaa Grand Mufti of Egypt   Egypt Sunni Shafiʿi Fatwa [1]  
3 Ali Bardakoğlu President of The Grand Council for Religious Affairs, Turkey   Turkey Sunni Hanafi Fatwa Official Website  
4 Ahmed Kuftaro Grand Mufti of Syria   Syria Sunni Shafiʿi Fatwa Official Website  
5 Said Abd Al-Hafiz Al-Hijjawi Grand Mufti of Jordan   Jordan Sunni Shafiʿi Fatwa -
6 Nuh Ha Mim Keller Islamic Scholar of Jordan   Jordan Sunni Shafiʿi Fatwa -
7 Yusuf al-Qaradawi Director of the Sunna and Sira Council   Egypt
  Qatar
Sunni Hanafi Fatwa Official Website
8 Abdullah bin Bayyah Vice President of the International Union of Muslim Scholars   Mauritania Sunni Maliki Fatwa Official Website  
9 Muhammad Taqi Usmani Vice President of the Islamic Fiqh Academy   Pakistan Sunni Hanafi Fatwa -
10 Sayyid Shaykh Nazim Al-Haqqani Deceased leader of the Naqshbandi Haqqani Sufi Order   Northern Cyprus Sunni Hanafi - Official Website  
11 Abdullah al-Harari Founder of the Al-Ahbash   Ethiopia Sunni Shafiʿi Fatwa Official Website
12 Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri Founding Leader of Minhaj-ul-Quran International, Chief Executive of Minhaj International University   Pakistan Sunni Hanafi - Official Website  
13 Habib Ali al-Jifri Founding Leader of Tabah Foundation in Abu Dhabi, Member of Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought in Amman   Yemen Sunni Shafiʿi - Official Website  
14 Habib Umar bin Hafiz Founding Leader and the dean of Dar al-Mustafa in Tarim, Yemen   Yemen Sunni Shafiʿi - Official Website  
15 Ali Hosseini Khamenei Grand Ayatollah, Supreme Leader of Iran   Iran Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
16 Muhammad Saeed al-Hakim Grand Ayatollah   Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
17 Mohammad Ishaq Al-Fayyad Grand Ayatollah   Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
18 Basheer Hussain Najafi Grand Ayatollah   Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
19 Hussein Esmaeel al-Sadr Grand Ayatollah   Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
20 Fazel Lankarani Grand Ayatollah   Iran Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
21 Muhammad Ali Al-Taskhiri Grand Ayatollah
General Secretary of Forum for Proximity of the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence
  Iran Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
22 Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah Grand Ayatollah   Lebanon Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
23 Muhammad bin Muhammad Ismail Al-Mansur
and
Humud bin Abbas Al-Mu'ayyad
Shaykh   Yemen Shia Zaidiyyah Fatwa Official Website
24 Ibrahim bin Muhammad Al-Wazir General Secretary, The Islamic Unification and Works Movement, Yemen   Yemen Shia Zaidiyyah Fatwa Official Website
25 Ahmad bin Hamad Al-Khalili Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman   Oman Ibadi - Fatwa Official website
26 Ali Hosseini Sistani Grand Ayatollah   Iraq Shia Jafari Fatwa Official Website  
27 Karīm al-Hussaynī The Āgā Khān IV, Imam of the Shia Imami Nizari Ismailis   United Kingdom Shia Jafari (Nizari Ismaili branch) Fatwa Official Website  

ReceptionEdit

Tony Blair, while Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, gave a speech in which he praised the Amman message and the gathering of numerous scholars, commenting, "This was a clear message that Islam is not a monolithic faith, but one made up of a rich pattern of diversity, albeit all flowing from the same fount."[2]

Despite the ecumenical nature of the Amman Message, since it was issued there has been a marked decline in Shia-Sunni relations as a result of increased sectarian conflict in such countries as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Bahrain and Yemen.[10]

CriticismEdit

The Amman Message has been criticized by CIFIA, a Barelvi group based in Hyderabad regards the message as contrary to the teachings of Islam.[11][12]

Suhail Nakhouda, writing in the Amman-based Islamica, stated that the Amman message did little to effectively address ongoing problems: "There is no water, no pavements; the economy is bad, and many young people are out of work. Peoples' lives, as well as the images they see, stay the same." Nakhouda stated that King Abdullah's message was likely to be dampened by his lifestyle, which he claims is the subject of criticism.[1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Jordan's 9/11: Dealing With Jihadi Islamism", Crisis Group Middle East Report N°47, 23 November 2005
  2. ^ a b c "SPEECH BY THE PRIME MINISTER THE RT HON TONY BLAIR MP Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine" (04/06/07), British Embassy in Bahrain
  3. ^ "Jordan issues the 'Amman Message' on Islam". Embassy of Jordan - Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
  4. ^ The Amman Message summary - Official website
  5. ^ a b The Three Points of The Amman Message V.1 Archived February 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Petra News Agency. Summary of the Amman Message (In Arabic) Archived 2016-04-09 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "King Abdullah calls to end extremism". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
  8. ^ "AmmanMessage.com – The Official Site". ammanmessage.com.
  9. ^ "AmmanMessage.com – The Official Site". ammanmessage.com.
  10. ^ Volpi, Frederic, ed. (11 Jun 2014). Political Civility in the Middle East. Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 9781317977810.
  11. ^ THE AMMAN MESSAGE, CIFIA
  12. ^ "Mufti Desai of Darul Uloom Abu Bakr in South Africa voicing criticisms of the Amman Message". islamopediaonline.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-11. Retrieved 2016-03-11.

External linksEdit