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Alexander Petrovich Dovzhenko or Oleksander Petrovych Dovzhenko (Ukrainian: Олександр Петрович Довженко, Oleksandr Petrovych Dovzhenko; Russian: Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Довже́нко, Aleksandr Petrovich Dovzhenko; September 10 [O.S. August 29] 1894 – November 25, 1956), was a Soviet screenwriter, film producer and director of Ukrainian origin. He is often cited as one of the most important early Soviet filmmakers, alongside Sergei Eisenstein, Dziga Vertov, and Vsevolod Pudovkin, as well as being a pioneer of Soviet montage theory.
Alexander Petrovich Dovzhenko
September 10, 1894
|Died||November 25, 1956 (aged 62)|
|Resting place||Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow|
|Occupation||Film director, screenwriter|
Alexander Dovzhenko was born in the hamlet of Viunyshche located in Chernigov Governorate, Russian Empire (now part of Sosnytsia town in Chernihiv Oblast, Ukraine), to Petro Semenovych Dovzhenko and Odarka Yermolayivna Dovzhenko. His paternal ancestors were Ukrainian Cossacks (Chumaks) who settled in Sosnytsia in the eighteenth century, coming from the neighbouring province of Poltava. Alexander was the seventh of fourteen children, but due to the horrific rate of child loss he became the oldest child by the time he turned eleven (only Alexander and his sister Polina survived).
Although his parents were uneducated, Dovzhenko's semi-literate grandfather encouraged him to study, leading him to become a teacher at the age of 19. He avoided military service during World War I because of a heart condition, but during the Soviet-Ukrainian War he served a year in the Red Army. In 1919 in Zhytomyr he was taken prisoner and sent to a concentration camp. In 1920 Dovzhenko joined the Borotbist party. He served as an assistant to the Ambassador in Warsaw as well as Berlin. Upon his return to USSR in 1923, he began illustrating books and drawing cartoons in Kharkiv.
Dovzhenko turned to film in 1926 when he landed in Odessa. His ambitious drive led to the production of his second-ever screenplay, Vasya the Reformer (which he also co-directed). He gained greater success with Zvenyhora in 1928 which established him as a major filmmaker of his era. His following "Ukraine Trilogy" (Zvenigora, Arsenal, and Earth), are his most well-known works in the West. Earth portrayed collectivization in a positive light, but Soviet authorities evidently didn't consider it positive enough and the film was subjected to criticism. Dovzhenk's next film, Ivan, portrayed a Dneprostroi construction worker and his reactions to industrialization, which was then summarily denounced for promoting fascism and pantheism. Fearing arrest, Dovzhenko personally appealed to Stalin, but the Soviet dictator had been a fan of Arsenal and gave his blessing to the director's next project, Aerograd, about the defense of a newly constructed city from Japanese infiltrators. For his film Shchors, Dovzhenko was awarded the Stalin Prize (1941); eight years later, in 1949, he was awarded another Stalin Prize for his film Michurin.
He was a mentor to the young Soviet filmmakers Larisa Shepitko and Sergei Parajanov. Dovzhenko died of a heart attack on November 25, 1956, in his dacha in Peredelkino. His wife, Yulia Solntseva, continued his legacy by producing films of her own and completing projects Dovzhenko was not able to create.
- Love's Berries (Russian: Ягoдки Любви, translit. Yagodki lyubvi, Ukrainian: Ягідки кохання, translit. Yahidky kokhannya), 1926
- Vasya the Reformer (Russian: Вася – реформатор, translit. Vasya – reformator, Ukrainian: Вася – реформатор, translit. Vasya – reformator), 1926
- The Diplomatic Pouch (Russian: Сумка дипкурьера, translit. Sumka dipkuryera, Ukrainian: Сумка дипкур'єра, translit. Sumka dypkuryera), 1927
- Zvenigora (Russian: Звенигора, translit. Zvenigora, Ukrainian: Звенигора, translit. Zvenyhora), 1928
- Arsenal (Russian: Арсенал, Ukrainian: Арсенал), 1928
- Earth (Russian: Зeмля, translit. Zemlya, Ukrainian: Зeмля, translit. Zemlya), 1930
- Ivan (Russian: Иван, Ukrainian: Iвaн), 1932
- Aerograd (Russian: Аэроград, Ukrainian: Аероград, translit. Aerohrad), 1935
- Bukovyna: a Ukrainian Land (Russian: Буковина, земля Украинская, translit. Bukovina, Zemlya Ukrainskaya, Ukrainian: Буковина, зeмля Українськa, translit., Bukovyna, Zemlya Ukrayins'ka), 1939
- Shchors* (Russian: Щopc, Ukrainian: Щopc), 1939
- Liberation* (Russian: Освобождение, translit. Osvobozhdeniye, Ukrainian: Визволення, translit. Vyzvolennya), 1940
- Battle for Soviet Ukraine* (Russian: Битва за нашу Советскую Украину, translit. Bitva za nashu Sovetskuyu Ukrainu, Ukrainian: Битва за нашу Радянську Україну, translit. Bytva za nashu Radyans'ku Ukrayinu), 1943
- Soviet Earth (Russian: Cтpaнa poднaя, translit. Strana rodnaya, Ukrainian: Країна pідна, translit. Krayina ridna), 1945
- Victory in the Ukraine and the Expulsion of the Germans from the Boundaries of the Ukrainian Soviet Earth (Russian: Победа на Правобережной Украине и изгнание немецких захватчиков за пределы украинских советских земель, translit. Pobeda na Pravoberezhnoi Ukraine i izgnaniye nemetsikh zakhvatchikov za predeli Ukrainskikh sovietskikh zemel, Ukrainian: Перемога на Правобережній Україні, translit. Peremoha na Pravoberezhniy Ukrayini), 1945
- Michurin (Russian: Мичурин, Ukrainian: Мічурін), 1948
- Farewell, America (Russian: Прощай, Америкa, Ukrainian: Прощай, Америко, translit. Proshchay, Ameryko), 1949
- Poem of the Sea* (Russian: Поэма о море, translit. Poema o more, Ukrainian: Поема про море, translit. Poema pro more), 1959
*codirected by Yuliya Solntseva
- Oleksander Dovzhenko at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine
- Borwell, David (1994). Film History: An Introduction. New York.
- encyclopedia.com http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/literature-and-arts/film-and-television-biographies/alexander-dovzhenko. Retrieved 2017-02-22. Missing or empty
- Dovzhenko, Alexandr (ed. Marco Carynnyk) (1973). Alexandr Dovzhenko: The Poet as Filmmaker, MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-04037-9
- Kepley, Jr., Vance (1986). In the Service of the State: The Cinema of Alexandr Dovzhenko, University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-10680-2
- Liber, George O. (2002). Alexander Dovzhenko: A Life in Soviet Film, British Film Institute. ISBN 0-85170-927-3
- Nebesio, Bohdan. "Preface" to Special Issue: The Cinema of Alexander Dovzhenko. Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 19.1 (Summer, 1994): pp. 2–3.
- Perez, Gilberto (2000) Material Ghost: Films and Their Medium, Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6523-9
- Abramiuk, Larissa (1998) The Ukrainian Baroque in Oleksandr Dovzhenko's Cinematic Art, The Ohio State University (UMI).
- Alexandr Dovzhenko on IMDb
- Chris Fujiwara's review Neglected Giant: Alexander Dovzhenko at the MFA
- Ray Uzwyshyn Alexandr Dovzhenko's Silent Trilogy: A Visual Exploration
- John Riley "A (Ukrainian) Life in Soviet Film: Liber's Alexandr Dovzhenko", Film-Philosophy, vol. 7 no. 31, October 2003 – a review of George O. Liber (2002), Alexandr Dovzhenko: A Life in Soviet Film
- Landscapes of the Soul: The Cinema of Alexandr Dovzhenko,
- "Screenplays About the Earth" by Aleksandr Dovzhenko from SovLit.net
- Oleksandr Dovzhenko Center