Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden
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Adolf Frederick, or Adolph Frederick (Swedish: Adolf Fredrik, German: Adolf Friedrich; 14 May 1710 – 12 February 1771) was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach.
|King of Sweden|
|Reign||25 March 1751 – 12 February 1771|
|Coronation||26 November 1751|
|Prince-Bishop of Lübeck|
|Reign||1727 – 1750|
|Born||14 May 1710|
Gottorp, Schleswig, Duchy of Schleswig
|Died||12 February 1771 (aged 60)|
Stockholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
|Burial||30 July 1771|
|Issue||Gustav III, King of Sweden|
Charles XIII, King of Sweden
Frederick Adolf, Duke of Östergötland
Sophia Albertina, Abbess of Quedlinburg
|Father||Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin|
|Mother||Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach|
The first king from the House of Holstein-Gottorp, Adolf Frederick was a weak monarch, installed as first in line to the throne following the parliamentary government's failure to reconquer the Baltic provinces in 1741–43. Aside from a few attempts, supported by pro-absolutist factions among the nobility, to reclaim the absolute monarchy held by previous monarchs, he remained a mere constitutional figurehead until his death.
His reign saw an extended period of internal peace. However, the finances stagnated following failed mercantilist doctrines pursued by the Hat administration. The Hat Administration ended during the 1765–66 parliament, where the Cap opposition took over the government and enacted reforms towards greater economic liberalism, as well as a Freedom of Press Act. The Freedom of Press Act is unique for the time for its curtailing of all censorship, retaining punitive measures only for libeling the monarch or the Church of Sweden.
Adolf Frederick's father was Christian Augustus (1673–1726) duke and a younger prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, prince-bishop of Lübeck, and administrator, during the Great Northern War, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his relative Charles Frederick. 
His mother, Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach (1682–1755), was a descendant of earlier royal dynasties of Sweden, great-granddaughter of Princess Catherine of Sweden, mother of King Charles X of Sweden. On his mother's side, Adolf Frederick descended from King Gustav Vasa and Christina Magdalena, a sister of Charles X of Sweden. 
From 1727 to 1750 Prince Adolf Frederick was the prince-bishop of Lübeck. This meant he ruled a fief around and including Eutin. After his first cousin, Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, died in 1739, Adolf Frederick became the administrator of Holstein-Kiel during the minority of the duke's orphan son, Charles Peter Ulrich. Shortly afterward, the young boy was invited to Russia by his maternal aunt, Empress Elizabeth, who soon declared him her heir. He later became known as Peter III of Russia.
In 1743, Adolf Frederick was elected heir to the throne of Sweden by the Hat faction (Swedish: Hattarna). The Hat faction wanted to obtain better conditions at the Treaty of Åbo from Empress Elizabeth of Russia, who had adopted his nephew as her heir. He succeeded as King Adolf Frederick 12 years later on 25 March 1751.
During his 20-year reign, Adolf Frederick was little more than a figurehead, the real power being with the Riksdag of the Estates, often distracted by party strife. Twice he endeavored to free himself from the tutelage of the estates. The first occasion was in 1756. Stimulated by his consort Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (sister of Frederick the Great), he tried to regain a portion of the attenuated prerogative through the Coup of 1756 to abolish the rule of the Riksdag of the Estates and reinstate absolute monarchy in Sweden. He nearly lost his throne in consequence. On the second occasion during the December Crisis (1768), under the guidance of his eldest son, Gustav, he succeeded in overthrowing the "Cap" (Swedish: Mössorna) senate, but was unable to make any use of his victory.
Adolf Frederick died in Stockholm on 12 February 1771 after having consumed a large meal, consisting of lobster, caviar, sauerkraut, kippers and champagne, topped off with his favourite dessert: hetvägg, made of semla pastries served in bowls of hot milk.[better source needed]
The King was regarded as dependent on others, a weak ruler, and lacking of any talents. However, he was allegedly a good husband, a caring father, and a gentle master to his servants. His favourite pastime was to make snuffboxes, which he allegedly spent a great deal of time doing. His hospitality and friendliness were witnessed by many who deeply mourned him at his death.
- (Stillborn) (18 February 1745 in Stockholm)
- Gustav III (1746–1792)
- Charles XIII (1748–1818)
- Frederick Adolf (1750–1803)
- Sofia Albertina (1753–1829)
With Jeanne Du Londel he had one son:
- Adolf Fredriksson (c. 1734-1771), Captain in the Swedish Army.
With Marguerite Morel he had one son who died as a child:
- Frederici (c. 1761 - 1771)
- L. Stavenow. "Adolf Fredrik". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- "Christian August (Herzog von Holstein-Gottorf)". Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- "Adolf Fredrik". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Adolphus Frederick". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 211–212. This cites:
- R. Nisbet Bain, Gustavus III. and his Contemporaries, vol. i. (London, 1895).
- Nina Ringbom. "Kristina Magdalena av Pfalz-Zweibrücken". historiesajten.se. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- "Peter III". Saint-Petersburg.Com. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- "Hattpartiet, Hattarna". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- "Mösspartiet, Mössorna". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- The lowdown on Sweden's best buns Archived 2008-02-16 at the Wayback Machine The Local, February 2007
- Magnus Carlstedt. "Hetvägg". semlor.nu. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- "Gustav III (January 24, 1746 – March 29, 1792)". European Royal History. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
- Rainer, Claes (2019). Lovisa Ulrika: konst och kuppförsök. Stockholm: Bokförlaget Langenskiöld
- Gunilla Roempke (1994). Gunilla Roempke. ed. Vristens makt – dansös i mätressernas tidevarv (The power of the ankle - dancer in the epoch of the royal mistresses) Stockholm: Stockholm Fischer & company. ISBN 91-7054-734-3
- af Klercker, Cecilia, ed. Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok [The diary of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte] (in Swedish). VI 1797-1799. (1927) Translated by Cecilia af Klercker. Stockholm: P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 290–291
- Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 28.
- Media related to Adolf Frederick of Sweden at Wikimedia Commons
Cadet branch of the House of OldenburgBorn: 14 May 1710 Died: 12 February 1771
| King of Sweden
Charles Augustus of Holstein-Gottorp
| Prince-Bishop of Lübeck
Frederick August of Oldenburg