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The 90s ran from 90 AD to 99 AD.
- The Romans build a small fort for the garrison in the suburbs of modern Regensburg (approximate date).
- Pliny the Younger's appointment as urban quaestor ends.
- Emperor Domitian and Nerva are Roman Consuls.
- Cologne becomes the capital of Germania Inferior.
- A humiliating peace is bought by Domitian, from King Decebalus of Dacia.
- An epidemic afflicts Rome.
- Continuing his conquest of the Tarim Basin, Chinese General Ban Chao defeats the Kushan, led by Kanishka.
- Roman epic poet Gaius Valerius Flaccus dies, having written works that include the Argonautica, describing the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece, from the mythical land of Colchis.
- The Gospel of John is drafted.
- Manius Acilius Glabrio and Marcus Ulpius Traianus become Roman Consuls.
- Pliny the Younger is named a tribunus plebis.
- The Chinese government reestablishes the Protectorate of the Western Regions.
Art and ScienceEdit
- Emperor Domitian becomes a Roman Consul.
- The Marcomanni are defeated by the Romans at the Danube; however, they are not entirely subdued.
- The Roman army moves into Mesopotamia (modern Syria).
- The Flavian Palace is completed on the Palatine.
- The Xianbei incorporates 100,000 Xiongnu, and establishes the Xianbei State in Mongolia (approximate date).
- Emperor Domitian rebuilds and rededicates the Curia Julia (meeting place of the Roman Senate), which had burned down in AD 64.
- Domitian banishes all Stoic philosophers from Rome.
- The Chinese General Ban Chao completes his conquest of the Tarim Basin by taking Yānqi, which is located on the strategic Silk Road.
- Emperor Domitian and Titus Flavius Clemens become Roman Consuls.
- Domitian executes senators out of paranoiac fears that they are plotting to kill him.
- The Roman consul Manius Acilius Glabrio is ordered by Domitian to descend into the arena of the Colosseum to fight a lion. After he kills the animal, Domitian banishes and puts him to death.
- In Rome a severe form of malaria appears in the farm districts and will continue for the next 500 years, taking out of cultivation the fertile land of the Campagna, whose market gardens supply the city with fresh products. The fever drives small groups of farmers into the crowded city, bringing the malaria with them, and lowers Rome's live-birth rate while rates elsewhere in the empire are rising.
- Latest date for the writing of the Book of Revelation.
- Possible date for the writing of the First Epistle of Peter.
- September 18 – Emperor Domitian is stabbed to death by a freedman at the age 44 after a 15-year reign, in a palace conspiracy involving officers of the Praetorian Guard. The Flavian Dynasty ends.
- Nerva is declared emperor by the Roman Senate as the new ruler of the Roman Empire. He recalls citizens exiled by Domitian; this is the beginning of the Era of the Five Good Emperors. The Antonines Dynasty starts.
- Under Nerva, the Roman Senate regains much of the power usurped by Domitian.
- Marcus Ulpius Traianus becomes governor of Upper Germany.
- The Arch of Titus is completed in Rome.
Art and ScienceEdit
- The Book of Revelation is written (approximate date).
- A schism in Buddhism creates a new, popular religion in India, Mahâyâna ("Great Vehicle").
- October 28 – Emperor Nerva recalls his general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, age 44, from the German frontier and is forced by the Praetorian Guard to adopt him as his successor.
- Tacitus advances to consulship.
- The Roman colony of Cuicul is started in Numidia.
- Gloucester, England is founded as Colonia Glevum Nervensis by the Romans.
- Nerva recognizes the Sanhedrin of Jamnia as an official governmental body of the Jews, and the patriarch or nasi is designated as the representative of the Jewish people in Rome.
- Sextus Julius Frontinus is appointed superintendent of the aqueducts (curator aquarum) in Rome. At least 10 aqueducts supply the city with 250 million US gallons (950,000 m3) of water per day. The public baths use half the supply.
- Chinese general Ban Chao orders his lieutenant, Gan Ying, to establish regular relations with the Parthians.
- Evaristus succeeds Pope Clement I as the fifth pope (according to Catholic tradition; none of the popes until the mid second century is certain).
- January 1 – Emperor Nerva suffers a stroke during a private audience.
- January 27 – Nerva dies of a fever at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust and is succeeded by his adopted son Trajan. Trajan is the first Roman Emperor born in Italica, near Seville. A brilliant soldier and administrator, he enters Rome without ceremony and wins over the public. Continuing the policies of Augustus, Vespasian and Nerva, he restores the Senate to its full status in the government and begins a form of state welfare aimed at assuring that poor children are fed and taken care of. He has a specific vision of the Empire, which reaches its maximum extent under his rule, and keeps a close watch on finances. Taxes, without any increase, are sufficient during his reign to pay the considerable costs of the budget. The informers used by Domitian to support his tyranny are expelled from Rome. In order to maintain the Port of Alexandria, Trajan reopens the canal between the Nile and the Red Sea.
- Trajan elevates Ladenburg to city status (civitas).
Arts and sciencesEdit
- The silver content of the Roman denarius rises to 93 percent under emperor Trajan, up from 92 percent under Domitian.
- Emperor Trajan returns to Rome from an inspection of the Roman legions along the Rhine and Danube frontiers.
- Emissaries of the Kushan Empire reach the Roman Empire.
- Richimerus I fights a battle with a combined army of Romans and Gauls at Basana near Aachen.
- 29 August - Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 581, recording the sale of a slave girl, is written.
- Ishmael ben Elishha, Jewish rabbi (approximate date)
- Quintus Tuneius Rufus, Roman politician (approximate date)
- Lucius Minicius Natalis Quadronius Verus, Roman statesman
- Gaius Valerius Flaccus, Roman poet (approximate date)
- Pedanius Dioscorides, Greek physician (approximate date)
- Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I, Roman client king
- Gaius Vipstanus Apronianus, Roman politician, governor
- Julia Flavia, daughter of Titus, lover of his brother Domitian (b. AD 64)
- Publius Valerius Patruinus, Roman politician, governor
- April 9 – Yuan An, Chinese administrator, scholar and statesman
- Antipas of Pergamum, Roman bishop, martyr
- Ban Gu, Chinese historian, poet and writer (b. AD 32)
- Dou Xian, Chinese general and statesman of the Eastern Han Dynasty
- Gaius Julius Archelaus Antiochus Epiphanes, prince of Commagene (b. AD 38)
- August 23 – Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general and governor (b. AD 40)
- Arulenus Rusticus, Roman politician and Stoic philosopher (executed)
- Herennius Senecio, Roman Stoic philosopher and writer (executed)
- Lucius Antistius Rusticus, Roman politician and governor
- Avilius of Alexandria, patriarch of Alexandria
- Epaphroditus, Roman freedman of Nero (executed)
- Flavius Scorpus, Roman charioteer (b. c. AD 68)
- Manius Acilius Glabrio, Roman politician (executed)
- September 18 – Domitian, Roman emperor (b. AD 51)
- Gaius Manlius Valens, Roman senator and consul (b. AD 6)
- Publius Papinius Statius, Roman poet (approximate date)
- Lucius Verginius Rufus, Roman politician and general (b. AD 15)
- Timothy, Christian evangelist and saint (b. AD 17)
- Titus Petronius Secundus, Roman prefect (b. AD 40)
- Zhangde, Chinese empress of the Han Dynasty
- January 27 – Nerva, Roman emperor (b. AD 30)
- Casperius Aelianus, Roman praetorian prefect (b. AD 14)
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- Ronald Syme, Some Arval brethren (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), pp. 21-24
- Watkin, David (2005). A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 9781856694599.
- Harte, R. H. (1935). "The Praetorship of the Younger Pliny". Journal of Roman Studies. 25 (1): 51–54. doi:10.2307/296553. ISSN 0075-4358.
- Freedman, David Noel, ed., The Anchor Bible Dictionary, (New York: Doubleday, 1997, 1992).
- Illustrated Encyclopaedia of World History. Mittal Publications. p. 1492.
- Hoeh, Herman L. (1969). Compendium of World History. Volume 2, Based on the Frankish Chronicles.
- San, Tan Koon (2014). Dynastic China: An Elementary History. The Other Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-983-9541-88-5.
- "Domitian | Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 February 2020.