Year 316 (CCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Sabinus and Rufinus (or, less frequently, year 1069 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 316 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
|Ab urbe condita||1069|
|Balinese saka calendar||237–238|
|Chinese calendar||乙亥年 (Wood Pig)|
3012 or 2952
— to —
丙子年 (Fire Rat)
3013 or 2953
|- Vikram Samvat||372–373|
|- Shaka Samvat||237–238|
|- Kali Yuga||3416–3417|
|Iranian calendar||306 BP – 305 BP|
|Islamic calendar||315 BH – 314 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1596 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||627/628 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||858–859|
442 or 61 or −711
— to —
443 or 62 or −710
- Emperor Constantine the Great issues an edict, prohibiting the punishment of slaves by crucifixion and facial branding.
- Constantine I sends his half-brother Julius Constantius to Licinius at Sirmium (Pannonia), with the proposal to accept Bassianus as Caesar and give him power over Italy. Licinius refuses, and forces a conspiracy against Constantine.
- Licinius elevates Valerius Valens to Augustus, and mobilises an army against Constantine. Bassianus is accused of conspiracy and executed.
- December – Battle of Mardia: Constantine I defeats his rival Licinius, and senior officier Valerius Valens, near the town of Harmanli (Bulgaria).
- The Xiongnu sack Chang'an, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. Emperor Jin Mindi surrenders to Liu Yao.
- The Western Jin Dynasty ends, and Ancient China is divided.
- At the request of the Roman Catholic Church, Constantine I attempts to end the schism with the Donatist church.