300s (decade)

The 300s decade ran from January 1, 300, to December 31, 309.

Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:

Events

300

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
  • Emperor Diocletian begins construction of a palace that will become the city of Split (approximate date). Diocletian, who plans on abdicating, intends to use this palace as his place of retirement.
  • Caesar Constantius I wins a victory over the Franks (approximate date).
AsiaEdit
AfricaEdit
MesoamericaEdit

By topicEdit

Art and ScienceEdit
ReligionEdit

301

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
ArmeniaEdit
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

302

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
  • Emperor Diocletian persecutes the Manichaeans, accusing them of being a Persian fifth column.
  • Caesar Galerius wins his second victory over the Carpi.
  • An invasion of Gaul by the Alemannic Lingones almost traps Caesar Constantius I between the enemy and the walls of a town. Constantius himself is carried onto the wall via a crane. However, within the same day, Constantius sallies forth from the walls and defeats the enemy in a major battle.
PersiaEdit

By topicEdit

Art and ScienceEdit
ReligionEdit

303

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
ArmeniaEdit
AmericaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

304

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
  • Caesar Galerius, perhaps accompanied by Emperor Diocletian, wins his fourth and final victory over the Carpi. Many of the surviving Carpi and Bastarnae are resettled in the Roman Empire, where they are split up. The Bastarnae are not attested after this time, and the Carpi are attested only once more in the 310s.
  • Diocletian, while inspecting the Danube border, becomes seriously ill.
  • Caesar Constantius I besieges a Germanic raiding force on an island in the Rhine and forces their surrender.
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

305

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
AsiaEdit
  • The Daysan River floods Edessa.

By topicEdit

CommerceEdit
  • Landowners dominate the Roman Empire, and enjoy the title of senator, which exempts them from the crushing taxes imposed on the rest of the population. The Senate has lost all its power and the landowners almost never attend Senate sessions. Members of municipal senates (curiales or decuriones) are charged with the responsibility of collecting taxes and paying arrears; smaller landowners are held responsible for providing recruits for the Roman army, and with keeping wastelands under cultivation.
ReligionEdit

306

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

307

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
  • Winter: Emperor Galerius wins his second victory over the Sarmatians.
  • Galerius sends Valerius Severus with the army of northern Italy to suppress the rebellion in Rome. However, faced with their former emperor Maximian, the soldiers desert him and Severus flees to Ravenna. Maximian besieges Severus in Ravenna, who then surrenders. Maxentius makes Severus a hostage in an attempt to keep Galerius at bay.
  • Summer: Anticipating an offensive by Galerius, Maximian travels to Gaul to make an alliance with Constantine I.
  • Late summer or autumn: Galerius invades Italy but Maxentius remains behind the walls of Rome. Galerius finds he cannot besiege the city, and the image of an emperor making efforts against Rome hurts Galerius' image among the troops. The fact that Maxentius is his son-in-law does not help, and Maxentius makes an effort to bribe Galerius' troops. Galerius unsuccessfully attempts to negotiate, and recognizing Maxentius' attempts at bribery and the danger of being trapped in Italy by Maximian and Constantine, Galerius chooses to withdraw from Italy. To satiate his troops during the withdrawal, he pillages the Italian countryside. Meanwhile, Maxentius executes Severus.
  • December: Constantine marries Maximian's daughter Fausta, and is promoted to Augustus by Maximian.
  • Near the end of the year, Galerius gives his wife (Diocletian's daughter) Galeria Valeria the title of Augusta.
ChinaEdit

308

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
  • Winter: Emperor Galerius wins his third and final victory over the Sarmatians.
  • April: In Rome, Emperor Maximian attempts to depose his son Maxentius, but the soldiers in Rome side with Maxentius and force Maximian to flee to the court of Constantine I.
  • The overthrow of Maximian prompts the soldiers of Roman Africa to prop up the vicarius of Africa, Domitius Alexander, as a usurper.
  • Constantine raids the territory of the Bructeri and builds a bridge across the Rhine at Cologne.
  • November 11 – The Conference of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, Galerius recalls Diocletian briefly from retirement, and they convene with Maximian. Diocletian persuades Maximian to return to retirement, and he and Galerius declare Maxentius a public enemy. Licinius is proclaimed Augustus of the west, while rival contender Constantine I is again declared Caesar.
  • Bereft of his father's support, Maxentius increasingly presents himself as the Conservator Urbis Suae (Preserver of His Own City). Construction of the Basilica of Maxentius (or Basilica Nova), the largest building in the Roman Forum, is begun.
  • Maxentius institutes toleration of the Christians in his territories.
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

309

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
PersiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

East AsiaEdit

In Yamato (Japan), the Kofun period dominated during this decade. It was an animistic culture which existed prior the introduction of Buddhism. A legend of the 4th century Prince Yamato Takeru alludes to the borders of the Yamato and battlegrounds in the area. A frontier was obviously somewhere close to the later Izumo province (the eastern part of today's Shimane Prefecture). Another frontier, in Kyūshū, was apparently somewhere north of today's Kumamoto prefecture. The legend specifically states that there was an eastern land in Honshū "whose people disobeyed the imperial court", against whom Yamato Takeru was sent to fight. That rivalling country may have been located rather close to the Yamato nucleus area itself, or relatively far away. The today Kai province is mentioned as one of the locations where prince Yamato Takeru sojourned in his said military expedition.

Northern frontier of this age was also explained in Kojiki as the legend of Shido Shōgun's (四道将軍: Shōguns to four ways) expedition. Out of four shōguns, Ōbiko set northward to Koshi and his son Take Nunakawawake set to eastern states. The father moved east from northern Koshi while the son moved north on his way, and they finally met at Aizu (current western Fukushima). Although the legend itself is not likely to be a historical fact, Aizu is rather close to southern Tōhoku, where the north end of keyhole kofun culture as of late 4th century is located.

Significant peopleEdit

BirthsEdit

300

301

302

303

305

  • Yu Yi (or Zhigong), Chinese calligrapher and general (d. 345)

306

307

308

309

DeathsEdit

300

301

302

303

304

305

306

307

308

309

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "List of Rulers of Korea". metmuseum.org. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  2. ^ C.W. Dugmore, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History (Cambridge University Press) p.268.
  3. ^ CNEWA.org
  4. ^ A. Dzh. (Arman Dzhonovich) Kirakosian, The Armenian Massacres, 1894–1896: 1894–1896 : U.S. media testimony, p.131.
  5. ^ "OrientalOrthodox.org". Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
  6. ^ Johann Christian Wilhelm Augusti, Georg Friedrich Heinrich Rheinwald, Carl Christian Friedrich Siegel, The Antiquities of the Christian Church p.466.
  7. ^ Tuck, Steven L. (2015). A History of Roman Art. John Wiley & Sons. p. 313. ISBN 978-1-4443-3026-7.
  8. ^ a b "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  9. ^ Smith Williams, Henry (March 16, 2019). The Historians' History of the World. Creative Media Partners. ISBN 9781010421023.
  10. ^ Johann Joseph Ignaz, von Doellinger; Baur, Ferdinand Christian; Gieseler, Johann Carl Ludwig; Plummer, Alfred; Wordsworth, Christopher (1876). Hippolytus and Callistus: or, the Church of Rome in the first half of the third century. p. 66.
  11. ^ Bower, Archibald (1844). The History of the Popes: From the Foundation of the See of Rome to A.D. 1758 · Volume 1. Griffith and Simon. p. 41.
  12. ^ Vagi, David (2016). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. Routledge. p. 476. ISBN 978-1-135-97125-0.
  13. ^ Lee, Lily Xiao Hong; Stefanowska, A. D.; Wiles, Sue (26 March 2015). Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Antiquity Through Sui, 1600 B.C.E. – 618 C.E. Routledge. p. 366. ISBN 978-1-317-47591-0.
  14. ^ "Lu Ji's (261–303) Essay on Literature dated 1544 and 1547". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  15. ^ Knechtges, David R.; Chang, Taiping (2010). Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature (vol.I): A Reference Guide, Part One. BRILL. p. 542. ISBN 9789004191273.