1992 Summer Paralympics
The 1992 Summer Paralympics (Spanish: Juegos Paralímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Paralímpics d'estiu de 1992) were the ninth Paralympic Games to be held. They were held in Barcelona, Spain. In addition, the 1992 Paralympic Games for Persons with mental handicap were held immediately after the regular Paralympics in the Spanish capital, Madrid.
|Host city||Barcelona and Madrid, Spain|
|Motto||Sport Without Limits|
(Catalan: Esport Sense Límits)
(Spanish: Deporte Sin Límites)
|Events||487 in 15 sports (BCN)|
68 in 5 sports (MAD)
|Opening||3 September (BCN)|
15 September (MAD)
|Closing||14 September (BCN)|
22 September (MAD)
Antonio Rebollo (BCN)
Coral Bistuer (MAD)
|Stadium||Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc (BCN)|
Palacio de Deportes de la Comunidad de Madrid (MAD)
The games consisted of 560 events spread over fifteen sports. Powerlifting and weightlifting were considered to be a single sport. Wheelchair tennis, a demonstration sport at the 1988 Summer Paralympics, was contested as an official medal sport for the first time.
- Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics
- Palau Sant Jordi – table tennis and volleyball
- Piscines Bernat Picornell – swimming
- INEFC – wheelchair fencing and judo
- Estadi Pau Negre – football-7-side
- Pavelló de l'Espanya Industrial – powerlifting and weightlifting
- Mataró – athletics (marathon start)
Parc del MarEdit
- Pavelló de la Mar Bella – boccia
In the north of the city, the Horta-Guinardó District, hosted three sports:
- Camp Olímpic de Tir amb Arc – archery
- Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron – goalball
- Tennis de la Vall d'Hebron- wheelchair tennis
- Badalona (Palau Municipal d'Esports de Badalona) – wheelchair basketball
- Camp de Tir Olímpic de Mollet – shooting
- Sant Sadurní Cycling Circuit – cycling (individual road race)
- Palacio de Deportes de la Comunidad de Madrid – basketball, opening and closing ceremonies
- Ciudad de los Poetas High School – basketball
- University City of Madrid – basketball
- Universidad Politécnica de Madrid – athletics
- M86 Swimming Center – swimming
- University of Madrid- football
- Consejo Superior de Deportes- table tennis and football
A total of 1710 medals were awarded during the 1992 games: 555 gold, 557 silver, and 594 bronze. The United States topped the medal count with more gold medals, more silver medals, and more medals overall than any other nation. Germany took the most bronze medals, with 59. The Madrid medals are counted too and added in the table In the table below, the ranking sorts by the number of gold medals earned by a nation (in this context a nation is an entity represented by a National Paralympic Committee).
Host country (Spain)
|1||United States (USA)||75||52||48||175|
|3||Great Britain (GBR)||42||51||45||138|
|8||Unified Team (EUN)||19||15||16||50|
|Totals (10 nations)||370||338||343||1051|
103 delegations participated at the 1992 Summer Paralympics.
South Africa returned to the Paralympics for the first time since being declared "undesirable" due to its policy of apartheid in 1980. Countries who made their first appearances in the Barcelona Games were Algeria, Burkina Faso, Chile, Chinese Taipei, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Iraq, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Seychelles, Tanzania, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay and Yemen.
Following the dissolutions of Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovenia all competed as independent countries, some former Soviet republics competed for Unified Team (countries included Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine – these countries all competed independently in the 1996 Games). Germany competed as a reunified country for the first time after the Fall of the Berlin Wall.
Twenty-one countries did not send a delegation to Barcelona, but sent one to Madrid; they were: Aruba, Bolivia, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, El Salvador, Fiji, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Philippines, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Suriname and Zimbabwe.
Paralympic Games for Persons with mental handicapEdit
The first Paralympic Games for Persons with mental handicap were held immediately after the regular Paralympic games in the Spanish capital of Madrid from 15 to 22 September. Over 1,400 athletes from 74 nations participated in the competition, which was sponsored by the Association Nacional Prestura de Servicio (ANDE) and sanctioned by the International Coordinating Committee of World Sport Organizations for the Disabled and the International Association of Sport for the Mentally Handicapped. The games featured a cultural exchange group, a group of intellectually disabled men from Nagasaki who played taiko (traditional drums) during the opening and closing ceremonies and selected track events.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1992 Summer Paralympics.|
- "Barcelona 1992 – General Information". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Madrid 1992 – the Paralympic Games that time forgot!". Paralympicanorak.wordpress.com. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- elmundodeportivo.es. "Sedes e instalaciones". Retrieved 5 October 2009.
- "Medal Standings – Barcelona 1992 Paralympic Games". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "'The Netherlands against Apartheid' – 1970s", International Institute of Social History
- South Africa at the Paralympics, International Paralympic Committee
- Yabe, Kyonosuke; Kusano, Katsuhiko; Nakata, Hideo (2012). Adapted Physical Activity: Health and Fitness. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 23. ISBN 978-4-431-68272-1.
- DePauw, Karen P; Rich, Sarah (Winter 1993). "1992 Ad". Palaestra. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
| Summer Paralympics
IX Paralympic Summer Games (1992)