The 1992 Summer Paralympics (Spanish: Juegos Paralímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Paralímpics d'estiu de 1992) were the ninth Paralympic Games to be held. They were held in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. In addition, the 1992 Paralympic Games for Persons with mental handicap were held immediately after the regular Paralympics in the Spanish capital, Madrid.
|Host city||Barcelona and Madrid, Spain|
|Motto||Sport Without Limits|
(Catalan: Esport Sense Límits)
(Spanish: Deporte Sin Límites)
|Events||487 in 15 sports (BCN)|
68 in 5 sports (MAD)
|Opening||3 September (BCN)|
15 September (MAD)
|Closing||14 September (BCN)|
22 September (MAD)
Antonio Rebollo (BCN)
Coral Bistuer (MAD)
|Stadium||Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc (BCN)|
Palacio de Deportes de la Comunidad de Madrid (MAD)
1992 Summer Olympics
Host city selection edit
Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain and the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia, and the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch and the famous European club, FC Barcelona that from the beginning of the candidacy provided support and financially helped the project. The city was also a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup with two venues who were also used during the games. On 17 October 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Olympics over Amsterdam, Netherlands; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Birmingham, United Kingdom; Brisbane, Australia; and Paris, France, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland. With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, Albertville, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Paris and Brisbane would eventually be selected to host the 2024 and 2032 Summer Paralympics respectively.
|City||NOC Name||Round 1||Round 2||Round 3||Round 4||Round 5||Round 6|
And the fact that the Spanish city was chosen to host the Olympic Games, gave hope to the Paralympic movement that the city would host the Games, days after the Summer Olympics Closing Ceremonies. On August 2, 1987, the city had its Paralympic bid unanimously and unreservedly approved by the International Coordinating Committee (ICC). Unlike their predecessors, the Spanish bid that had an impressive and innovative factor as the two bids were made by the same Organizing Committee that was committing to organize and hold the Olympic and Paralympic Games together, something completely different, innovative and risky at that time.
The games consisted of 560 events spread over fifteen sports. Powerlifting and weightlifting were considered to be a single sport. Wheelchair tennis, a demonstration sport at the 1988 Summer Paralympics, was contested as an official medal sport for the first time. This was the first time that lawn bowls and snooker were dropped from the Summer Paralympic Games program.
- Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics
- Palau Sant Jordi – table tennis and volleyball
- Piscines Bernat Picornell – swimming
- INEFC – wheelchair fencing and judo
- Estadi Pau Negre – football-7-side
- Pavelló de l'Espanya Industrial – powerlifting and weightlifting
- Mataró – athletics (marathon start)
Parc del Mar edit
- Pavelló de la Mar Bella – boccia
Vall d'Hebron edit
In the north of the city, the Horta-Guinardó District, hosted three sports:
- Camp Olímpic de Tir amb Arc – archery
- Pavelló de la Vall d'Hebron – goalball
- Tennis de la Vall d'Hebron- wheelchair tennis
Other Venues edit
- Badalona (Palau Municipal d'Esports de Badalona) – wheelchair basketball
- Camp de Tir Olímpic de Mollet – shooting
- Sant Sadurní Cycling Circuit – cycling (individual road race)
- Palacio de Deportes de la Comunidad de Madrid – basketball, opening and closing ceremonies
- Ciudad de los Poetas High School – basketball
- University City of Madrid – basketball
- Universidad Politécnica de Madrid – athletics
- M86 Swimming Center – swimming
- University of Madrid- football
- Consejo Superior de Deportes- table tennis and football
Medal count edit
A total of 1710 medals were awarded during the 1992 games: 555 gold, 557 silver, and 594 bronze. The United States topped the medal count with more gold medals, more silver medals, and more medals overall than any other nation. Germany took the most bronze medals, with 59. The Madrid medals are counted too and added in the table In the table below, the ranking sorts by the number of gold medals earned by a nation (in this context a nation is an entity represented by a National Paralympic Committee).
Host country (Spain)
|1||United States (USA)||75||52||48||175|
|3||Great Britain (GBR)||42||51||45||138|
|8||Unified Team (EUN)||19||15||16||50|
|Totals (10 entries)||370||338||343||1051|
Participating delegations edit
103 delegations participated at the 1992 Summer Paralympics.
South Africa returned to the Paralympics for the first time since being declared "undesirable" due to its policy of apartheid in 1980. Countries who made their first appearances in the Barcelona Games were Algeria, Burkina Faso, Chile, Chinese Taipei, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Iraq, Myanmar, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Seychelles, Tanzania, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay and Yemen.
Germany competed as a reunified country for the first time in the Summer Paralympics after the Fall of the Berlin Wall. Latvia and Lithuania competed as independent countries for the first time due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union (Estonia having competed independently at the 1992 Winter Paralympics as well), while Croatia and Slovenia did the same due to the dissolution of Yugoslavia. The remainder of Yugoslavia competed as Independent Paralympic Participants due to sanctions. Some former Soviet republics competed as a Unified Team (consisting of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine), all of whom would compete independently by the 1996 Games.
Twenty-one countries did not send a delegation to Barcelona, but sent one to Madrid; they were: Aruba, Bolivia, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, El Salvador, Fiji, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Philippines, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Suriname and Zimbabwe.
- Algeria (8)
- Argentina (27)
- Australia (134)
- Austria (36)
- Bahrain (4)
- Belgium (73)
- Brazil (41)
- Bulgaria (7)
- Burkina Faso (3)
- Canada (138)
- Chile (2)
- China (24)
- Chinese Taipei (11)
- Colombia (6)
- Costa Rica (2)
- Croatia (6)
- Cuba (10)
- Cyprus (4)
- Czechoslovakia (29)
- Denmark (43)
- Dominican Republic (1)
- Ecuador (3)
- Egypt (41)
- Estonia (6)
- Faroe Islands (3)
- Finland (67)
- France (145)
- Germany (238)
- Great Britain (208)
- Greece (7)
- Hong Kong (21)
- Hungary (43)
- Iceland (12)
- Independent Paralympic Participants (16)
- India (9)
- Iran (29)
- Iraq (18)
- Ireland (58)
- Israel (62)
- Italy (87)
- Jamaica (4)
- Japan (76)
- Kenya (15)
- Kuwait (24)
- Latvia (2)
- Liechtenstein (3)
- Lithuania (4)
- Luxembourg (2)
- Macau (2)
- Malaysia (10)
- Mexico (19)
- Morocco (5)
- Myanmar (1)
- Namibia (2)
- Netherlands (99)
- New Zealand (13)
- Nigeria (6)
- Norway (38)
- Oman (4)
- Pakistan (2)
- Panama (2)
- Philippines (1)
- Poland (40)
- Portugal (30)
- Puerto Rico (9)
- Seychelles (2)
- Singapore (4)
- Slovenia (8)
- South Africa (10)
- South Korea (66)
- Spain (233)
- Sweden (99)
- Switzerland (41)
- Syria (2)
- Tanzania (1)
- Thailand (5)
- Tunisia (1)
- Turkey (1)
- Unified Team (62)
- United Arab Emirates (1)
- United States (354)
- Uruguay (2)
- Venezuela (10)
- Yemen (3)
Paralympic Games for Persons with mental handicap edit
The first Paralympic Games for Persons with mental handicap were held immediately after the regular Paralympic games in the Spanish capital of Madrid from 15 to 22 September. Over 1,400 athletes from 74 nations participated in the competition, which was sponsored by the Association Nacional Prestura de Servicio (ANDE) and sanctioned by the International Coordinating Committee of World Sport Organizations for the Disabled and the International Association of Sport for the Mentally Handicapped. The games featured a cultural exchange group, a group of intellectually disabled men from Nagasaki who played taiko (traditional drums) during the opening and closing ceremonies and selected track events.
See also edit
- "Barcelona 1992 – General Information". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Madrid 1992 – the Paralympic Games that time forgot!". Paralympicanorak.wordpress.com. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "IOC Vote History". Aldaver.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Miller, Judith (18 October 1986). "Barcelona gets 1992 Summer Olympics" (Archives). The New York Times.
- "Past Olympic Host City Election Results". Archived from the original on 30 June 2011.
- Brittain, Ian (2012). From Stoke Mandeville to Stratford : a history of the summer paralympic games (PDF). Champaign, Illinois: Common Ground Publishing LLC. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-86335-988-7.
- elmundodeportivo.es. "Sedes e instalaciones". Retrieved 5 October 2009.
- "Medal Standings – Barcelona 1992 Paralympic Games". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "'The Netherlands against Apartheid' – 1970s", International Institute of Social History
- South Africa at the Paralympics, International Paralympic Committee
- Yabe, Kyonosuke; Kusano, Katsuhiko; Nakata, Hideo (2012). Adapted Physical Activity: Health and Fitness. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 23. ISBN 978-4-431-68272-1.
- DePauw, Karen P; Rich, Sarah (Winter 1993). "Paralympics for the mentally handicapped". Palaestra. Vol. 9, no. 2. pp. 59–64.