1844 and 1845 United States Senate elections

The 1844 and 1845 United States Senate elections were elections which, coinciding with James K. Polk's election, had the Democratic Party retake control of the United States Senate, gaining a net total of eleven seats from the Whigs.

1844 and 1845 United States Senate elections

← 1842 & 1843 Various dates 1846 & 1847 →

18 of the 54 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
28 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Democratic Whig Law and Order
Last election 23 seats 27 seats New party
Seats before 23 27 1
Seats won 8 8 0
Seats after 27 24 0
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 3 Decrease 1
Seats up 5 11 1

Majority Party before election


Whig

Elected Majority Party


Democratic

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summaryEdit

Senate Party Division, 29th Congress (1845–1847)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (26–31)
  • Minority Party: Whig (24)
  • Other Parties: (0–1)
  • Vacant: (4–2)
  • Total Seats: 54–58

Change in Senate compositionEdit

Before the electionsEdit

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20
Ran
D21
Ran
D22
Ran
D23
Ran
D24
Retired
LO1
Retired
W27
Retired
Majority →
W17
Ran
W18
Ran
W19
Ran
W20
Ran
W21
Unknown
W22
Unknown
W23
Retired
W24
Retired
W25
Retired
W26
Retired
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8 W7
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6

Result of the electionsEdit

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8
D18 D19 D20
Re-elected
D21
Re-elected
D22
Re-elected
D23
Re-elected
D24
Gain
D25
Gain
D26
Gain
D27
Gain
Majority →
W18
Re-elected
W19
Re-elected
W20
Hold
W21
Hold
W22
Hold
W23
Gain
W24
Gain
V1
W Loss
V2
New seat
V3
New seat
W17
Re-elected
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7

Beginning of the next CongressEdit

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8
D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 V4
D Loss
Majority ↑
W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23 W24 V1 V2 V3
W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7

Beginning of the first session of the next Congress (December 1, 1845)Edit

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8
D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24
Hold
D25
Hold
D26
Hold
D27
Gain
Majority → D28
Gain
W18 W19 W20 W21 W22 W23
Hold
W24
Hold
D30
Gain
D29
Gain
W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12 W11 W10 W9 W8
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7
Key:
D# Democratic
LO# Law and Order
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summariesEdit

Special elections during the 28th CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1844 or in 1845 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
William Sprague Whig 1842 (Special) Incumbent resigned January 17, 1844.
New senator elected January 25, 1844.
Law and Order gain.
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Alexander Porter Whig 1833 (Special)
1837 (Resigned)
1843
Incumbent died January 13, 1844.
New senator elected February 12, 1844.
Whig hold.
Arkansas
(Class 2)
William S. Fulton Democratic 1836 (Special)
1840
Incumbent died August 15, 1844.
New senator elected November 8, 1844.
Democratic hold.
New York
(Class 1)
Daniel S. Dickinson Democratic 1844 (Appointed) Appointee elected January 18, 1845.
New senator would later be elected to the next term, see below.
New York
(Class 3)
Henry A. Foster Democratic 1844 (Appointed) Unknown if appointee retired or lost election.
New senator elected January 18, 1845.
Democratic hold.

Races leading to the 29th CongressEdit

In these regular elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1845; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut Jabez W. Huntington Whig 1840 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1844 or 1845.
Delaware Richard H. Bayard Whig 1836 (Special)
1838 or 1839
1839 (Resigned)
1841 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1845.
Whig hold.
Florida New state Florida was admitted March 3, 1845, but its first Class 1 senator elected late, during the next Congress.
Vacant.
None.
Indiana Albert White Whig 1838 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1844.
Democratic gain.
Maine John Fairfield Democratic 1843 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1844 or 1845.
Maryland William Merrick Whig 1838 (Special)
1839
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1844 or 1845.
Whig hold.
Massachusetts Rufus Choate Whig 1841 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1845.
Whig hold.
Michigan Augustus S. Porter Whig 1840 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1844 or 1845.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi John Henderson Whig 1838 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
New senator elected in 1844.
Democratic gain.
Missouri Thomas H. Benton Democratic 1821
1827
1833
1839
Incumbent re-elected in 1845.
New Jersey William L. Dayton Whig 1842 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1845.
New York Daniel S. Dickinson Democratic 1844 (Appointed)
1845 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected February 4, 1845.
Ohio Benjamin Tappan Democratic 1838 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected December 5, 1844.[3]
Whig gain.
Pennsylvania Daniel Sturgeon Democratic 1840 Incumbent re-elected January 14, 1845.
Rhode Island John B. Francis Law and Order 1844 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1844 or 1845.
Whig gain.
Tennessee Ephraim H. Foster Whig 1838 (Special)
1839 (Re-elected, but resigned)
1843 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1844.
Democratic gain.
Vermont Samuel S. Phelps Whig 1839 Incumbent re-elected in 1845.
Virginia William C. Rives Whig 1832 (Special)
1834 (Resigned)
1836 (Special)
1839 (Legislature failed to elect)
1841 (Special)
Legislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
[data unknown/missing]

Special elections during the 29th CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winners were elected in 1845 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
James Buchanan Democratic 1834 (Special)
1836
1843
Incumbent resigned March 5, 1845 to become U.S. Secretary of State.
New senator elected March 13, 1845.
Democratic hold.
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Isaac C. Bates Whig 1841 (Special)
1841
Incumbent died March 16, 1845.
New senator elected March 24, 1845.
Whig hold.
Florida
(Class 1)
New state Florida was admitted March 3, 1845.
Its first senators were elected July 1, 1845.
Democratic gain.
Florida
(Class 3)
Florida was admitted March 3, 1845.
Its first senators were elected July 1, 1845.
Democratic gain.
Georgia
(Class 2)
John M. Berrien Whig 1825
1829 (Resigned)
1840
Incumbent resigned in May 1845 to become judge of the Supreme Court of Georgia.
He did not remain on the court, however, and was re-elected November 13, 1845.
Whig hold.
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant Incumbent Democrat Daniel E. Huger had resigned in the previous Congress.
New senator was elected November 26, 1845.
Democratic gain.
Virginia
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected late December 3, 1845.
Democratic gain.

Arkansas (Special)Edit

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

Florida (Regular)Edit

Florida (Special)Edit

Georgia (Special)Edit

IndianaEdit

Louisiana (Special)Edit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

Massachusetts (Regular)Edit

Massachusetts (Special)Edit

MichiganEdit

MississippiEdit

MissouriEdit

New JerseyEdit

New YorkEdit

There were three elections: Two special elections were held on January 18, 1845 and one regular election was held on February 4, 1845.

The 68th New York State Legislature met from January 7 to May 14, 1845.

New York (Special, Class 1)Edit

Nathaniel P. Tallmadge had been re-elected in 1840 to the Class 1 seat (term 1839-1845), but resigned June 17, 1844 to become Governor of Wisconsin Territory. On November 30, Governor of New York William C. Bouck appointed his Democratic Lieutenant Governor Daniel S. Dickinson to fill the vacancy temporarily, and Dickinson was seated December 9, 1844.

January 18, 1845 United States Senator special election, Class 1
House Democratic Whig American
Republican
State Senate (32 members)  Y Daniel S. Dickinson 27 Millard Fillmore 3 Jonathan Thompson 1
State Assembly (128 members)  Y Daniel S. Dickinson

New York (Special, Class 3)Edit

Silas Wright Jr. had been re-elected in 1843 to the Class 3 seat (term 1843-1849), but resigned November 26, 1844, when elected Governor of New York. On November 30, Governor Bouck appointed Democratic State Senator Henry A. Foster to fill the vacancy temporarily, and Foster took his seat on December 9, 1844.

January 18, 1845 United States Senator special election, Class 3
House Democratic Whig American
Republican
State Senate (32 members)  Y John Adams Dix 27 Willis Hall 3 Harman B. Cropsey 1
State Assembly (128 members)  Y John Adams Dix

Dix took his seat on January 27, 1845, and remained in office until March 3, 1849, when his term expired.

New York (Regular)Edit

February 4, 1845 United States Senator election, Class 1
House Democratic Whig
State Senate (32 members)  Y Daniel S. Dickinson 25 John C. Clark 4
State Assembly (128 members)  Y Daniel S. Dickinson

Dickinson re-took his seat under the new credentials on January 27, 1845, and re-elected, remained in office until March 3, 1851, when his term expired.

OhioEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Pennsylvania (Regular)Edit

The regular election was held January 14, 1845. Incumbent Daniel Sturgeon was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[4] The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 14, 1845, to elect a Senator to serve the term beginning on March 4, 1845. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[4][5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Daniel Sturgeon (Incumbent) 72 54.14
Whig James Cooper 49 36.84
Know Nothing John Ashmead 5 3.76
Know Nothing E. W. Keyser 2 1.50
Know Nothing Jacob Broom 1 0.75
Know Nothing E. C. Reigert 1 0.75
Whig John Sergeant 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 2 1.50
Totals 133 100.00%

Pennsylvania (Special)Edit

A special election was held March 13, 1845. Simon Cameron was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[6] Democratic future-U.S. president James Buchanan was elected in an 1834 special election and was re-elected in 1836 and 1843.

Senator Buchanan resigned on March 5, 1845, after being appointed U.S. Secretary of State by President James K. Polk.[7]

Following the resignation of senator Buchanan, the Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on March 13, 1845, to elect a new Ssenator to fill the vacancy and serve the remainder of the term set to expire on March 4, 1849. Five ballots were recorded. The results of the fifth and final ballot of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Simon Cameron 67 50.38
Democratic George W. Woodward 55 41.35
Whig J. R. Ingersoll 2 1.50
Whig John Banks 1 0.75
Know Nothing Peter A. Brown 1 0.75
Unknown Thomas S. Bell 1 0.75
Whig T. D. Cochran 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 5 3.76
Totals 133 100.00%

Rhode IslandEdit

Rhode Island (Regular)Edit

Rhode Island (Special)Edit

South Carolina (Special)Edit

TennesseeEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

Virginia (Regular)Edit

Virginia (Special)Edit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ J. Fred Parker, Secretary of State (1914). Manual, with Rules and Orders, for the use of the General Assembly of the State of Rhode Island, 1914. Providence, RI: E. L. Freeman Company, State Printers. p. 149.
  2. ^ "Rhode Island". The Whig standard. Washington, D.C. January 29, 1844. p. 2. Retrieved November 27, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Taylor & Taylor, p. 215, vol I.
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 14 January 1845" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
  5. ^ "PA US Senate". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
  6. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 13 March 1845" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  7. ^ "BUCHANAN, James, (1791 - 1868)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 22, 2013.

Sources and external linksEdit