1838 in archaeology
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- August 31 - Scottish-born scene painter David Roberts sets sail for Egypt (with the encouragement of J. M. W. Turner) to produce a series of drawings of the region for use as the basis for paintings and chromolithographs, later published in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
- John Shae Perring, a British engineer working under Colonel Howard Vyse, clears the entrances to the pyramids of Sahure, Neferirkare and Nyuserre in Egypt.
- French orientalist painters Antoine-Alphonse Montfort and François Lehoux visit and paint the Roman temple of Bziza.
- The 5th century BC bronze Chatsworth Head (found on Cyprus in 1836) is acquired by the 6th Duke of Devonshire at Smyrna from H. P. Borrell.
- Etruscan statuettes found in Lake of the Idols.
- Victoria Cave near Settle, North Yorkshire in England, containing Paleolithic remains, is discovered.
- Winter 1837/38 - The Neolithic settlement of Rinyo on Rousay in Orkney (Scotland) is discovered.
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- Lehner, Mark (2008). The Complete Pyramids. New York; London: Thames & Hudson. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-500-28547-3.
- Edwards, Iorwerth (1999). "Abusir". In Bard, Kathryn (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London; New York: Routledge. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-203-98283-9.
- Wace, A. J. B. (1938). "The Chatsworth Head". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 58 (1): 90–95. doi:10.2307/626437. JSTOR 626437.
- "Palaeolithic Yorkshire – Victoria Cave". Yorkshire Archaeological and Historical Society. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
- "Sir Richard Colt Hoare 1758–1838". tate.org. Retrieved 9 June 2017.