100s BC (decade)
This article concerns the period 109 BC – 100 BC.
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
- Han campaigns against Dian: Emperor Wu of Han launches a new campaign against the Dian Kingdom and establishes the Yizhou commandery in Yunnan during the dynasty's expansion southward.
- A Roman army under Marcus Junius Silanus is defeated by the Cimbri and Teutones near the river Rhône.
- Roman forces under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus defeat the forces of Jugurtha of Numidia at the Battle of the Muthul, with Gaius Marius as a subordinate.
- The Korean kingdom of Wiman Joseon falls, and Chinese Emperor Wu of Han establishes the Lelang Commandery in northern Korea.
- December – The Han Dynasty Chinese under commander Zhao Ponu are victorious in the Battle of Loulan in the Tarim Basin, resulting in the submission of Dayuan and the Wusun in Central Asia.
- Gaius Marius, having enacted the Marian reforms of the Roman army, arrives in North Africa to lead the war against Jugurtha, with a young quaestor named Lucius Cornelius Sulla as a subordinate.
- The Romans under Quintus Servilius Caepio seize the Gold of Tolosa while recapturing the Volcae town.
- January 1[note 1] – Gnaeus Mallius Maximus and Publius Rutilius Rufus become Roman consuls.
- October 6 – The Battle of Arausio, where the Cimbri destroy two Roman armies on the Rhône, is the most severe defeat of Roman forces since the Battle of Cannae.
- Gaius Marius, together with the consul Publius Rutilius Rufus, initiates sweeping reforms of the Roman army.
- Lucius Cornelius Sulla secures the capture of Jugurtha. His success is made possible by the treachery of Bocchus I, king of Mauretania, and this ends the Jugurthine War (which has begun in 112 BC).
- At Rome, the first official gladiator match is demonstrated by gladiators from Capua, as part of a training program for the military.
- Rome enacts a state of emergency, as the way to Italy lays open to the Germanic invaders. Gaius Marius, the conqueror of Jugurtha, is elected consul for the second time. He celebrates his triumph over Jugurtha, who is led in the procession and thrown into the Tullianum where he dies of starvation.
- Second Servile War: Athenion starts a slave rebellion in Segesta (Sicily).
- Emperor Wu of Han maintains large armies of occupation and burdens the Chinese economy. Landowners expand their holdings, but farmers are forced to borrow at usurious rates and pay 50 percent of their crops as rent. Homelessness and banditry increases, and agricultural productivity declines.
- Sima Qian starts writing his Shiji.
- Gaius Marius prepares a campaign against the Ambrones and Teutones (under king Teutobod) who are settled in Gaul.
- Tryphon and Athenion lead the Second Servile War in Sicily.
- Alexander Jannaeus succeeds his brother Aristobulus I as king and high priest of Judea, until 76 BC.
- Gaius Marius defeats the Sciri and Teutones at Aix-en-Provence (or Battle of Aquae Sextae).
- The Cimbri defeat the Consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus in the Adige Valley.
- The Chinese under Emperor Wu of Han besiege and capture Kokand of Dayuan in the Hellenistic Ferghana Valley, during a 2 year war with the Yuezhi.
- July 30 – Battle of Vercellae (Battle of the Raudine Plain or Battle of Campi Raudii): The Roman consuls Gaius Marius and Manius Aquillius defeat the Cimbri.
- Consuls: Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Gaius Marius (Marius's sixth consulship).
- Manius Aquillius celebrates an ovation for victories in the Second Servile War.
- Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, a tribune, passes a law to redistribute land to military veterans. The law requires that all senators swear to abide by it. Quintus Caecilus Metellus Numidicus refuses and is exiled. He goes to Rhodes to study philosophy.
- Late summer–autumn: Saturninus stands for tribune again for the following year, and is elected. His associate, the praetor Gaius Servilius Glaucia, attempts to stand for the consulship (illegally, as praetors cannot immediately become consul). A rival candidate, Gaius Memmius, is found murdered by agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, who are declared public enemies by the Senate. The Senate issues the senatus consultum ultimum, and Marius, as consul, defeats his former ally in battle in the Forum. Saturninus and his followers surrender on condition that their lives are spared, but they are stoned to death with roof tiles in the Curia Hostilia by renegade senators.
- The building of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, is begun. The model of it is now kept at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Italy (approximate date).
- Tigranes II of Armenia is placed on the Armenian throne by the Parthians in exchange for the cession of "seventy valleys". (approximate date)
- Peasants revolt under Emperor Wu of Han. The Great Wall is extended out into the Gobi Desert, and sections of the wall are detached with signalling towers.
- Gandhara and Punjab are ruled by the Indo-Greek king Demetrius III Aniketos.
- A History of China is written by Sima Qian (approximate date).
- January 3 – Cicero, Roman politician and author (d. 43 BC)
- September 29 – Pompey the Great, Roman general and politician (d. 48 BC)
- Servius Sulpicius Rufus, Roman politician (d. 43 BC)
- Decimus Laberius, Roman nobleman and Latin writer (d. 43 BC)
- Tiberius Claudius Nero, Roman politician and general
- Marcus Atius Balbus, Roman praetor and governor (d. 51 BC)
- Marcus Furius Bibaculus, Roman poet
- Paerisades V, king of the Bosporan Kingdom (approximate date)
- Sames II Theosebes Dikaios, king of Commagene (Cappadocia)
- Marcus Aurelius Scaurus, Roman politician and general, executed as a prisoner of war in the advent of the Battle of Arausio
- Dong Zhongshu, Chinese scholar who promoted Confucianism at the central court of the Han Dynasty (b. 179 BC)
- Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, Roman consul and general
- John Hyrcanus, prince and high priest of Judea (b. 164 BC)
- Jugurtha, king of Numidia (execution by Rome) (b. c. 169 BC)
- Aristobulus I, king of Judea.
- Gaius Lucilius, Roman satirist
- Khallata Naga of Anuradhapura, king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom
- Boiorix, king of the Cimbri (killed at the Battle of Vercellae)
- Cleopatra III, queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom (assassinated by her son Ptolemy X Alexander I)
- October 2 in the Julian calendar.
- Clément, François (1820). L'Art de vérifier les dates des faits historiques, des inscriptions, des chroniques et autres anciens monumens, avant l'ère chrétienne (in French). Moreau. p. 737.
- "Julius Caesar Biography". Biography.com. September 4, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
- There is some dispute over the year of Caesar's birth. Some scholars have made a case for 101 or 102 BC as the year of his birth, based on the dates that he held certain magistracies, but scholarly consensus favors 100 BC. Similarly, some scholars prefer 12 July for the day of his birth, but others give 13 July. Goldsworthy, p. 30, Ward, Heichelheim, & Yeo p. 194. For a source arguing for 12 July, see Badian in Griffin (ed.) p.16