Ę (minuscule: ę; Polish E z ogonkiem, "E with a little tail"; Lithuanian e nosinė, "e nasal") is a letter in the Polish alphabet, Lithuanian alphabet, and the Dalecarlian alphabet. It is used in Navajo to represent the nasal vowel ẽ. In Latin, Irish, and Old Norse palaeography, it is known as E caudata (tailed E).
In Polish, ę comes after e in the alphabet but is never the start of a word. It is most commonly pronounced as /ɛw̃/, /ɛn/, /ɛm/, or /ɛ/, depending on the context.
Unlike in French, a Polish nasal vowel is asynchronous and so is pronounced as an oral vowel + a nasal semivowel [ɛw̃] or a nasal vowel + a nasal semivowel. For the sake of simplicity, it is sometimes transcribed [ɛ̃].
- język ("language", "tongue"), pronounced [ˈjɛw̃zɨk]
- mięso ("meat"), pronounced [ˈmjɛw̃sɔ]
- ciężki ("heavy", "difficult"), pronounced [ˈtɕɛw̃ʂki]
Before all stops and affricates, it is pronounced as an oral vowel + nasal consonant, with /ɛn/ before most consonants, while /ɛm/ appears before p, b, w, or f; and /ɛɲ/ appears before palatal consonants ć, dź; before palatal sibilants ś and ź it is either /ɛɲ/ or (more frequently) [ɛj͂]. For example,
- więcej ("more"), pronounced [ˈvjɛntsɛj]
- sędzia ("judge", "referee"), pronounced [ˈsɛɲdʑa], rarely (in dialects) also [ˈsɛndʑa]
- głęboki ("deep"), pronounced [ɡwɛmˈbɔki]
- więzi ("bonds"), pronounced [ˈvjɛj͂ʑi], or [ˈvjɛɲʑi]
If ę is the final letter of a word or followed by either l or ł, some Poles will pronounce it simply as [ɛ]. For example, będę ("I will (be)") can be either [ˈbɛndɛ] or [ˈbɛndɛ̃], and dziękuję ("thank you") can be either [dʑɛŋˈkujɛ] or [dʑɛŋˈkujɛ̃].
In dialects of some regions, ę in final position is also pronounced as /ɛm/ so robię is occasionally pronounced as [ˈrɔbjɛm]. That nonstandard form is a "trademark" of the former Polish President Lech Wałęsa, and some of his sentences, often transcribed to reflect the pronunciation. "Nie chcem, ale muszem" (properly written "Nie chcę, ale muszę"; "I don't want to, but I have to") has entered popular language.
Polish ę evolved from short nasal a of medieval Polish, which developed into a short nasal e in the modern language. The medieval vowel, along with its long counterpart, evolved in turn from the merged nasal *ę and *ǫ of Late Proto-Slavic:
|Early Proto-Slavic||*em/*en and *am/*an|
|Late Proto-Slavic||/ẽ/ and /õ/, transcribed by ⟨ę⟩ and ⟨ǫ⟩|
|Medieval Polish||short and long /ã/, written approximately ⟨ø⟩|
|Modern Polish||short /ã/ → /ɛw̃/, /ɛn/, /ɛm/, written ⟨ę⟩
long /ã/ → /ɔw̃/, /ɔn/, /ɔm/, written ⟨ą⟩
It often alternates with ą:
- husband: mąż → mężowie (husbands), error: błąd → błędy (errors), pigeon: gołąb → gołębie (pigeons)
- oak in nominative: dąb → dębem (instrumental)
- hands in nominative: ręce → rąk (genitive)
- five: pięć → piąty (fifth)
For some forms of the noun, ę is used at the end of the word for the accusative case, as in eglę, accusative of eglė (spruce). It is also used to change past tense verb to the participle (tempęs - somebody who has pulled (lit. tempė) in the past.
Nasal en/em forms are now pronounced [e:], as in kęsti (to suffer) - kenčia (is suffering or suffers) so the ę is no longer nasal.
In some cases, ą, ę and į (but never ė) may be used for different forms, as in tąsa (extension) - tęsia (extends) - tįsoti (to lie extended). Finally, some verbs have the letter in the middle of the word only in the present tense (gęsta - is going off (fire, light) but not užgeso (went off).
Unlike with į or ą, no Lithuanian word is known to start with ę.
|Unicode name||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH OGONEK||LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH OGONEK|
|UTF-8||196 152||C4 98||196 153||C4 99|
|Numeric character reference||Ę||Ę||ę||ę|
|ISO 8859-2 / ISO 8859-4||202||CA||234||EA|