Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ziraat Bankası (English: Agricultural Bank of the Republic of Turkey), commonly known as Ziraat Bankası, is a state-owned bank in Turkey founded in 1863. Ziraat Bank is the second biggest Turkish bank after Garanti Bankası since 2012 according to the Bankscope database measured by total assets in USD. According to a report on the "Top 1000 World Banks in 2004" published by The Banker magazine, T.C. Ziraat Bankası A.Ş. is ranked 115th. It had moved up 26 places from its previous ranking of 141.
|Industry||Finance and Insurance|
Number of locations
|Muharrem Karslı (Chairman)|
Hüseyin Aydın (CEO)
|Products||Financial Services, credit cards, consumer banking, corporate banking, investment banking, mortgage loans, private banking|
|Revenue||13.828 billion (2011)|
|2.934 billion (2011)|
|2.233 billion (2011)|
|Total assets||162.871 billion (2011)|
|Total equity||13.540 billion (2011)|
Number of employees
During the first half of the 19th century, with the adoption of western models of trade and finance, foreign banks began their activities in the Ottoman Empire. At that period, there was not enough capital to found a national banking system and no one could mention the existence of national banks as a source of capital. This situation was more harmful to farmers because they made up the majority of the population, and since they did not have any institutional financial structure to which to apply, they had to borrow money from the usurers with high interest rates. Under these conditions, the governor of Niş (Niš) province of the Ottoman Empire (now in Serbia), Midhat Pasha (1822–1884) began to take the first steps to overcome these difficulties in 1863 and achieved the reorganization of Memleket Sandığı (Homeland Funds), which became a law with Homeland Funds Regulations in 1867. Homeland Funds was the first agricultural financial institution founded by the state and operated with a state guarantee.
In 1888, Homeland Funds was renamed Ziraat Bankası (English: Agriculture Bank), and Ziraat Bankası's head office in Istanbul began to function. The Greco-Turkish War between 1919 and 1922 affected the bank's policy. The Greek invasion forces opened a Ziraat Bank Management Center in İzmir and occupied branches and funds were taken to the new Center's management. On the other hand, the Turkish Grand National Assembly charged the Ankara branch of Ziraat Bank with the management of branches and funds. With the Liberation of İzmir by Turkish forces on September 9, 1922, the İzmir organization was re-unified with the Ankara branch; and on October 23, the Istanbul organization too was re-unified with the Ankara branch. After the Turkish War of Independence ended in late 1923, Ziraat Bank became a united entity once again. Since the 1930s Ziraat played an important role in financing agricultural mechanisation in Turkey, which in the postwar period benefitted from support from the US Marshall Plan.
In 1993, Ziraat Bank Moscow, Kazakhstan Ziraat International Bank (KZI Bank), Turkmen Turkish Commercial Bank (TTC Bank), and Uzbekistan Turkish Bank (UT Bank) were founded and started to operate. In 2001, Emlak Bankası wholly merged into Ziraat Bankası.
- "ANNUAL REPORT 2011" (PDF). Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ziraat Bankası. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- "Emlakbank artık Ziraat Bankası". Hurriyet.com.tr. Hürriyet. 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
- Marois, Thomas; Güngen, Ali Rıza (2 August 2016). "Credibility and class in the evolution of public banks: the case of Turkey". The Journal of Peasant Studies. 43 (6): 1285–1309. doi:10.1080/03066150.2016.1176023.