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Yazdegerd III (Middle Persian: 𐭩𐭦𐭣𐭪𐭥𐭲𐭩‎ <yzdkrt|> Yazdekert, meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد Yazdegerd), was the last king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire from 632 to 651. His father was Shahriyar and his grandfather was Khosrow II.

Yazdegerd III
𐭩𐭦𐭣𐭪𐭥𐭲𐭩
King of kings of Iran and Aniran
YazdegerdIIICoinCroppedHistoryofIran.jpg
Coin of Yazdegerd III, minted in Sakastan in 651
Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire
Reign16 June 632 – 651
CoronationIstakhr
PredecessorBoran
SuccessorOffice abolished
Born624
Istakhr
Died651 (aged 27)
Marw
IssuePeroz III
Bahram VII
Shahrbanu (alleged)
Izdundad
HouseHouse of Sasan
FatherShahriyar
ReligionZoroastrianism

Ascending the throne at the age of merely eight, the young shah lacked authority and reigned as figurehead, whilst real power was in the hands of the army commanders, courtiers, and powerful members of the aristocracy, who were fighting amongst themselves and wiping out each other. The Sasanian Empire was falling apart swiftly due to internal conflicts, and was at the same time also invaded on all fronts−by the Turks in the east, and Khazars in the west.[1] It was, however, the Arabs, united under the banner of Islam, who dealt the deadly blow to the empire. Yazdegerd was unable to contain the Arab invasion of Iran, and spent most of reign fleeing from one province to another, in hopes of raising an army to repel the Arabs, which ultimately proved unsuccessful, with Yazdegerd meeting his end at hands of a miller near Marw in 651, thus marking an end to the last pre-Islamic Iranian empire after more than 400 years of rule.[1]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The name of Yazdegerd is a combination of the Old Iranian yazad yazata- "divine being" and -karta "made", and thus stands for "God-made", comparable to Iranian Bagkart and Greek Theoktistos. The name of Yazdegerd is known in other languages as; Pahlavi Yazdekert; Syriac Yazdegerd, Izdegerd, and Yazdeger; Talmudic Izdeger and Azger; Arabic Yazdeijerd; Greek Isdigerdes.[2]

BackgroundEdit

Yazdegerd was the son of prince Shahriyar and the grandson of the last prominent shah of Iran, Khosrow II (r. 590–628), who was in 628 overthrown and executed by his own son Kavad II, who proceeded to have all his brothers and half-brothers executed, including Shahriyar.[3] This dealt a heavy blow to the empire, which it would never recover from. Furthermore, the fall of Khosrow II also culminated in a civil war lasting four years, with the most powerful members of the nobility gaining full autonomy and starting to create their own government. The hostilities between the Persian (Parsig) and Parthian (Pahlav) noble-families were also resumed, which split up the wealth of the nation.[4] A few months later, a devastating plague swept through the western Sasanian provinces, killing half of its population including Kavad II.[4]

He was succeeded by his eight year old son Ardashir III, who was killed two years later by the distinguished Sasanian general Shahrbaraz, who was in turn murdered forty days later in a coup by the Pahlav leader Farrukh Hormizd, who installed the daughter of Khosrow II, Boran, on the throne. She was deposed a year later, and a succession of rulers followed one another, until Boran was sovereign once more in 631, only to be killed the following year, seemingly by the Parsig leader Piruz Khosrow.[5] The most powerful magnates in the empire, Rostam Farrokhzad[a] and Piruz Khosrow, now threatened by their own men, eventually agreed to work together, and installed Yazdegerd III on the throne, thus putting an end to the civil war.[6] He was crowned in the Anahid fire-temple in Istakhr, where he had been hiding during the civil war. He was almost the last living member of the House of Sasan.[7] Most scholars agree that Yazdegerd was eight years old at his coronation.[4][3][8]

ReignEdit

Conditions of the empireEdit

 
14th-century Shahnameh illustration of the coronation of Yazdegerd III, who is incorrectly portrayed as an adult.

Yazdegerd, however, did not have the authority required to bring stability to his extensive empire, which was swiftly falling apart due to ceaseless internal conflicts between the army commanders, courtiers, and powerful members of the aristocracy, who were fighting amongst themselves and wiping out each other. Many of the governors of the empire had proclaimed independence and carved out their own kingdom.[3] The governors of the provinces of Mazun and Yemen had already asserted their independence during the civil war of 628–632, thus resulting in the disintregation of Sasanian rule in the Arabian peninsula, which was uniting under the banner of Islam.[9]

The empire was starting to look more like the Parthian feudal system before the fall of the Arsacid Empire.[10] Yazdegerd, although being acknowledged as the rightful monarch by both the Parsig and Pahlav factions, does not seem to have held sway over all of his empire. Indeed, during the first years of his rule coins were only minted in Pars, Sakastan, and Khuzestan, approximately corresponding to the regions of the southwest (Xwarwarān) and southeast (Nēmrōz), where the Parsig was based.[11] The Pahlav, who were mainly based in the northern portion of the empire, refused to mint coins of him.[11]

The empire was also at the same time invaded on all fronts; by the Turks in the east, and by Khazars in the west, who raided Armenia and Adurbadagan.[1] The Sasanian army had been heavily weakened due to the war with the Byzantines and internal conflict.[12] The circumstances were so chaotic, and the condition of the nation so alarming, that "the Persians openly spoke of the immanent downfall of their empire, and saw its portents in natural calamities."[4]

Early clash with the Muslim ArabsEdit

 
Coin of a young Yazdegerd III.

Yazdegerd later negotiated with fourteen Arab negotiators, and asked them about the reasons for their aggressive behavior towards his Empire. One of the fourteen Arabs shortly replied, "Allah commanded us, by the mouth of His Prophet, to extend the dominion of Islam over all nations."[13] In May, the Muslims defeated a Sasanian force under the Azadbeh near the important strategic Sasanian city of Hira, which was shortly afterwards occupied. After the fall of Hira, Yazdegerd began to pay greater attention to the Muslims; Rostam Farrokhzad sent an army under the Persian military officer Bahman Jadhuyih and the Armenian military officer Jalinus against the Muslims. Rostam is known to have told Bahman secretly that: "if Jalinus returns to the like of his defeat, then cut off his head."[14] The Sasanian army managed to defeat the Muslims at the Battle of the Bridge.

In 636, Yazdegerd III ordered Rostam Farrokhzad to subdue the invading Arabs and then told him: "Today you are the [most prominent] man among the Iranians. You see that the people of Iran have not faced a situation like this since the family of Ardashir I assumed power."[14] Envoys then came to Yazdegerd III asking him to consider the dismissal of Rostam in order to replace him with someone around whom the people would rally.[15]

Yazdegerd III asked Rostam for an assessment of the Arab forces since they had camped at Qadisiyyah.[16] Rostam Farrokhzad stated that the Arabs were "a pack of wolves, falling upon unsuspecting shepherds and annihilating them."[16] Yazdegerd III responds to Rostam by saying,

Last standEdit

 
The Palace of Taq Kisra in the Sasanian capital Ctesiphon. The city was a rich commercial metropolis, and may have been the most populous city of the world in 570–622.

However, the Sasanian army suffered a crushing defeat at the battle of al-Qadisiyyah, with Rostam, Bahman, Jalinus and two Armenian princes named Grigor II Novirak and Mushegh III Mamikonian being killed during the battle. The Arabs then marched towards the Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon without meeting any resistance. Yazdegerd took his treasury, and along with 1,000 of his servants fled to Hulwan in Media, leaving Rostam Farrokhzad's brother Farrukhzad in charge of Ctesiphon. Farrukhzad, however, did not attempt any resistance and also went to Hulwan. The Arabs subsequently reached Ctesiphon, besieged the western parts of the city, and soon occupied all of it.[18][19] The Iranian defeat at battle of al-Qadisiyyah has often been described as a turning point in the Arab invasion of Iran. However, in reality, it was far from it. The battle served as a wake-up call for the Iranian armies, who became conscious that persistent factionalism could result in their inevitable destruction.[20] Al-Tabari emphasizes this, stating that after the fall of Ctesiphon "the people... were about to go their separate ways, they started to incite one another: ‘If you disperse now, you will never get together again; this is a spot that sends us in different directions’."[21]

In April 637, the Arabs defeated another Sasanian army at the Battle of Jalula. After this defeat, Yazdegerd fled deeper into Media.[22] He subsequently raised a new army and send it to Nahavand to retake Ctesiphon and prevent any further Muslim advances.[9] The army that Yazdegerd sent seemed such a serious threat that it led Umar to combine the Arab forces of Kufa and Basra under Al-Nu'man ibn Muqrin and send them against the Sasanians with reinforcements from Syria and Oman. The battle is said to have lasted several days. It resulted in major losses on both sides, including the death of al-Nu'man ibn Muqrin and the Iranian generals Mardanshah and Piruz Khosrow. The battle of Nahavand in 642 was the second military disaster for the Sasanians after the battle of al-Qadisiyyah.[9]

FlightEdit

After the Sasanian disaster, Yazdegerd fled to Isfahan, and raised a small army under a certain military officer named Siyah, who had lost his property to the Arabs. However, Siyah and the rest of the army mutinied against Yazdegerd, and agreed to help the Arabs in return for places to live.[23] Meanwhile, Yazdegerd had arrived in Estakhr, where he tried organizing a base for resistance in the province of Pars. However, in 650, Abdullah ibn Aamir, the governor of Basra, invaded Pars and put an end to the Persian resistance. Estakhr was made into ruins after the battle and a force of 40,000 defenders including many Persian nobles were killed. After the Arab conquest of Pars, Yazdegerd fled to Kirman while being pursued by an Arab force.[9] Yazdegerd managed to flee from the Arab force in a snowstorm at Bimand.

After arriving at Kirman, Yazdegerd became unfriendly with the marzban (general of a frontier province, "margrave") of Kirman, and then left Kirman for Sakastan. Another Basran army later arrived which defeated and killed the marzban of Kirman in a bloody fight. When Yazdegerd arrived at Sakastan he lost the support of the governor of Sakastan by demanding tax from him.[9] Yazdegerd then headed for Merv to join the leader of the Turks. However, when he arrived in Khorasan the inhabitants did not agree with Yazdegerd's decision to continue waging war and told him that it was better if he made peace with the Arabs; Yazdegerd, however, refused. Sakastan was later taken by the Arab forces after a bloody fight around 650-652.[9] Yazdegerd was also supported by the Principality of Chaghaniyan, which sent him troops to aid him against the Arabs. When Yazdegerd arrived in Marw (in what is today's Turkmenistan) he demanded tax from the marzban of Marw, losing also his support and making him ally with Nezak Tarkan, the Hephthalite ruler of Badghis, who helped him defeat Yazdegerd and his followers.

Death, burial and legacyEdit

After his defeat, Yazdegerd sought refuge at a miller near Marw, who, however, murdered him in 651. According to Kia, the miller had reportedly killed Yazdegerd in order to obtain his jewelry,[24] whilst the Cambridge History of Iran states that the miller was sent by Mahoe Suri.[25] Regardless, the death of Yazdegerd marked the end of the Sasanian Empire, and made it less difficult for the Arabs to conquer the rest of Iran. All of Khorasan was soon conquered by the Arabs, who would use it as a base to attack Transoxiana.[24] The death of Yazdegerd thus marked the end of the last pre-Islamic Iranian empire after more than 400 years of rule. An empire–which had a generation earlier briefly conquered Egypt and Asia Minor, even reaching as a far as Constantinople, fell to a force of lightly equipped Arabs that were used to skirmishes and desert warfare. The heavy Sasanian cavalry was too sluggish and systematized to contain them; employed light-armed Arab or East Iranian mercenaries from Khorasan and Transoxiana would have been much more successful.[26]

Yazdegerd was according to tradition buried by Christian monks in a tall tomb that was situated in a garden decorated with silk and musk. The monks cursed Mahoe and made a hymn to Yazdegerd, mourning the fall of a "combative" king and the "house of Ardashir I."[27] Whether this event was factual or not, it emphasizes that the Christians of the empire remained loyal to the Zoroastrian Sasanians, even possibly more than the Iranian nobles who had deserted Yazdegerd.[27] Indeed, there were close links between the late Sasanian rulers and Christians, whose conditions had greatly improved compared to that of the early Sasanian era. Yazdegerd's wife was according to folklore a Christian, whilst his son and heir, Peroz III was seemingly an adherant of Christianity, and even had a church built in Tang China, where he had taken refuge.[28] Yazdegerd became remembered in history as a martyred prince; many rulers and officers would later claim being an descendant of him in Islamic Iran.[4]

"Mahoe sends the miller to cut off his head on pain of losing his own, and having none of his race left alive. His chiefs hear this and cry out against him, and a mowbed of the name of Radui tells him that to kill a king or prophet will bring evil upon him and his son, and is supported in what he says by a holy man of the name of Hormuzd Kharad Shehran, and Mehronush. The miller most unwillingly goes in and stabs him with a dagger in the middle. Mahoe's horsemen all go and see him and take off his clothing and ornaments, leaving him on the ground. All the nobles curse Mahoe and wish him the same fate."

Ferdowsi narrating the fate of the Yazdegerd in his Shahnameh ("The Book of Kings")[29]

Zoroastrian calendarEdit

The Zoroastrian religious calendar, which is still in use today, uses the regnal year of Yazdegerd III as its base year,[30] and its calendar era (year numbering system) is accompanied by a Y.Z. suffix. Magians took Yazdegerd III's death as the end of the millennium of Zoroaster and the beginning of the millennium of Oshedar.[9]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Rostam Farrokhzad was a son of Farrukh Hormizd, and had succeeded him as the leader of the Pahlav in 631, when the latter was killed after attempting to usurp the Sasanian throne.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Kia 2016, pp. 284-285.
  2. ^ Shahbazi 2003.
  3. ^ a b c Kia 2016, p. 284.
  4. ^ a b c d e Shahbazi 2005.
  5. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 218.
  6. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 219.
  7. ^ Frye 1983, p. 171.
  8. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 257.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Morony 1986, pp. 203-210.
  10. ^ Daryaee 2014, p. 36.
  11. ^ a b Pourshariati 2008, pp. 221-222.
  12. ^ Daryaee 2014, p. 37.
  13. ^ Karaka 1884, p. 15
  14. ^ a b Pourshariati 2008, p. 217.
  15. ^ al-Tabari 1992, p. 44.
  16. ^ a b Pourshariati 2008, p. 224.
  17. ^ al-Tabari 1992, p. 43.
  18. ^ Zarrinkub 1975, p. 12.
  19. ^ Bearman, P.; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van. Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (2013). "Yazdajird III". Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second ed.).
  20. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 234.
  21. ^ Pourshariati 2008, pp. 234-235.
  22. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 235.
  23. ^ Pourshariati 2008, p. 239.
  24. ^ a b Kia 2016, p. 285.
  25. ^ Zarrinkub 1975, p. 25.
  26. ^ Shahbazi 1986, pp. 489–499.
  27. ^ a b Payne 2015, pp. 199-200.
  28. ^ Compareti 2009.
  29. ^ The Shah-Namah of Fardusi, trans. Alexander Rogers (LPP Publication), p. 547.
  30. ^ "The Lalis". Zoroastrian Calendar. Retrieved 10 October 2013.

SourcesEdit

Yazdegerd III
Preceded by
Boran
King of kings of Iran and Aniran
632–651
Succeeded by
Sasanian Empire abolished