World Universities Debating Championship
The World Universities Debating Championship (WUDC) is the world's largest debating tournament and one of the largest annual international student events in the world. WUDC is parliamentary debating tournament held in British Parliamentary Debate format (involving four teams of two people in each debate). Historically, the format of WUDC was determined by the host country which allowed for the American Parliamentary Debate format (two teams of two people). Each year, the event is hosted by a university selected by the World Universities Debating Council. The tournament is colloquially referred to as "Worlds" and the winners of the open competition acknowledged as the "world champions". The current world champions, Jason Xiao and Lee Chin Wee, are from the University of Oxford. The university with the most world championships is the University of Sydney with 8 victories, and the high school with the most world champions is Sydney Grammar School, the University of Sydney’s official feeder school and also the top high school worldwide at the World Schools Debating Championship (WSDC), responsible for 7 champions and 4 University of Sydney victories and the defeat of Ted Cruz at the 1995 WUDC Semifinal. The 2020 edition which was the 40th edition was hosted in Assumption University.
|Format||British Parliamentary Style|
|Number of Teams||~250–400|
|Record participation||~400 teams (2012), Possibly 440 teams in the Thailand WUDC 2020|
|Current champions||University of Oxford|
|Most championships||University of Sydney (8)|
This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Trans-Atlantic University Speech Association held tournaments in London (1976 and 1978) and at McGill University, Montreal, in 1977. Chicago was to hold a tournament in 1979 but this was postponed and then abandoned. A "World Debating Festival", sponsored by Honeywell was held in Sydney in 1978. The TAUSA event attracted mostly Northern Hemisphere tournaments, the Honeywell was largely Southern Hemisphere.
This section does not cite any sources. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The championship is usually held in the days following the 25th of December, since many of the institutions attending from the Northern Hemisphere where the championship originated take vacations at this time. Although many countries that do not celebrate Christmas have become participants at the competition, the timing has remained the same. In most recent years, the nine preliminary rounds of the tournament have been held over three days from 29–31 December, with the elimination rounds being held on 2 January and the Grand Final on 3 January.
In recent years, the championship has varied from about 150 to 400 teams, depending on the capacity of the host institution. With judges and organisers, this involves 500 to 1,000 participants in all.
The competition involves nine preliminary rounds, which become "power-paired" as the tournament progresses, matching the strongest-performing teams against each other. Two teams form the "government" ("proposition" in the UK and North America) and two the "opposition" in each debate room. The process of scoring and pairing these teams is known as "tabbing". The scoring of teams is done by judges, most of whom are students or former students from the competing institutions, who return "ballots" with their scores to the adjudication team, led by a Chief Adjudicator who is assisted by one or more deputies. The deputies are not members of the host institution.
The nine preliminary rounds are followed by a "break" at which the teams proceeding to elimination rounds are announced. This is traditionally done on New Year's Eve, although this is subject to the timing of the tournament. In the current tournament format, the top 16 teams from the preliminary rounds proceed to the octofinal round. The teams ranked 17-48 also break into a partial double octofinal round, and the winning teams from this round join the teams ranked 1-16 in the octo-finals. While preliminary rounds are usually judged by three to five judges, the break rounds are judged by panels of five, semifinal judged by panels of seven and the finals by panels of nine.
Separate breaks are announced for the English-as-a-second language (ESL) and English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) team competitions, for the individual public speaking competition, and the "World Masters" tournament which is participated in by judges (most of whom are no longer students) representing the countries where they studied or of which they are citizens. In addition, a comedy competition is also open to all participants in Worlds.
The World Universities Debating Council consists of representatives of every country that competes at the World Universities Debating Championship. Each country selects one council delegate (the national debating association president, or selected from the participants at Worlds). The Council is responsible for setting the rules and awarding the right to host the championships.
A Worlds Committee is elected to discuss issues during the year as Council only meets at the championships itself. This Committee consists of a mix of elected officers and regional representatives from Africa, the Americas, Australia and New Zealand, Continental Europe and the Middle East, and the British Isles (referred to in debating as Islands of the North Atlantic thought more politically acceptable than British Isles).
The Council formerly operated not unlike the United Nations Security Council, with seven nations holding "charter member status" – the United States, Canada, England, Scotland, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. A two-thirds majority of these countries was required for changes to the championship's constitution, irrespective of how the general vote was tallied. However, as the number of non-charter nations attending grew, many fielding far more teams than some of the upper tier, and the championship began being hosted outside the Charter nations, pressure grew for the distinction to be eliminated.
The modern championship grants voting strength of between one and four votes per country, based on numbers of institutions attending recent championships. To allow for fluctuations in participation due to the financial difference in attending championships nearer or further in succeeding years, nations lose or gain their voting strength gradually.
Thailand WUDC 2020Edit
There was concern over the public debate of Hong Kong in the Open Grand Final motion. This led to walk-outs during the debate. After the live-stream, all recordings of the debate were deleted and the motion was erased from the tabulation software. Many participants had names removed from the public record retroactively once the competition was over. The organising committee claims this was done to respect participants' privacy and denies pressure from any national body or representative.
Cape Town WUDC 2019Edit
Accusations of racism were made against members of the organising committee over treatment of participants. On the last day of the competition and just before the Open Grand Final was to begin, an organised protest took place and disrupted the event. Rather than delay the Open Grand Final, speakers and judges were relocated to an undisclosed room and the debate took place in private. This action was the subject of further controversy due to perceived undermining of an anti-racist cause.
This tournament is notable for several controversies. This included "tracking registration payments, to issues with getting participants visas, allocating hotel rooms, picking participants safely up from the airport, toilet paper disappearing, insufficient food provision, and dangerous dirt bike socials". Discontent among judges who had been offered payment in return for participation resulted in strike threats, jeopardizing the 7th round of the tournament. There were also complaints from Pakistani participants of detention by Indian immigration authorities.
List of TournamentsEdit
|Year||Host City||Hosting Institution||Winning Institution||Winning Open Team||Best Speaker||Topic of Open Grand Final|
|2021||Goyang, South Korea||Debate Korea||TBD||TBD||TBD||TBD|
|2020||Bangkok, Thailand||Assumption University||University of Oxford||This House, as China, would grant universal suffrage to Hong Kong.|
|2019||Cape Town, South Africa||University of Cape Town||University of Sydney||Bostan Nurlanov and Kevin Lee||James Stratton, University of Sydney||This House believes that the present condition of humanity is preferable to its condition in 100 years time.|
|2018||Mexico City, México||Asociación Mexicana de Debate||Harvard University||Danny DeBois and Archie Hall||Dan Lahav, Tel Aviv University||This House would rather save the life of a single child, over extending the life of 5 adults by 10 years.|
|2017||The Hague, Netherlands||Debating Societies of the Netherlands||University of Sydney||Emma Johnstone, and James Leeder||Raffy Marshall, University of Oxford||This House would apply universal jurisdiction to crimes against the environment.|
|2016||Thessaloniki, Greece||Debating Society of Greece||Harvard University||Bo Seo and Fanele Mashwama||Michael Dunn Goekjian, Faculty of Business Economics and Entrepreneurship, Belgrade||This House believes that the world's poor would be justified in pursuing complete Marxist revolution.|
|2015||Shah Alam, Malaysia||Universiti Teknologi MARA||University of Sydney||Nick Chung and Edward Miller||Ashish Kumar, University of Cambridge||This House believes that humanitarian organisations should, and should be allowed to, give funding, resources or services to illegal armed groups when this is made a condition for access to vulnerable civilians.|
|2014||Chennai Worlds 2014, Chennai, India||Rajalakshmi Engineering College||Harvard University||Josh Zoffer and Ben Sprung-Keyser||Eleanor Jones, University of Sydney||This House believes that India should pursue aggressive economic policies.|
|2013||Berlin, Germany||Berlin Debating Union||Monash University||Nita Rao & James Beavis||Chris Bissett, Monash University and Pam Cohn, University of London||This House would not allow religious communities to expel members on the basis of views or actions that contradict doctrinal teachings.|
|2012||Manila, Philippines||De La Salle||Monash University||Kiran Iyer and Amit Golder||Ben Woolgar, University of Oxford||This House supports nationalism.|
|2011||Gaborone, Botswana||University of Botswana||Monash University||Victor Finkel & Fiona Prowse||Victor Finkel, Monash University||This House would invade Zimbabwe.|
|2010||Istanbul, Turkey||Koç University||University of Sydney||Chris Croke and Steve Hind||Shengwu Li, University of Oxford||This House believes that the media should show the full horror of war.|
|2009||Cork, Ireland||University College Cork||University of Oxford||James Dray and Will Jones||Naomi Oreb, University of Sydney||This House would ban abortion.|
|2008||Bangkok, Thailand||Assumption University||University of Oxford||Samir Deger-Sen and Lewis Iwu||Sam Block, University of Cambridge||THB that people who give HIV to others must pay drug support.|
|2007||Vancouver, Canada||University of British Columbia||University of Sydney||Julia Bowes and Anna Garsia||Jess Prince, University of Oxford||This House believes that economic growth is the solution to climate change.|
|2006||Dublin, Ireland||University College Dublin||Hart House||Michael Kotrly and Joanna Nairn||Rory Gillis & Beth O'Connor, Yale University||This House would abolish all laws prohibiting cruelty to animals.|
|2005||Cyberjaya, Malaysia||Multimedia University||University of Ottawa||Erik Eastaugh & Jamie Furniss||Kylie Lane, Monash University||This House supports corporal punishment in schools.|
|2004||Singapore||Nanyang Technological University||Middle Temple||Alex Deane & Jermery Brier||Alex Croft, University of Sydney||This House would ban the abortion of fetuses on the grounds of their permanent disability.|
|2003||South Africa||Stellenbosch University||University of Cambridge||Jack Anderson & Caleb Ward||Wu Meng Tan, University of Cambridge||This House believes that the world has learned nothing from 9/11.|
|2002||Toronto, Canada||Hart House||New York University School of Law||Rob Weekes and Alan Merson||Ewan Smith, University of Oxford||This House Would ban criminals from publishing accounts of their crimes.|
|2001||Scotland||Glasgow University Union||University of Sydney||Greg O'Mahony and Paul Hunyor||Paul Hunyor, University of Sydney||This House would elect its judges.|
|2000||Sydney, Australia||University of Sydney||Monash University||Kim Little and Cathy Roussow||Andy Kidd, University of Oxford||This House believes Marx would have approved of the internet.|
|1999||Manila, Philippines||Ateneo de Manila University||Monash University||Meg O’Sullivan and Andrew Phillips||Andy Kidd, University of Oxford||This House believes Netanyahu is the biggest obstacle to peace in Israel.|
|1998||Athens, Greece||Deree College||Gray's Inn||Neil Sheldon and Andy George||Neil Sheldon, Gray's Inn||This House believes that humanitarianism is a first world affectation.|
|1997||Stellenbosch, South Africa||Stellenbosch University||Glasgow University Union||Andy Hume and Derek Sloan||Andy George, Gray's Inn||This House would legalize all drugs.|
|1996||Cork, Ireland||University College Cork||Macquarie University||Fenja Berglund and Ben Way||Adam Spencer, University of Sydney||This House believes that strong dictatorship is better than weak democracy.|
|1995||Princeton, United States of America||Princeton University||University of New South Wales||James Hooke & Jeremy Phillips||Chitra Jenardhanan, Nanyang Technological University|
|1994||Melbourne, Australia||Melbourne||Glasgow University Union||Manus Blessing & Duncan Hamilton||Ben Richards, Monash University||This House believes that Machiavelli is the way to go.|
|1993||Oxford, England||Oxford Union Society||Harvard University||David Friedman & David Kennedy||Daniel Mulino, Australian National University|
|1992||Dublin, Ireland||Trinity College Dublin||Glasgow University Union||Robin Marshall & Gordon Peterson||James Hooke, University of New South Wales & Richard Douglas, Australian National University||Nationalism is a hangover from history.|
|1991||Toronto, Canada||Hart House, University of Toronto||McGill University||Chris Wayland & Mona Gupta||Steve Bibas, University of Oxford|
|1990||Glasgow, Scotland||Glasgow University Union||Yale University||Matt Wolf & John Wertheim|
|1989||Princeton, United States of America||Princeton University||University of Sydney||Andrew Bell and Warren Lee||John Gastil, Swarthmore College|
|1988||Sydney, Australia||University of Sydney||University of Oxford||Michael Hall & Iain Morley||Francis Greenslade University of Adelaide|
|1987||Dublin, Ireland||University College Dublin||Glasgow University Union||Kevin Sneader & Austin Lally||Michael Hall, University of Oxford|
|1986||New York City, United States of America||Fordham University||University College Cork||Brian Hassett & Siobhain Lankford||Bruce Meagher, University of Sydney|
|1985||Montreal, Canada||McGill University||The Honorable Society of King's Inns||Sean Murphy and Damian Crawford||Ashley Black, University of Sydney|
|1984||Edinburgh, Scotland||University of Edinburgh||University of Sydney||David Celermajer, University of Sydney|
|1983||Princeton, United States of America||Princeton University||Glasgow University Dialectic Society||Frank McKiergan and John Nicholson||John Geisnell|
|1982||Toronto, Canada||Hart House, University of Toronto||University of Auckland||Stuart Bugg and David Kidd||Stuart Bugg, University of Auckland|
|1981||Glasgow, Scotland||Glasgow University Union||Hart House||Steve Coughlan and Andrew Taylor||Andrew Taylor, Hart House||This House regrets living in the nuclear age.|
List of notable alumniEdit
- Christian Porter, Australian Member of Parliament
- Ted Cruz, U.S. Senator from Texas
- Tara Zahra, U.S. historian
- Wu Meng Tan, Singaporean Member of Parliament
- Vikram Nair, Singaporean Member of Parliament
- Adam Spencer, Australian Comedian
- Craig Reucassel, Australian Comedian
- Daniel Mulino, Australian Member of Parliament
- Stephanos Bibas, U.S. Circuit Court Judge
- John Gastil, Professor of Political Science
- David Celermajer, Australian Cardiologist
- Kevin Sneader, global manager partner of McKinsey & Company
- Austan Goolsbee, former Chair of the U.S. Council of Economic Advisers
- Sally Rooney, Irish novelist
- Michael Gove, UK Member of Parliament
- Liam Fox, UK Member of Parliament
- Chris Bishop, New Zealand Member of Parliament
- Raybon Kan, New Zealand comedian
- Gerald Butts, Canadian political consultant
- Ian Hanomansing, Canadian journalist
- Richard Humphreys, Irish High Court Judge
- Syed Saddiq, Malaysian Member of Parliament
- Ryan Knowles, Canadian comedian
- Duncan Hamilton, Scottish Member of Parliament
- John Nicolson, Scottish Member of Parliament
- John Wertheim, U.S. politician
- Anna Donald, Australian epidemiologist
- Frank Luntz, U.S. political consultant
- Iain Morley, High Court Judge (Caribbean)
- Alex Massie, former leader of the Liberal Democrats
- Nicholas Mostyn, British High Court Judge
- Rajeev Dhavan, Indian human rights activist
- Dara Ó Briain, Irish comedian
- Peter van Onselen, Australian journalist
- Simon Wolfson, British life peer
- Kelly Rees, Australian Supreme Court judge
- Stephen Gethins, British Member of Parliament
- Francis Greenslade, Australian comedic actor
- debating.net - WUDC history Archived April 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "A Guide to Parliamentary Debate: the Rules of Parliamentary Debate". American Parliamentary Debate Association. Archived from the original on July 14, 2019. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
- News, Taiwan. "World Universities Debating Championship dele..." Taiwan News. Retrieved 2020-01-19.
- "India win WSDC. Australia has the most WSDC wins (9 wins) followed by England". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
- "History of Australian WSDC Reps - Australia leads all nations in WSDC with 9 wins. Sydney Grammar School is by far Australia's strongest feeder school to the Australian WSDC team and has the most Australian Debating Champions of all Australian schools". www.nswdu.com. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
- "2 Sydney Grammar students beat Ted Cruz. Other Sydney Grammar champions are: e.g. David Celermajer (1984), Andrew Bell (1989), James Hooke and Jeremy Phillips (1995), Nick Chung (2015), Kevin Lee and Bostan Nurlanov (2019)". Australian Financial Review. 2015-08-07. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
- "Narrative History". World Universities Debating Championships. Archived from the original on November 3, 2016. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
- "About the World Universities Debating Championship". World Universities Debating Championship. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
- "Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about The World Universities Debating Championship 2020". The 40th World Universities Debating Championship. 2019. Archived from the original on August 22, 2019. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
- "'Racism' mars world university debate championships at UCT". Independent Online. Jan 9, 2019. Archived from the original on June 5, 2019. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
- "How (not) to Run Worlds: Advice from two people who needed it" (PDF). Monash Debating Review. 12. 2014.
- "Scandal and strike threats at World University Debating Competition". Trinity News. Jan 1, 2014. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.