Wolstonian Stage

The Wolstonian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage of the geological history of Earth from approximately 374,000 until 130,000 years ago. It precedes the Eemian Stage in Europe and follows the Hoxnian Stage in the British Isles.

.374 – .130 Ma
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageRegional
Used byUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage

It is also approximately analogous to the Warthe and Saalian stages in northern Europe; the Riss glaciation in the Alps; and the Illinoian Stage in North America.

It is equivalent to Marine isotope stages 6 through 10.

It is named after Wolston in the English county of Warwickshire.


The Wolstonian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage of the geological history of Earth that precedes the Ipswichian Stage (Eemian Stage in Europe) and follows the Hoxnian Stage in the British Isles. The Wolstonian Stage apparently includes three periods of glaciation. The Wolstonian Stage is temporally analogous to the Warthe Stage and Saalian Stage in northern Europe and the Riss glaciation in the Alps, and temporally equivalent to all of the Illinoian Stage and the youngest part of the Pre-Illinoian Stage in North America. It is contemporaneous with the North American Pre-Illinoian A, Early Illinoian, and Late Illinoian glaciations.[1][2][3]

The Wolstonian Stage is equivalent to Marine isotope stages 6 through 10.[2][3]

It started 374,000 years ago and ended 130,000 years ago.[4][5]


The Wolstonian Stage was named after the site of Wolston in the English county of Warwickshire where corresponding deposits were first identified.[6]


Acheulian flint tools have been found in Wolstonian deposits.

Pleistocene glaciationEdit

Historical names of the "four major" glacials in four regions.
Region Glacial 1 Glacial 2 Glacial 3 Glacial 4
Alps Günz Mindel Riss Würm
North Europe Eburonian Elsterian Saalian Weichselian
British Isles Beestonian Anglian Wolstonian Devensian
Midwest U.S. Nebraskan Kansan Illinoian Wisconsinan
Historical names of interglacials.
Region Interglacial 1 Interglacial 2 Interglacial 3
Alps Günz-Mindel Mindel-Riss Riss-Würm
North Europe Waalian Holsteinian Eemian
British Isles Cromerian Hoxnian Ipswichian
Midwest U.S. Aftonian Yarmouthian Sangamonian

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Richmond, G.M.; Fullerton, D.S. (1986). "Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 183–196. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5..183R. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90184-8.
  2. ^ a b McMillan, A.A. (2005). "A provisional Quaternary and Neogene lithostratigraphic framework Great Britain". Netherland Journal of Geosciences. 84 (2): 87–107. doi:10.1017/S0016774600022988.
  3. ^ a b Gibbard, P.L.; Boreham, S.; Cohen, K.M.; Moscariello, A. (2007). "Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years" (JPG 844 kb). Cambridge UK: Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
  4. ^ Lisiecki, L.E., 2005, Ages of MIS boundaries. LR04 Benthic Stack Boston University, Boston, MA
  5. ^ Lisiecki, L.E.; Raymo, M.E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 20: PA1003. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. hdl:2027.42/149224.
  6. ^ Gibson, Sebastian M. et al. (2022) Timing and dynamics of Late Wolstonian Substage ‘Moreton Stadial’ (MIS 6) glaciation in the English West Midlands, UK, Royal Society Publishing, (Open access), June 2022. Deposits from Wolston are described and dated (as 150 ka) in sections 4.1.4 and

External linksEdit

Further readingEdit