William E. DePuy
William Eugene DePuy (// deh-PEW; October 1, 1919 – September 9, 1992) was a U.S. Army general and the first commander of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. He is widely regarded as one of the principal architects of the restructuring of U.S. Army doctrine after the American withdrawal from Vietnam.
William E. DePuy
General William E. DePuy
|Born||October 1, 1919|
Jamestown, North Dakota
|Died||September 9, 1992 (aged 72)|
|Place of burial|
Brown Family Cemetery
Albemarle County, Virginia
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/||United States Army|
|Years of service||1941–1977|
|Commands held||U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command|
1st Infantry Division
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross (2)|
Army Distinguished Service Medal (5)
Air Force Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star (3)
Purple Heart (2)
Legion of Merit
Distinguished Flying Cross
Air Medal with "V" device
Early life and careerEdit
DePuy was born in Jamestown, North Dakota. His military career began when he enlisted in the South Dakota National Guard, eventually becoming a squad leader. He graduated from South Dakota State University in 1941 with a Bachelor of Science in Economics and received a Reserve Officers' Training Corps commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry. His first assignment was with the 20th Infantry Regiment at Fort Leonard Wood, and during this time he walked to the Louisiana Maneuvers and back with his platoon.
Shortly after the US entry into World War II, DePuy was assigned in 1942 as a "green" lieutenant, at age 22, to the newly formed 90th Infantry Division. He received a field promotion to major in command of a battalion during the Normandy campaign in August 1944, at age 24. He served with the 90th in the fierce fighting from Utah Beach through the Battle of the Bulge. For his combat heroism he was awarded his first Distinguished Service Cross and three Silver Stars. He then served as an operations officer at division level and was promoted to lieutenant colonel in January 1945.
Post World War IIEdit
Following the war, DePuy attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College. After graduation, he served in myriad command and staff positions, including command of the 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, and the 1st Battle Group, 30th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division, both in the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1948 he attended the Defense Language Institute for a year to learn Russian, followed in 1949 by assignment as Assistant Military Attaché, and later the acting Army Attaché in Budapest, Hungary. During the Korean War, DePuy spent time convalescing after a broken leg, and then performed clandestine service for the Central Intelligence Agency in China and other Asian countries. In 1953, DePuy began attendance at the Armed Forces Staff College, followed by assignment to the Office of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, where he worked on modernization of Army force structure, doctrine and training policies. In 1960, DePuy was a student at the Royal College of Defence Studies.
He met Marjory Kennedy Walker of Salem, Virginia, a Far East specialist who served with both the Office of Strategic Services and the Central Intelligence Agency, and they were married in June 1951. A son, William E DePuy Jr. was born in July 1952, and daughters Joslin and Daphne in July 1953 and 1954, respectively.
First deployed to Vietnam in 1964, he served as Chief of Staff of Operations for Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, and in March 1966 he assumed command of the 1st Infantry Division ("the Big Red One"). During his time as commander, he established a scholarship fund for the children of 1st Infantry Division soldiers killed in Vietnam, which eventually became the 1st Infantry Division Foundation. Also during his time as Commander, he became known as having an "ax-swinging" style of officer management; having fired as many as 56 officers under him including seven battalion commanders and many more majors, captains and sergeants major. This led Army chief of staff General Harold K. Johnson to say, "If every division commander relieved people like DePuy, I'd soon be out of lieutenant colonels and majors. He just eats them up like peanuts." However, DePuy later explained to an interviewer that his experience in World War II had informed him of the importance of good leadership in war as he had "fought in Normandy with three battalion commanders who should have been relieved in peacetime." He firmly believed that command was a privilege to be earned, not a right.
DePuy is perhaps best remembered for his efforts while commander of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, where he helped create a new, innovative fighting doctrine for the Army. His wide-ranging and sometimes controversial changes in combat development and the way the Army trains sparked a debate that resulted in the widely accepted AirLand Battle Doctrine.
DePuy's awards included two Distinguished Service Crosses, five Distinguished Service Medals, the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, three Silver Stars, two Purple Hearts, the Legion of Merit, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Bronze Star, and Air Medal with "V" device. His foreign decorations include the Order of Commander in the French Legion of Honor, the Knight's Cross of the German Order of Merit, the Vietnam Cross of Gallantry, and the Republic of Korea Order of National Security Merit First Class.
|Combat Infantryman Badge|
|Basic Army Aviator Badge|
|Distinguished Service Cross with bronze oak leaf cluster|
|Army Distinguished Service Medal with four bronze oak leaf clusters|
|Air Force Distinguished Service Medal|
|Silver Star with two bronze oak leaf clusters|
|Legion of Merit|
|Distinguished Flying Cross|
|Purple Heart with bronze oak leaf cluster|
|Air Medal with V device|
- Unit Award
|Army Meritorious Unit Commendation with bronze oak leaf cluster|
- Service Medals
|American Defense Service Medal|
|American Campaign Medal|
|European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with Arrowhead device and three bronze campaign stars|
|World War II Victory Medal|
|Army of Occupation Medal|
|National Defense Service Medal with service star|
|Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal|
|Vietnam Service Medal with silver and bronze campaign stars|
- Foreign Awards
|Legion of Honour (Commander)|
|National Order of Vietnam (Knight)|
|Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm|
|Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Knight Commander's Cross|
|Badge of Honour of the Bundeswehr (Gold)|
|South Korean Order of National Security Merit (First Class)|
|Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation|
|Republic of Vietnam Civil Actions Medal Unit Citation|
|Vietnam Campaign Medal|
- Haig, Jr, Alexander. 1992. Inner Circles. Warner Books.
- Selected Papers of General William E. DePuy
- "South Dakota State University bio". Retrieved 2007-07-10.
- General Maxwell R. Thurman, Lieutenant General Orwin C. Talbott, General Paul F. Gorman (2007-03-28). "In Tribute to General William E. DePuy". United States Army Command and General Staff College. Retrieved 2007-07-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Brownlee, Romie L.; Mullen, William J. III (1979). Changing An Army: An Oral History of General William E. DePuy, USA, Retired (PDF). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. pp. 105–106.
- "In Memoriam" (PDF). The O.S.S. Society Inc. April 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-03. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
- "1st Infantry Division: Scholarship Fund". U.S. Army. Archived from the original on 2007-06-13. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
- The Generals, by Thomas E. Ricks, pages 242–244
- Gole, H. (2008). General William E. DePuy: Preparing the Army for Modern War. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813173016. Retrieved 2014-11-30.
- Bronfeld, Saul (April 2007). "Fighting Outnumbered: The Impact of the Yom Kippur War on the U.S. Army". The Journal of Military History. 71 (2): 465–498. doi:10.1353/jmh.2007.0096. JSTOR 4138276.
- Brownlee, Romie L.; Mullen III, William J., eds. (1986). Changing an Army: An Oral History of General William E. DePuy, USA Retired (PDF). Carlisle, Pa. and Washington, D.C.: United States Military Institute and United States Army Center of Military History.
- DePuy, William E. (1994). Gilmore, Donald L.; Conway, Carolyn D. (eds.). Selected Papers of General William E. DePuy, First Commander, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1 July 1973 (PDF). Compiled by Colonel Richard M. Swain. Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
- Gole, Henry G. (2008). General William E. DePuy: Preparing the Army for Modern War. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-81-312500-8.
- Herbert, Paul H. (July 1988). Deciding What has to be Done: General William E. DePuy and the 1976 Edition of FM 100–5 Operations (PDF). Leavenworth Papers no. 16. Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. ISSN 0195-3451.
- Romjue, John L. (June 1984). From Active Defense to AirLand Battle: The Development of Army Doctrine, 1973–1982. Fort Monroe, Va.: Historical Office, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. OCLC 11717199.
- Trauschweizer, Ingo (2008). The Cold War U.S. Army: Building Deterrence for Limited War. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-7006-1578-0.
- The short film STAFF FILM REPORT 66-13A (1966) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
| Commanding General, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
Donn A. Starry