White phosphorus munitions
White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer illumination, and incendiary munitions. Other common names include WP and the slang term "Willie Pete" or "Willie Peter" derived from William Peter, the World War II phonetic alphabet for "WP", which is still sometimes used in military jargon. As an incendiary weapon, white phosphorus is pyrophoric (self-igniting), burns fiercely and can ignite cloth, skin, fuel, ammunition, and other combustibles.
In addition to its offensive capabilities, white phosphorus is a highly efficient smoke-producing agent, which burns quickly and produces an immediate blanket of smoke. As a result, smoke-producing white phosphorus munitions are very common, particularly as smoke grenades for infantry, loaded in grenade launchers on tanks and other armoured vehicles, as part of the ammunition allotment for artillery or mortars and as payload of incendiary cluster bombs. These create smoke screens to mask friendly forces' movement, position, infrared signatures, or shooting positions.
White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century, in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the phosphorus would burst into flames. This mixture was known as "Fenian fire".
In 1916, during an intense struggle over conscription for the First World War, 12 members of the Industrial Workers of the World, a workers union opposed to conscription, were arrested in Sydney, Australia and convicted for using or plotting to use incendiary materials, including phosphorus. It is believed that eight or nine men in this group, known as the Sydney Twelve, had been framed by the police. Most were released in 1920 after an inquiry.
World War I, the inter-war period and World War IIEdit
The British Army introduced the first factory-built WP grenades in late 1916. During World War I, white phosphorus mortar bombs, shells, rockets, and grenades were used extensively by American, Commonwealth, and, to a lesser extent, Japanese forces, in both smoke-generating and antipersonnel roles. The British military also used white phosphorus bombs against Kurdish villagers and Al-Habbaniyah in Al-Anbar province during the Great Iraqi Revolution of 1920.
In the interwar years, the US Army trained using white phosphorus, by artillery shell and air bombardment.
In 1940, when the invasion of Britain seemed imminent, the phosphorus firm of Albright and Wilson suggested that the British government use a material similar to Fenian fire in several expedient incendiary weapons. The only one fielded was the Grenade, No. 76 or Special Incendiary Phosphorus grenade, which consisted of a glass bottle filled with a mixture similar to Fenian fire, plus some latex (see also Molotov cocktail, Greek fire). It came in two versions, one with a red cap intended to be thrown by hand, and a slightly stronger bottle with a green cap, intended to be launched from the Northover projector (a crude 2.5-inch black-powder grenade launcher). These were improvised anti-tank weapons, hastily fielded in 1940 when the British were awaiting a German invasion after losing the bulk of their modern armaments in the Dunkirk evacuation. Instructions on each crate of SIP grenades included the observations, among other things:
Store bombs (preferably in cases) in cool places, under water if possible.
Stringent precautions must be taken to avoid cracking bombs during handling.
At the start of the Normandy campaign, 20% of American 81 mm mortar rounds were white phosphorus. At least five American Medal of Honor citations mention their recipients using white phosphorus grenades to clear enemy positions, and in the 1944 liberation of Cherbourg alone, a single US mortar battalion, the 87th, fired 11,899 white phosphorus rounds into the city. The US Army and Marines used white phosphorus shells in 107-mm (4.2 inch) mortars. White phosphorus was widely credited by Allied soldiers for breaking up German infantry attacks and creating havoc among enemy troop concentrations during the latter part of the war. US Sherman tanks carried a white phosphorus round intended for artillery spotting, but tank crews found it useful against German tanks. Unable to penetrate German Panther and Tiger tanks at long range, the phosphorus round would adhere to the tank, generate smoke, blind the optics, and often force the crew to abandon the tank or allow US tanks to close to a range where their armour piercing rounds were effective.
Incendiary bombs were used extensively by both the Axis and Allied air forces against civilian populations and targets of military significance in civilian areas, including Chongqing, London, Coventry, Hamburg, Dresden, and Tokyo. Late in the war, some of these bombs used white phosphorus (about 1–200 grams) in place of magnesium as the igniter for their flammable mixtures. The use of incendiary weapons against civilians was banned by signatory countries in the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Protocol III. The United States signed Protocols I and II on 24 March 1995 under the Clinton Administration (and the amended article II on 24 May 1999) and later Protocols III, IV, and V, on 21 January 2009 under the Obama Administration.
White phosphorus munitions were used extensively in Korea, Vietnam and later by Russian forces in First Chechen War and Second Chechen War. White phosphorus grenades were used in Vietnam for destroying Viet Cong tunnel complexes as they would burn up all oxygen and suffocate the enemy soldiers sheltering inside. British soldiers also made extensive use of phosphorus grenades during the Falklands conflict to destroy Argentine positions as the peaty soil they were constructed from tended to lessen the impact of fragmentation grenades. According to GlobalSecurity.org, during the December 1994 battle for Grozny in Chechnya, every fourth or fifth Russian artillery or mortar shell fired was a smoke or white phosphorus shell.
Use in Iraq (1988)Edit
White phosphorus was used by Saddam Hussein during the Halabja poison gas attack. According to an undated ANSA article quoted by an RAI documentary, on the morning of 16 March 1988, the Iraqi Air Force bombed Halabja several times with a chemical cocktail of sulfur mustard, tabun, sarin, VX, napalm and white phosphorus." White phosphorus had not been previously mentioned in other reports on Halabja, but the use of napalm was commonly reported.
Use in Iraq (2004)Edit
In April 2004, during the First Battle of Fallujah, Darrin Mortenson of California's North County Times reported that white phosphorus was used as an incendiary weapon. Embedded with the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, Mortenson described a Marine mortar team using a mixture of white phosphorus and high explosives to shell a cluster of buildings where insurgents had been spotted throughout the week.
In November 2004, during the Second Battle of Fallujah, Washington Post reporters embedded with Task Force 2-2, Regimental Combat Team 7, wrote on 9 November 2004 that "Some artillery guns fired white phosphorus (WP) rounds that create a screen of fire that cannot be extinguished with water." Insurgents reported being attacked with a substance that melted their skin, a reaction consistent with white phosphorus burns.
On 9 November 2005 the Italian state-run broadcaster RAI aired a documentary titled Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre, alleging that the United States used white phosphorus as a weapon in Fallujah causing insurgents and civilians to be killed or injured by chemical burns. The filmmakers further said that the United States used incendiary MK-77 bombs in violation of Protocol III of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. According to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, quoted in the documentary, white phosphorus is permitted for use as an illumination device and as a weapon with regard to heat energy, but not permitted as an offensive weapon with regard to its toxic chemical properties. The documentary also included footage which purported to be of white phosphorus being fired from helicopters over Fallujah. It also quoted journalist Giuliana Sgrena, who had been in Fallujah, as a testimony.
On 15 November 2005, US Department of Defense spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Barry Venable confirmed to the BBC that white phosphorus had been used as an incendiary anti-personnel weapon in Fallujah. Venable stated "When you have enemy forces that are in covered positions that your high explosive artillery rounds are not having an impact on and you wish to get them out of those positions, one technique is to fire a white phosphorus round into the position because the combined effects of the fire and smoke - and in some case the terror brought about by the explosion on the ground - will drive them out of the holes so that you can kill them with high explosives."
On 16 November 2005, BBC News reported that an article published in the March–April 2005 issue of Field Artillery, a US Army magazine, noted that white phosphorus had been used during the battle. According to the article written by a captain, a first lieutenant, and a sergeant, "WP [white phosphorus] proved to be an effective and versatile munition. We used it for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes where we could not get effects on them with HE [High Explosives]. We fired "shake and bake" missions at the insurgents, using WP to flush them out and HE to take them out." BBC News noted that the article had been discovered by bloggers after the US ambassador in London, Robert Holmes Tuttle, stated that US forces do not use napalm or white phosphorus as weapons.
On 22 November 2005, the Iraqi government stated it would investigate the use of white phosphorus in the battle of Fallujah. On 30 November 2005, General Peter Pace stated that white phosphorus munitions were a "legitimate tool of the military" used to illuminate targets and create smokescreens, saying "It is not a chemical weapon. It is an incendiary. And it is well within the law of war to use those weapons as they're being used, for marking and for screening".
Israel–Lebanon conflict (2006)Edit
During the 2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict, Israel said that it had used phosphorus shells "against military targets in open ground" in south Lebanon. Israel said that its use of the white phosphorus bombs was permitted under international conventions.President of Lebanon Émile Lahoud said that phosphorus shells were used against civilians in Lebanon. The first Lebanese official complaint about the use of phosphorus came from Information Minister Ghazi Aridi.
Ukraine white phosphorus train disasterEdit
On 16 July 2007, a train transporting 15 tanks containing white phosphorus derailed in the Lviv oblast. As a result 90 square kilometers were contaminated with a cloud of white phosphorus. In the first days 152 people were hospitalised. The disaster was described as an equivalent to the Chernobyl disaster. 16,000 people were checked for symptoms of chemical poisoning within a week, and Lviv residents were advised to stay inside and not to use water from wells, nor eat vegetables from their gardens or drink milk from their cows (later this advice was revoked). On 18 July 2007, it was reported that NATO was watching the toxic cloud movement.
Gaza War (2008–2009)Edit
In its early statements the Israeli military denied using white phosphorus, saying "The IDF acts only in accordance with what is permitted by international law and does not use white phosphorus."
United States based human rights organisation Human Rights Watch said incendiary shells exploded over populated civilian areas, including a crowded Palestinian refugee camp and a United Nations school where civilians were seeking refuge. Human Rights Watch said that white phosphorus injuries were suspected in the cases of ten burn victims. The International Red Cross stated that phosphorus weapons had been used in the conflict but would not comment publicly on the legality of Israel's use of the weapon, pending further investigation, contrary to what had been attributed to the ICRC in a number of media reports. The ICRC had previously said it had no evidence white phosphorus was used by Israel illegally.
Human Rights Watch said its experts in the region had witnessed the use of white phosphorus. Kenneth Roth, the organisation's executive director, added: "This is a chemical compound that burns structures and burns people. It should not be used in populated areas."
Amnesty International said a fact-finding team found "indisputable evidence of the widespread use of white phosphorus" in crowded civilian residential areas of Gaza City and elsewhere in the territory. Donatella Rovera, the head of an Amnesty fact-finding mission to southern Israel and Gaza, said: "Israeli forces used white phosphorus and other weapons supplied by the United States to carry out serious violations of international humanitarian law, including war crimes."
On 5 January the Times reported that telltale smoke associated with white phosphorus had been seen in areas of a shelling. On 12 January it was reported that more than 50 phosphorus burns victims were in Nasser Hospital. On 16 January the UNRWA headquarters was hit with phosphorus munitions. As a result of the hit, the compound was set ablaze. The soldiers who ordered the attack were reprimanded for violating the IDF rules of engagement.
Many other observers, including Human Rights Watch military experts, reported seeing white phosphorus air bursts over Gaza City and the Jabalya refugee camp. The BBC published a photograph of two shells exploding over a densely populated area on 11 January.
Since Protocol III of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons regulates incendiary weapons, and shells containing white phosphorus may be legal even in populated areas, more information is required to determine the legality of any shell landing in populated areas.
The IDF stated on 13 January that it "wishes to reiterate that it uses weapons in compliance with international law, while strictly observing that they be used in accordance with the type of combat and its characteristics."
On 14 January, Israeli news sources Haaretz and Ynetnews reported that a mortar shell containing white phosphorus was fired from Gaza and exploded without damage or injury in an open space in the Eshkol area. The official foreign press spokesman for the Israeli Police, Micky Rosenfeld, stated that the shell had landed in a field near Sderot. A day after the attack, a researcher for Human Rights Watch travelled to Sderot to investigate the claim. One resident said he had heard about a mortar shell, possibly with white phosphorus, landing in a field outside town but could not specify where. When pressed for information, Rosenfeld could give no further insight, telling Human Rights Watch that "all I have is what's in the press release." Local authorities in Sderot also told the researcher that they were unaware of the attack.
On 15 January, the United Nations compound, housing numerous refugees in Gaza City, was struck by Israeli white phosphorus artillery shells, setting fire to pallets of relief materials and igniting several large fuel storage tanks. A UN spokesperson indicated that there were difficulties in attempting to extinguish the fires because of the white phosphorus and stated "You can’t put it [white phosphorus] out with traditional methods such as fire extinguishers. You need sand but we do not have any sand in the compound." Senior Israeli defense officials maintain that the shelling using white phosphorus munitions was in response to Israeli military personnel being fired upon by Hamas fighters who were in proximity to the UN headquarters, and was used for smoke. The Israeli army investigated improper use of WP in the conflict, particularly in one incident in which 20 WP shells were fired in a built-up area of Beit Lahiya.
On 17 January, Peter Herby, head of the International Committee of the Red Cross Arms Unit, confirmed the use of white phosphorus weapons by Israel in Gaza, outlined the rules applicable to phosphorus weapons and explained the ICRC's approach to the issue.
On 20 January, Paul Wood of the BBC reports from Gaza on white phosphorus use in civilian areas. Amnesty team weapon expert Christopher Cobb-Smith, who witnessed the shelling by the IDF during the conflict, reported "we saw streets and alleyways littered with evidence of the use of white phosphorus, including still-burning wedges and the remnants of the shells and canisters fired by the Israeli army."
On 25 March 2009, Human Rights Watch published a 71-page report titled Rain of Fire, Israel's Unlawful Use of White Phosphorus in Gaza and said that Israel's usage of the weapon was illegal.
White phosphorus munitions did not kill the most civilians in Gaza – many more died from missiles, bombs, heavy artillery, tank shells, and small arms fire – but their use in densely populated neighborhoods, including downtown Gaza City, violated international humanitarian law (the laws of war), which requires taking all feasible precautions to avoid civilian harm and prohibits indiscriminate attacks.
The Israeli government released a report in July 2009 that confirmed that the IDF used white phosphorus in both exploding munitions and smoke projectiles. The report acknowledged the use of exploding munitions by Israeli ground and naval forces. The report argues that the use of these munitions was limited to unpopulated areas for marking and signalling and not as an anti-personnel weapon. The Israeli government report further stated that smoke screening projectiles were the majority of the munitions containing white phosphorus employed by the IDF and that these were very effective in that role. The report states that at no time did IDF forces have the objective of inflicting any harm on the civilian population.
Head of the UN Fact Finding Mission Justice Richard Goldstone presented the report of the Mission to the Human Rights Council in Geneva on 29 September 2009, urging the Council and the international community as a whole to put an end to impunity for violations of international law in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The Goldstone report accepted that white phosphorus is not illegal under international law but did find that the Israelis were "systematically reckless in determining its use in build-up areas". It also called for serious consideration to be given to the banning of its use as an obscurant.
Human Rights Watch claimed in its report that instead of white phosphorus, the Israeli military had a non-lethal alternative at its disposal-smoke shells produced by Israel Military Industries.
In 2010, Anchel Pfeffer of Haaretz reported that the Israeli report to the UN included a section discussing two senior Israeli officers who were responsible for firing white phosphorus artillery shells on a United Nations compound and were reprimanded earlier that year. This was later disproved. The officers were reprimanded for permitting artillery shot in that same combat, and Israel continued to claim that its use of phosphorus in that combat was only for smoke.
Israeli 155 mm artillery shells filled with white phosphorus are commonly air burst, which produces 116 burning white phosphorus wedges that can achieve a spread radius of up to 125 meters from the blast point.
There are confirmed cases of white phosphorus burns on bodies of civilians wounded in Afghanistan US-Taliban clashes near Bagram. The United States has accused Taliban militants of using white phosphorus weapons illegally on at least 44 occasions. In May 2009, Colonel Gregory Julian, a spokesman for General David McKiernan, the overall commander of US and NATO forces in Afghanistan, confirmed that Western military forces in Afghanistan use white phosphorus in order to illuminate targets or as an incendiary to destroy bunkers and enemy equipment. The Afghan government later launched an investigation into the use of white phosphorus munitions.
Use in Yemen (2009)Edit
Houthi fighters in Yemen claimed Saudi warplanes dropped phosphorus bombs on villages in north Yemen in November 2009. The Saudi government denied military use of phosphorus munitions against the rebels, saying they were flares, not phosphorus.
Allegations of use in Ukraine (2014)Edit
There have been multiple claims from Russian media about Ukraine using white phosphorus against rebels and civilians in the War in Donbass. According to Human Rights Watch, some of the videos presented as evidence were misrepresented copies of footage from Fallujah in 2004 and others offered did not depict white phosphorus, according to their arms researchers. Human Rights Watch also noted that this was not "the first time that Russian state media has manufactured montages about eastern Ukraine, twisted the truth, or outright misstated facts."
Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes (2016)Edit
After the 2016 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that on 10 May of that year the Armenian military had fired 122mm white phosphorus artillery munitions against Azerbaijani territory.
Syrian Civil WarEdit
According to Amnesty International’s analysis, "The use of white phosphorus munitions by the US-led coalition gravely endangers the lives of thousands of civilians trapped in and around al-Raqqa city, and may amount to a war crime under these circumstances".
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen (2015-present)Edit
In September 2016, the Washington Post reported that Saudi Arabia "appears" to be using US-supplied white phosphorus munitions in Yemen, based on images and videos posted to social media. A United States official said the department was looking into whether the Saudis used white phosphorus improperly.
The Saudi Arabia-led coalition was reported to still be using white phosphorus munitions during 2017 in Yemen.
Battle of Mosul (2017)Edit
US-led coalition forces used white phosphorus smoke screens in order to evacuate civilians in the Battle of Mosul.
Battle of Hajin (2018)Edit
The US has allegedly used the chemical to bomb ISIS troops in the village of Hajin, Deir ez Zor province, Syria in September 2018 which resulted in massive fires covering the area. The Pentagon denied the claim.
Effects on peopleEdit
White phosphorus can cause injuries and death in three ways: by burning deep into tissue, by being inhaled as a smoke, and by being ingested. Extensive exposure by burning and ingestion may result in death.
Incandescent particles of a white phosphorus weapon's initial explosion can produce extensive, partial and full thickness burns. One reason why this occurs is the tendency of the element to stick to the skin. Phosphorus burns carry a greater risk of mortality than other forms of burns due to the absorption of phosphorus into the body through the burned area, resulting in liver, heart and kidney damage, and in some cases multiple organ failure. These weapons are particularly dangerous to exposed people because white phosphorus continues to burn unless deprived of oxygen or until it is completely consumed. In some cases, burns are limited to areas of exposed skin because the smaller WP particles do not burn completely through personal clothing before being consumed.
Burning white phosphorus produces a hot, dense, white smoke consisting mostly of phosphorus pentoxide. Exposure to heavy smoke concentrations of any kind for an extended period (particularly if near the source of emission) has the potential to cause illness or death. White phosphorus smoke irritates the eyes, mucous membranes of the nose, and respiratory tract in moderate concentrations, while higher concentrations can produce severe burns. The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has set an acute inhalation Minimum Risk Level (MRL) for white phosphorus smoke of 0.02 mg/m3, the same as fuel-oil fumes. By contrast, the chemical weapon mustard gas is 30 times more potent: 0.0007 mg/m3. The agency states that the 1935 study used to determine the MRL was insufficient to accurately assess the health risk to humans. No studies have investigated the lethal effects of inhalation of WP by humans; a former US soldier has stated that breathing in smoke close to a shell caused the throat and lungs to blister until the victim suffocated, with the phosphorus continuing to burn them from the inside.
The accepted lethal dose when white phosphorus is ingested orally is 1 mg per kg of body weight, although the ingestion of as little as 15 mg has resulted in death. It may also cause liver, heart or kidney damage. There are reports of individuals with a history of oral ingestion who have passed phosphorus-laden stool ("smoking stool syndrome"). Its extreme toxicity is due to the generation of free radicals, especially in the liver, where they accumulate and are not easily metabolized.
Long term inhalation of derivative fumes causes a condition called phossy jaw or osteonecrosis of the jaw, which is a painful, debilitating and ultimately lethal condition that afflicted factory workers involved with the manufacture of matches that contained white phosphorus. The mechanism for necrosis is clot formation leading to bone ischaemia or infarction, leading to the putrid rotting of the bone of the lower jaw. For this reason, the Berne Convention (1906) was enacted to forbid the manufacture, sale or purchase of matches containing white phosphorus. This condition may also be caused by high doses of lead, cadmium and bisphosphonate based cancer drugs.
Arms control status and military regulationsEdit
There are multiple international laws that regulate white phosphorus use. Article 1 of Protocol III of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons defines an incendiary weapon as "any weapon or munition which is primarily designed to set fire to objects or to cause burn injury to persons through the action of flame, heat, or combination thereof, produced by a chemical reaction of a substance delivered on the target". The same protocol prohibits the use of incendiary weapons against civilians (already forbidden by the Geneva Conventions) or in civilian areas. The convention also defines weapons which are not to be considered to be incendiary weapons.
- Munitions which may have incidental incendiary effects, such as illuminants, tracers, smoke or signalling systems;
- Munitions designed to combine penetration, blast or fragmentation effects with an additional incendiary effect.
Weapons containing white phosphorus but that are not incendiary weapons are not regulated by the above protocol.
The use against military targets outside civilian areas is not explicitly banned by any treaty. The convention is meant to prohibit weapons that are "dependent on the use of the toxic properties of chemicals as a method of warfare" (Article II, Definitions, 9, "Purposes not Prohibited" c.).
The convention defines a "toxic chemical" as a chemical "which through its chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals" (CWC, II). An annex lists chemicals that fall under this definition and WP is not listed in the Schedules of chemical weapons or precursors.
In a 2005 interview with RAI, Peter Kaiser, spokesman for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (an organization overseeing the CWC and reporting directly to the UN General Assembly), questioned whether the weapon should fall under the convention's provisions:
No it's not forbidden by the CWC if it is used within the context of a military application which does not require or does not intend to use the toxic properties of white phosphorus. White phosphorus is normally used to produce smoke, to camouflage movement.
If that is the purpose for which the white phosphorus is used, then that is considered under the convention legitimate use.
If on the other hand the toxic properties of white phosphorus are specifically intended to be used as a weapon, that of course is prohibited, because the way the convention is structured or applied, any chemicals used against humans or animals that cause harm or death through the toxic properties of the chemical are considered chemical weapons.
Kaiser was a staff spokesman for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. The OPCW, using member votes, creates Schedules of chemical weapons or dual-use chemicals of concern and white phosphorus is not in any of these schedules.
The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, not the Chemical Weapons Convention, goes on, in its Protocol III, to prohibit the use of all air-delivered incendiary weapons against civilian populations, or for indiscriminate incendiary attacks against military forces co-located with civilians. That protocol also specifically excludes weapons whose incendiary effects are secondary, such as smoke grenades. This has often been read as excluding white phosphorus munitions from this protocol, as well. Several countries, including Israel, are not signatories to Protocol III.
The legal position is not the only consideration in any war. For instance, concerning the US use of white phosphorus in Iraq, the British Liberal Democrat foreign affairs spokesman Sir Menzies Campbell in 2005 said:
The use of this weapon may technically have been legal, but its effects are such that it will hand a propaganda victory to the insurgency. The denial of use followed by the admission will simply convince the doubters that there was something to hide.
Within the US Army, there appears to be conflicting advice on the use of white phosphorus against humans. According to the field manual on the Rule of Land Warfare, "The use of weapons which employ fire, such as tracer ammunition, flamethrowers, napalm and other incendiary agents, against targets requiring their use is not violative of international law." The 1999 ST 100-3 Battle Book, a student text published by the US Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, states that "It is against the law of land warfare to employ WP against personnel targets." At the same time, other field manuals discuss the use of white phosphorus against personnel.
- "Pyrotechnics, Explosives, & Fireworks". Retrieved 4 December 2005.
- Paul Reynolds (16 November 2005). "White phosphorus: weapon on the edge". BBC News.
- Whelehan, Niall (9 August 2012). The Dynamiters: Irish Nationalism and Political Violence in the Wider World, 1867–1900. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9781139560979. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- Ian Turner (1969). Sydney's Burning – The real conspiracy. Sydney: Alpha Books. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
- Axelrod, Alan (2009). Little-Known Wars of Great and Lasting Impact. Fair Winds Press. p. 246. ISBN 9781616734619. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- British Pathé (13 April 2014). "Flak And Flame Over Philippines (1945)". Retrieved 20 June 2017 – via YouTube.
- "United Nations Treaty Collection". Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- The Tunnels of Cu Chi; 2005 Tom Mangold and John Penycate
- Tunnel Rat in Vietnam; 2012 Gordon L Rothman
- 'When the fighting is over; A personal story of the Battle for Tumbledown Mountain and its' aftermath' by John and Robert Lawerance 1988
- 'No Picnic; 3 Commando Brigade in the South Atlantic by Julian Thompson 1985
- Joint Staff (1991). "White Phosphorus (WP)".
- "Rai News: le ultime notizie in tempo reale – news, attualità e aggiornamenti". www.rainews24.rai.it. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Mortenson, Darrin. Violence subsides for Marines in Fallujah, North County Times, 10 April 2004.
- Spinner, Jackie; Vick, Karl; Fekeiki, Omar (10 November 2004). "U.S. Forces Battle Into Heart of Fallujah". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 December 2005.
- Reynolds, Paul (16 November 2005). "OPCW Spokesman Peter Kaiser elucidates the OPCW position on white phosphorus". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- OPCW agrees with US Military that use of white phosphorus as incendiary agent is not prohibited Archived 5 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "INCHIESTA - IRAQ, THE HIDDEN MASSACRE - RAINEWS24". Retrieved 4 December 2005.
- "Independent Online Edition". The Independent. London. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 4 December 2005.
- "U.S. official admits phosphorus used as weapon in Iraq". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- "White Phosphorus In Iraq". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "BBC NEWS: US general defends phosphorus use". BBC News. 30 November 2005. Retrieved 13 December 2005.
- "Israel admits phosphorus bombing". BBC. 22 October 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2006.
- "Israel admits using phosphorus bombs during war Lebanon". Haaretz. 22 October 2006. Retrieved 4 April 2007.
- Jansen, Jaime (17 July 2006). "Lebanon claims Israel using banned weapons against civilians". Paper Chase Newsburst, Jurist Legal News & Research. University of Pittsburgh School of Law.
- "69 treated for exposure to toxic smoke in Ukraine derailment – Houston Chronicle". chron.com. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Train Carrying Toxic Cargo Derails In Ukraine". rferl.org. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "The Sky Is Burning Over Ukraine". terradaily.com. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Over 160 in hospital after phosphorus spill in west Ukraine | World | RIA Novosti". en.beta.rian.ru. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Fears grow of fallout from Ukraine toxic spill". canada.com. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Poison threat from Ukraine train". BBC News. 18 July 2007.
- "About 16,000 people examined in Ukraine after toxic train derailment – English pravda.ru". english.pravda.ru. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "НАТО следит за "фосфорной аварией" в Украине – Власть – Новости. Новости дня на сайте Подробности". podrobnosti.ua. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Frenkel, Sheera (23 April 2009). "Israel backs down over white phosphorus". The Times. London.[dead link]
- "UN accuses Israel over phosphorus". BBC News. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- Marquand, Robert; Blanford, Nicholas (24 January 1009). "Gaza: Israel under fire for alleged white phosphorus use". Christian Science Monitor.
- "Israel: Stop Unlawful Use of White Phosphorus in Gaza". Human Rights Watch. 10 January 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- Yagna, Yanir (14 January 2009). "For the first time, Gaza militants fire phosphorus shell at Israel". Haaretz.com.
- Miller, Jonathan (19 January 2009). "Gaza Cease-fire Emerged Amid Mix of Political, Pressures". PBS. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
A worker [filmed] the aftermath of the first two white phosphorous (sic) shells to explode at 6:45 in the morning. […] This bit of wrecked metal here is […] the remains of one of the four phosphorous (sic) bombs which exploded over the school, burning some of the children.
- "Red Cross: Israel's use of white phosphorus not illegal". JPost. 13 January 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
- "Phosphorus weapons – the ICRC's view". International Committee of the Red Cross. 17 January 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Bronner, Ethan (21 January 2009). "Outcry Erupts Over Reports That Israel Used Phosphorus Arms on Gazans". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Israel faces heat over white phosphorus". NBC News. 14 January 2009.
- "'Illegal bombs' outrage". The Independent. London. 16 January 2009.
- "New Israel phosphorus accusation". BBC News. 20 January 2009.
- "Israel-Hamas arms embargo urged". BBC News. 23 February 2009.
- Hider, James; Frenkel, Sheera (24 January 2009). "Israel admits using white phosphorus in attacks on Gaza". The Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Israel reprimands officers over UN compound shelling". BBC. 1 February 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Roth, Kenneth (22 January 2009). "The Incendiary IDF". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Israel denies banned weapons use". BBC. 11 January 2009.
- John Pike. "Protocol III – Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "'IDF white phosphorus use not illegal'". Fr.jpost.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- Curiel, Ilana (14 January 2009). "Phosphorus mortar shell detected in Negev". Ynetnews.
- "'Proposal emerges for 10-day Gaza truce as Palestinian death toll tops 1,000'". ctv.ca. Associated Press. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- "Rain of Fire". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- Frenkel, Sheera; Naughton, Philippe (15 January 2009). "UN headquarters in Gaza hit by Israeli 'white phosphorus' shells". Times Online. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "UN: Israelis hit our headquarters in Gaza with 'white phosphorus' shells". Belfast Telegraph. 15 January 2009.
- Katz, Yaakov."Shelled UN building used by Hamas" say Israeli defense officials, Jerusalem Post and Associated Press, 15 January 2009
- Harel, Amos (21 January 2009). "IDF probes improper use of phosphorus shells in Gaza Strip". Haaretz. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- "New Israel phosphorus accusation". BBC News. 20 January 2009.
- Beaumont, Peter (21 January 2009). "Israel admits troops may have used phosphorus shells in Gaza". The Guardian.
- "Rain of Fire: Israel's Unlawful Use of White Phosphorus in Gaza" (PDF) (Press release). Human Rights Watch. 25 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "THE OPERATION IN GAZA, 27 DECEMBER 2008–18 JANUARY 2009 FACTUAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS" (PDF). Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 29 July 2009.
- "United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza conflict". UN Human Rights Council. Archived from the original on 7 June 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Goldstone, Richard (25 September 2009). Report of the United Nations Fact-F inding Mission on the Gaza Conflict (Goldstone report) (PDF) (Report). UN Human Rights Council. para. 49.
- Frenkel, Sheera (2 February 2010). "Israeli officers get slap on wrist for white phosphorus use in Gaza". The Times. London.
- ישי גולדפלם (3 February 2010). על מה ננזפו הקצינים הבכירים? [What senior officers were reprimanded?]. Presspectiva.org.il (in Hebrew). Includes the bibliography of Pfeffer's citations, the IDF's responses, his final removal of phosphor mention, but the continued use of the mistaken information in various local and international media.
- "Israel's Illegal Use of White Phosphorus During 'Operation Cast Lead' - Foreign Policy Journal". 3 May 2013.
- "Israel accused of 'reckless' use of white phosphorus". 26 March 2009.
- (Organization), Human Rights Watch (3 March 2018). "Rain of Fire: Israel's Unlawful Use of White Phosphorus in Gaza". Human Rights Watch – via Google Books.
- "Under fire: Israel's enforcement of Access Restricted Areas in the Gaza Strip | Gaza Strip | Palestinian National Authority". Scribd. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- Straziuso, Jason (11 May 2009). "U.S.: Afghan Militants Use White Phosphorus". guardian.co.uk. London. Associated Press. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- "EXCLUSIVE – Afghan girl's burns show horror of chemical strike". Reuters India. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- Chivers, C. J. (19 April 2009). "Pinned Down, a Sprint to Escape Taliban Zone". New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- Synovitz, Ron (13 May 2009). "Investigation Launched Into White Phosphorus Claims In Afghanistan". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- Houthis release photos of Saudi phosphorus bombs, PressTV, 17 November 2009.
- Saudi jets using phosphorus bombs, claim Yemen rebels, Daily Times, 10 November 2009.
- ЗАО ИД «Комсомольская правда» (12 June 2014). "Ополчение Славянска: Украина применила фосфорные боеприпасы". Kp.ru. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Украина использует фосфорные бомбы | Новости.Gazeta.kz". News.gazeta.kz. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- Denber, Rachel (20 June 2014). "Dispatches: White Phosphorus, White Lies, or What?". Human Rights Watch.
- "Statement on the use of white phosphorus bomb by the armed forces of Armenia against civilians and civilian objects of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "VIDEO: Syria regime drops white phosphorus on Idlib's Saraqeb". english.alarabiya.net. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- Barnard, Anne (10 June 2017). "U.S.-Led Forces Said to Have Used White Phosphorus in Syria" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Video shows Russia using 'white phosphorous' bombs in Syria, activists claim". 8 March 2017.
- "Turkey urges Russia to stop attacks against civilians in Syria". Hürriyet Daily News.
- "Syria: Expert analysis shows US-led coalition use of white phosphorus may amount to war crime". Amnesty International USA. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia appears to be using U.S.-supplied white phosphorus in its war in Yemen". The Washington Post. 19 September 2016.
- "Saudi coalition used white phosphorus munitions in Yemen - الصباح اليمني". 4 July 2017.
- "Coalition Used White Phosphorus in Fight for Mosul". NPR. 13 June 2017.
- "US jets strike Syrian town with banned white phosphorus bombs – Russian Defense Ministry". RT International. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "US Denies Russian Report it Dropped White Phosphorus in Eastern Syria". Voice of America. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- Burke, Robert (2013), "Hazardous Materials Chemistry for Emergency Responders, Third Edition", CRC Press: 313
- Khalili, Mustafa; Tait, Michael (19 January 2009). "White phosphorus in Gaza: the victims". The Guardian. London.
- "Chemical burns follwong Israeli bombings | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". flickr.com. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). "White Phosphorus: Health Effects". Toxicological Profile Information Sheet (PDF).
- "ATSDR – Minimal Risk Levels for Hazardous Substances (MRLs)". Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR WHITE PHOSPHORUS" (PDF).
- "Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 2".
- "The Pentagon's confirmation that it used white phosphorus as a weapon during last year's offensive in the Iraqi city of Falluja has sparked criticism".
- Lisandro Irizarry, MD, MPH, FAAEM. "eMedicine – CBRNE – Incendiary Agents, White Phosphorus". Retrieved 4 December 2005.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- I. J. MacLeod and A. P. V. Rogers. "The Use of White Phosphorus and the Law of War", in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (2007)
- Organisation for the Prohibitions of Chemical Weapons. "Schedules of Chemicals" (– Scholar search). Archived 24 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Paul Reynolds (16 November 2005). "White phosphorus: weapon on the edge". BBC News. Retrieved 4 April 2007.
- "Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)". Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "Protocol III – Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons". Retrieved 4 December 2005.
- "Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons – States parties and signatories". The United Nations at Geneva. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
- Buncombe, Andrew; Brown, Colin (17 November 2005). "Incendiary weapons: The big white lie". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "FM27-10 :: Rule of Land Warfare (GlobalSecurity.org)". Retrieved 12 December 2005.
- "5sect3". Retrieved 4 December 2005.
- "FM 3-06.11 Appendix F". Retrieved 12 December 2005.
- Archived 5 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- The Legality of the Use of White Phosphorus by the United States Military During the 2004 Fallujah Assaults (Roman Reyhani)
- Globalsecurity.org on WP (including use during the Battle of Fallujah and during the December 1994 battle for Grozny during the First Chechen War)
- Buncombe, Andrew; Brown, Colin (17 November 2005). "Incendiary weapons: The big white lie". The Independent. London.
- CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards