Wayne Shorter (born August 25, 1933) is an American jazz saxophonist and composer. Shorter came to prominence in the late 1950s as a member of, and eventually primary composer for, Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. In the 1960s, he joined Miles Davis's Second Great Quintet, and then co-founded the jazz fusion band Weather Report. He has recorded over 20 albums as a bandleader.
|Born||August 25, 1933|
Newark, New Jersey, United States
|Genres||Modal jazz, crossover jazz, post-bop, hard bop, jazz fusion, third stream|
|Instrument(s)||Tenor saxophone, soprano saxophone|
|Labels||Blue Note, Columbia, Verve|
Many Shorter compositions have become jazz standards, and his music has earned worldwide recognition, critical praise and commendation. Shorter has won 11 Grammy Awards. He is acclaimed for his mastery of the soprano saxophone since switching his focus from the tenor in the late 1960s and beginning an extended reign in 1970 as Down Beat's annual poll-winner on that instrument, winning the critics' poll for 10 consecutive years and the readers' for 18. The New York Times' Ben Ratliff described Shorter in 2008 as "probably jazz's greatest living small-group composer and a contender for greatest living improviser". In 2017, he was awarded the Polar Music Prize.
Early life and educationEdit
Wayne Shorter was born in Newark, New Jersey, and attended Newark Arts High School, from which he graduated in 1952. He loved music, being encouraged by his father to take up the clarinet as a teenager; his older brother Alan played alto saxophone before switching to the trumpet in college. While in high school Wayne also performed with the Nat Phipps Band in Newark. After graduating from New York University with a degree in music education in 1956, Shorter spent two years in the U.S. Army, during which time he played briefly with Horace Silver. After his discharge, he played with Maynard Ferguson. In his youth Shorter had acquired the nickname "Mr. Gone", which later became an album title for Weather Report.
His early influences include Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane and Coleman Hawkins. In 1959, Shorter joined Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers where he stayed for four years, eventually becoming musical director and composing pieces for the band. Together they toured the US, Japan, and Europe, recording several albums. During this time Shorter "established himself as one of the most gifted of the young saxophonists" and received international acknowledgment.
With Miles Davis (1964–70)Edit
Herbie Hancock said of Shorter's tenure in Miles Davis's Second Great Quintet: "The master writer to me, in that group, was Wayne Shorter. He still is a master. Wayne was one of the few people who brought music to Miles that didn't get changed." Davis said, "Wayne is a real composer. He writes scores, writes the parts for everybody just as he wants them to sound. ... Wayne also brought in a kind of curiosity about working with musical rules. If they didn't work, then he broke them, but with musical sense; he understood that freedom in music was the ability to know the rules in order to bend them to your own satisfaction and taste."
Ian Carr, musician and Rough Guide author, states that with Davis, Shorter found his own voice as a player and composer. "Blakey's hard-driving, straight-ahead rhythms had brought out the muscularity in Shorter's tenor playing, but the greater freedom of the Davis rhythm-section allowed him to explore new emotional and technical dimensions."
Shorter remained in Davis's band after the breakup of the quintet in 1968, playing on early jazz fusion recordings including In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew (both 1969). His last live dates and studio recordings with Davis were in 1970.
Until 1968, he played tenor saxophone exclusively. The final album on which he played tenor in the regular sequence of Davis albums was Filles de Kilimanjaro. In 1969, he played the soprano saxophone on the Davis album In a Silent Way and on his own Super Nova (recorded with then-current Davis sidemen Chick Corea and John McLaughlin). When performing live with Davis, and on recordings from summer 1969 to early spring 1970, he played both soprano and tenor saxophones; by the early 1970s, however, he chiefly played soprano.
Solo Blue Note recordingsEdit
Simultaneous with his time in the Davis quintet, Shorter recorded several albums for Blue Note Records, featuring almost exclusively his own compositions, with a variety of line-ups, quartets and larger groups, including Blue Note favourites such as trumpeter Freddie Hubbard. His first Blue Note album (of 11 in total recorded from 1964 to 1970) was Night Dreamer, recorded at Rudy Van Gelder's studio in 1964 with Lee Morgan (trumpet), McCoy Tyner (piano), Reggie Workman (bass) and Elvin Jones (drums). Two more albums were recorded in 1964, JuJu and Speak No Evil.
Of the three Blue Note albums Shorter recorded in 1965, The All Seeing Eye (rec. 1965, rel. 1966) was a workout with a larger group, while Adam's Apple (rec. 1966, rel. 1967) was back to carefully constructed melodies by Shorter leading a quartet. Then a sextet again in the following year for Schizophrenia (rec. 1967, rel. 1969) with Herbie Hancock, bassist Ron Carter, trombonist Curtis Fuller, alto saxophonist/flautist James Spaulding and strong rhythms by drummer Joe Chambers.
Shorter also recorded occasionally as a sideman (again, mainly for Blue Note) with trumpeter Donald Byrd, McCoy Tyner, trombonist Grachan Moncur III, Freddie Hubbard, Lee Morgan, and bandmates Herbie Hancock and drummer Tony Williams.
Weather Report (1971–1986)Edit
Following the release of Odyssey of Iska in 1970, Shorter formed the fusion group Weather Report with Davis veteran keyboardist Joe Zawinul and bassist Miroslav Vitous. The other original members were percussionist Airto Moreira, and drummer Alphonse Mouzon. After Vitous' departure in 1973, Shorter and Zawinul co-led the group until the band's break-up in late 1985. A variety of musicians would make up Weather Report over the years (most notably the revolutionary bassist Jaco Pastorius) helping the band produce many high quality recordings in diverse styles, with funk, bebop, Latin jazz, ethnic music, and futurism being the most prevalent denominators.
Solo and side projectsEdit
In the late 1970s and the early 1980s, he toured in the V.S.O.P. quintet. This group was a revival of the 1960s Davis quintet, except that Freddie Hubbard filled the trumpet chair. Shorter appeared with the same former Davis bandmates on the Carlos Santana double LP The Swing of Delight (1980), for which he also composed a number of pieces.
After leaving Weather Report in 1986, Shorter continued to record and lead groups in jazz fusion styles, including touring in 1988 with guitarist Carlos Santana, who appeared on This is This! (1986), the last Weather Report disc. There is a concert video recorded at the Lugano Jazz Festival in 1987, with Jim Beard (keyboards), Carl James (bass), Terri Lyne Carrington (drums), and Marilyn Mazur (percussion). In 1989, he contributed to a hit on the rock charts, playing the sax solo on Don Henley's song "The End of the Innocence" and also produced the album Pilar by the Portuguese singer-songwriter Pilar Homem de Melo. He has also maintained an occasional working relationship with Herbie Hancock, including a tribute album recorded shortly after Miles Davis's death with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, Tony Williams and Wallace Roney. He continued to appear on Mitchell's records in the 1990s and can be heard on the soundtrack of the Harrison Ford film The Fugitive (1993).
In 1995, Shorter released the album High Life, his first solo recording for seven years. It was also his debut as a leader for Verve Records. Shorter composed all the compositions on the album and co-produced it with the bassist Marcus Miller. High Life received the Grammy Award for best Contemporary Jazz Album in 1997.
Shorter worked with Herbie Hancock once again in 1997, on the much acclaimed and heralded album 1+1. The song "Aung San Suu Kyi" (named for the Burmese pro-democracy activist) won both Hancock and Shorter a Grammy Award.
In 2009, he was announced as one of the headline acts at the Gnaoua World Music Festival in Essaouira, Morocco. His 2013 live album Without a Net (rec. 2010) is his first with Blue Note Records since Odyssey of Iska (rec. 1970, rel. 1971).
In 2000, Shorter formed the first permanent acoustic group under his name, a quartet with pianist Danilo Perez, bassist John Patitucci, and drummer Brian Blade, playing his own compositions, many of them reworkings of tunes going back to the 1960s. Four albums of live recordings have been released: Footprints Live! (rec. live 2001, rel. 2002); Beyond the Sound Barrier (rec. live 2002–2004, rel. 2005); Without a Net (rec. live 2010, rel. 2013); and Emanon (2018), with the latter, in addition to live material, including Shorter’s quartet in a studio session with the 34-piece Orpheus Chamber Orchestra. The quartet has received great acclaim from fans and critics, especially for the strength of Shorter's tenor saxophone playing. The biography Footprints: The Life and Work of Wayne Shorter by journalist Michelle Mercer examines the working life of the musicians as well as Shorter's thoughts and Buddhist beliefs. Beyond the Sound Barrier received the 2006 Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Jazz Album.
Shorter's 2003 album Alegría (his first studio album for 10 years, since High Life) received the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Jazz Album; it features the quartet with a host of other musicians, including pianist Brad Mehldau, drummer Terri Lynn Carrington and former Weather Report percussionist Alex Acuña. Shorter's compositions, some new, some reworked from his Miles Davis period, feature the complex Latin rhythms that he specialised in during his Weather Report days.
Wayne Shorter: Zero GravityEdit
In 2015, producer/director Dorsay Alavi began filming a documentary about the life of Wayne Shorter called Wayne Shorter: Zero Gravity. A number of high-profile musicians, including Herbie Hancock, Esperanza Spalding, and Terri Lyne Carrington, performed at a donor event to raise funds for the documentary; two of the largest donations came from the Herb Alpert Foundation and Carlos Santana.
In 2016, it was announced that Shorter, Carlos Santana, and Herbie Hancock would begin touring under the name Mega Nova. Also included within the supergroup was bassist Marcus Miller and drummer Cindy Blackman Santana. Their first show together was on August 24, 2016 at the Hollywood Bowl.
In 2018, Shorter retired from his near 70-year performing career due to health issues. He has continued working as a composer, creating a "new operatic work" titled (Iphigenia), with Esperanza Spalding writing the libretto and architect Frank Gehry designing the sets, which premiered on 12 November 2021, at the Cutler Majestic Theatre.
Honors and recognitionEdit
In 2017, Shorter was announced as the joint winner of the Polar Music Prize. The award committee stated: "Without the musical explorations of Wayne Shorter, modern music would not have drilled so deep."
|1962||Wayne Shorter||New Star Saxophonist||DownBeat Readers Poll||Won|
|1972||I Sing The Body Electric||Best Jazz Fusion Performance, Vocal Or Instrumental||Grammy Award||Nominated||with Weather Report|||
|1979||8:30||Best Jazz Fusion Performance, Vocal Or Instrumental||Grammy Award||Won||with Weather Report|||
|1981||Night Passage||Best Jazz Fusion Performance, Vocal Or Instrumental||Grammy Award||Nominated||with Weather Report|||
|1982||Weather Report||Best Jazz Fusion Performance, Vocal Or Instrumental||Grammy Award||Nominated||with Weather Report|||
|1983||Procession||Best Jazz Fusion Performance, Vocal Or Instrumental||Grammy Award||Nominated||with Weather Report|||
|1985||Sportin' Life||Best Jazz Fusion Performance, Vocal Or Instrumental||Grammy Award||Nominated||with Weather Report|||
|Atlantis||Best Jazz Fusion Performance, Vocal Or Instrumental||Grammy Award||Nominated|||
|1987||"Call Sheet Blues"||Best Instrumental Composition||Grammy Award||Won||with Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter and Billy Higgins from The Other Side of Round Midnight Featuring Dexter Gordon|||
|1994||A Tribute to Miles||Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Individual or Group||Grammy Award||Won|||
|"Pinocchio "||Best Jazz Instrumental Solo||Grammy Award||Nominated||from A Tribute to Miles|||
|1996||Wayne Shorter||Lifetime achievement||Miles Davis Award||Won||The Miles Davis Award is given by the Montreal International Jazz Festival to "honor a great international jazz musician for the entire body of his or her work and influence in regenerating the jazz idiom."|||
|High Life||Best Contemporary Jazz Album||Grammy Award||Won|||
|"Children Of The Night"||Best Instrumental Arrangement||Grammy Award||Nominated||from High Life|||
|"Midnight In Carlotta's Hair"||Best Instrumental Composition||Grammy Award||Nominated||from High Life|||
|1997||"Aung San Suu Kyi"||Best Instrumental Composition||Grammy Award||Won||from Herbie Hancock's1+1|||
|1998||Wayne Shorter||Lifetime achievement||NEA Jazz Masters Fellowship||Won||NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships are awarded by National Endowment for the Arts to "musicians who have reached an exceptionally high standard of achievement in this very specialized art form." Each fellowship includes a monetary award.|
|1999||"In Walked Wayne"||Best Jazz Instrumental Solo||Grammy Award||Won||from J.J. Johnson's Heroes|||
|2002||Footprints Live!||Best Jazz Instrumental Album, Individual or Group||Grammy Award||Nominated|||
|Wayne Shorter||Significant contributions to the evolution of jazz||Beacons in Jazz Award||Won||bestowed by The New School's Jazz & Contemporary Music Program|||
|2003||"Sacajawea"||Best Instrumental Composition||Grammy Award||Won||from Alegría|||
|Alegría||Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Individual or Group||Grammy Award||Won|||
|2005||Beyond the Sound Barrier||Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Individual or Group||Grammy Award||Won|||
|2006||Wayne Shorter||Soprano Saxophone Player of the Year||Downbeat Critics' Poll||Won|||
|Wayne Shorter Quartet||Jazz Group of the Year||Downbeat Critics' Poll||Won|||
|Small Ensemble Group of the Year||Jazz Journalists Association Jazz Award||Won|
|2008||Wayne Shorter||Soprano Saxophone Player of the Year||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won|||
|2013||Without A Net||Jazz Album of the Year||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won||with Wayne Shorter Quartet|||
|Wayne Shorter||Artist of the Year||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won|||
|Soprano Saxophone Player of the Year||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won|||
|Wayne Shorter Quartet||Jazz Group||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won|||
|DownBeat Readers Poll||Won|||
|2014||"Orbits"||Best Jazz Instrumental Solo||Grammy Award||Won||from Without a Net|||
|Wayne Shorter||Achiever||Golden Plate Award||Won||bestowed by American Academy of Achievement; presented by Awards Council member Willie L. Brown Jr.|||
|Wayne Shorter Quartet||Jazz Group||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won|
|2015||Wayne Shorter||Soprano Saxophone Player of the Year||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won|||
|2016||Wayne Shorter||Soprano Saxophone Player of the Year||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won|
|DownBeat Readers Poll||Won|||
|2017||Wayne Shorter||Soprano Saxophone Player of the Year||DownBeat Critics Poll||Won|||
|Exceptional achievement||Polar Music Prize||Won|
|Musical Arts||Rolf Schock Prizes||Won|||
|2019||Wayne Shorter||Jazz Artist||DownBeat Readers Poll||Won|||
|Soprano Saxophone Player of the Year||Won|||
|Best Jazz Instrumental Album||Grammy Award||Won|||
|2021||Wayne Shorter||On-going innovation and impact in the field of jazz||Doris Duke Performing Artist Award||Won||sponsored by the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation|||
- Introducing Wayne Shorter (aka Blues a la Carte, Vee-Jay, 1959)
- Second Genesis (Vee-Jay, rec. 1960, rel. 1974)
- Wayning Moments (Vee-Jay, 1962)
- Night Dreamer (Blue Note, 1964)
- JuJu (Blue Note, 1964)
- Speak No Evil (Blue Note, rec. 1964, rel. 1966)
- The Soothsayer (Blue Note, rec. 1965, rel. 1979)
- Et Cetera (Blue Note, rec. 1965, rel. 1980)
- The All Seeing Eye (Blue Note, rec. 1965, rel. 1966)
- Adam's Apple (Blue Note, rec. 1966, rel. 1967)
- Schizophrenia (Blue Note, rec. 1967, rel. 1969)
- Super Nova (Blue Note, 1969)
- Moto Grosso Feio (Blue Note, rec. 1970, rel. 1974)
- Odyssey of Iska (Blue Note, rec. 1970, rel. 1971)
- Native Dancer (Columbia, rec. 1974, rel. 1975) with Milton Nascimento
- Atlantis (Columbia, 1985)
- Phantom Navigator (Columbia, rec. 1986, rel. 1987)
- Joy Ryder (Columbia, 1988)
- High Life (Verve, 1995)
- 1+1 (Verve, 1997) with Herbie Hancock
- Footprints Live! (Verve, 2002)
- Alegría (Verve, 2003)
- Beyond the Sound Barrier (Verve, rec. live 2002–2004, rel. 2005) as Wayne Shorter Quartet
- Carlos Santana and Wayne Shorter – Live at the Montreux Jazz Festival 1988 (Image Entertainment, 2007) with Carlos Santana
- Without a Net (Blue Note, rec. live 2010, rel. 2013) as Wayne Shorter Quartet
- Emanon (Blue Note, 2018)
Shorter met Teruko (Irene) Nakagami in 1961. They were later married and had a daughter, Miyako. Some of his compositions are copyrighted as "Miyako Music" and Shorter dedicated the pieces "Miyako" and "Infant Eyes" to his daughter. The couple separated in 1964.
Shorter met Ana Maria Patricio in 1966 and they were married in 1970. In 1986, their daughter Iska died of a grand mal seizure at age 14. Ana Maria and the couple's niece, Dalila, were both killed on July 17, 1996, on TWA Flight 800, while travelling to visit him in Italy. Dalila was the daughter of Ana Maria Shorter's sister and her husband, jazz vocalist Jon Lucien. In 1999, Shorter married Carolina Dos Santos, a close friend of Ana Maria. The Shorters practice Nichiren Buddhism and are longtime members of the Buddhist association Soka Gakkai International.
- Colin Larkin, ed. (1997). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Popular Music (Concise ed.). Virgin Books. p. 1081/2. ISBN 1-85227-745-9.
- "Wayne Shorter | Artist". Grammy Awards. Recording Academy. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
- Down Beat Poll Archive. DownBeat.com. Retrieved 2013-06-02
- Ratliff, Ben. "Music Review: A Birthday Bash With a Harmonious Mix of Guests". The New York Times. December 3, 2008. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
- Chow, Andrew R. (February 7, 2017). "Sting and Wayne Shorter Win Polar Music Prize". New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- A Brief History Archived April 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Newark Arts High School. Accessed August 10, 2008.
- Pompilio, Natalie. "Celebrating one of Newark's own, a living jazz legend, at NJPAC", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, April 20, 2017. Accessed August 14, 2018. "Shorter, a graduate of Newark Arts High School, began his professional career more than six decades ago and shows no sign of slowing down."
- "Weather Report - Forecast: Tomorrow (Columbia Legacy)". BigTakeOver.com. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
- Carr, Ian; Fairweather, Digby; Priestley, Brian (1995). The Rough Guide to Jazz - The Essential Companion to Artists and Albums. Rough Guides Ltd. pp. 584–585. ISBN 1-85828-137-7.
- Len Lyons (1989). "Herbie Hancock". The Great Jazz Pianists: Speaking Of Their Lives And Music. Da Capo Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0306803437.
- Davis, Miles; Troupe, Quincy (1990). "Chapter 13". Miles: The Autobiography. Simon and Schuster. p. 274. ISBN 0-671-72582-3.
- "Footprints: The Life and Work of Wayne Shorter". AllAboutJazz.com. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- "Wayne Shorter: Zero Gravity Documentary", Pledgemusic.
- Chagollan, Steve (September 30, 2014). "For the Love of Wayne: Shorter Doc Fundraiser Attracts A-List Jazz Talent". Variety. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
- Smith, Steve (August 17, 2016). "Inside Carlos Santana's New Jazz-Rock Supergroup". RollingStone.com. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- Collins, Shanna (August 24, 2016). "Carlos Santan's Magical Supergroup Is Here To Break Barriers". Vibe.com. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- Barton, Chris (August 25, 2016). "Review: Carlos Santana, Wayne Shorter and Herbie Hancock rarely take off with Mega Nova at the Hollywood Bowl". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Patitucci Juggles 'All the Elements of Music'". DownBeat Magazine. May 10, 2019.
- Pellegrinelli, Lara (January 12, 2021). "Esperanza Spalding is the 21st Century Jazz Genius". opb.org. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
- "World Premiere of esperanza spalding and Wayne Shorter's Opera, (Iphigenia)". Harvard Magazine. November 18, 2021.
- Hochschild, Rob (June 15, 1999). "1999 Commencement at Berklee: David Bowie and Wayne Shorter". Berklee College of Music.
- "Thelonious Monk Lifetime Achievement Award". Broadwayworld.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
- "Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award Press Release". Grammy.com. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
- Wayne Shorter awarded Guggenheim Fellowship. Jazz Times. April 8, 2016.
- "Festival Awards". Festival International de Jazz de Montreal. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
- "A Brief History of the NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships". Arts.gov. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
- "Wayne Shorter To Receive Beacons In Jazz Award". Downbeat. January 30, 2002.
- "BMI Jazz Greats Sweep 'Downbeat' Critics Poll". BMI. July 17, 2006. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
- "BMI Jazz Composers Top 'Downbeat' Readers Poll". BMI. November 11, 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
- "Wayne Shorter Tops 61st Annual DownBeat Critics Poll". Downbeat. June 19, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
- "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- "2014 Summit Highlights Photo".
Academy guest of honor and jazz saxophonist Wayne Shorter accompanies Esperanza Spalding in a duet performance at the 2014 International Achievement Summit in San Francisco.
- "Bennett, McBride winners in DownBeat Readers Poll". JAZZ.FM 91. October 27, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
- Washington, Kamsi (October 28, 2006). "Schneider & Washington Among DownBeat Readers Poll Winners". Downbeat. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
- "Marsalis, Krall, Corea Among DownBeat Readers Poll Winners". DownBeat. October 24, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
- "Rolf Schock Prize Recipients 2017", The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- "Shorter, Salvant and Benson Among DownBeat Readers Poll Winners". October 21, 2019. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- "Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Announces 2021 Doris Duke Artists". Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. October 21, 2021. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
- "Wayne Shorter, Kris Davis and Danilo Pérez win 2021 Doris Duke Artist Awards". JAZZ.FM91. October 25, 2021. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
- "A Separate Peace". People.com. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Ratliff, Ben (April 22, 1998). "With This Composer, The Work Is Never Done". New York Times. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- "Times Topics". The New York Times. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- Old Times, Winter / Spring 2012 - p. 12, UCC principal's son makes beautiful music, Nick Krewen
- Wayne Shorter biography, discography and album reviews, credits & releases at AllMusic
- Wayne Shorter discography, album releases & credits at Discogs
- Wayne Shorter at Facebook
- Wayne Shorter discography at JazzDisco.org
- Wayne Shorter biography, discography, album credits & user reviews at ProgArchives.com
- Wayne Shorteralbums to be listened on Spotify
- Wayne Shorter albums to be listened on YouTube
- "An Interview with Wayne Shorter" by Bob Blumenthal at jazz.com
- Wayne Shorter Quartet with NEC Philharmonia, Boston at AllAboutJazz.com
- Wayne Shorter's artist file on Montreal Jazz Festival's website
- Wayne Shorter on creativity
- DTM interview
- Interview with Wayne Shorter on The Music Show, ABC Radio (Australia), June 2016.