Walter Long, 1st Viscount Long
Walter Hume Long, 1st Viscount Long, PC, JP, FRS (13 July 1854 – 26 September 1924), was a British Unionist politician. In a political career spanning over 40 years, he held office as President of the Board of Agriculture, President of the Local Government Board, Chief Secretary for Ireland, Secretary of State for the Colonies and First Lord of the Admiralty. He is also remembered for his links with Irish Unionism, and served as Leader of the Irish Unionist Party in the House of Commons from 1906 to 1910.
The Viscount Long
|Secretary of State for the Colonies|
10 December 1916 – 10 January 1919
|Prime Minister||David Lloyd George|
|Preceded by||Bonar Law|
|Succeeded by||The Viscount Milner|
|First Lord of the Admiralty|
10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
|Prime Minister||David Lloyd George|
|Preceded by||Sir Eric Geddes|
|Succeeded by||The Viscount Lee of Fareham|
|Leader of the Irish Unionist Alliance|
|Preceded by||Edward James Saunderson|
|Succeeded by||Sir Edward Carson|
|Born||13 July 1854|
|Died||26 September 1924|
West Ashton, England
|Spouse(s)||Lady Dorothy Boyle |
(c. 1860 – 1938)
|Alma mater||Christ Church, Oxford|
Background and educationEdit
Long was born at Bath, the eldest son of Richard Penruddocke Long, by his wife Charlotte Anna, daughter of William Wentworth FitzWilliam Dick (originally Hume). The 1st Baron Gisborough was his younger brother. On his father's side he was descended from an old family of Wiltshire gentry, and on his mother's side from Anglo-Irish gentry in County Wicklow. When young, Walter lived at Dolforgan Hall, Montgomeryshire, a property owned by his grandfather. Whilst living there, his father inherited the Rood Ashton Estate.
Long went to Hilperton school, Amesbury, where he was harshly disciplined by Edwin Meyrick. At Harrow, Walter was popular, proving a sporty captain of cricket. It was during Walter's studies at Christ Church, Oxford, that his father had a mental breakdown, and two years later died in February 1875. Upon his father's death, he took over management of the family properties, whilst his mother moved into a house in Oxford. It was a stressful time, during which he was frequently summoned by his mother, and his younger brother also accumulated gathering debts.
Long continued to box, ride and hunt, as well as play college cricket. Afternoons spent with the Bicester, Heythrops, and South Oxfordshire hunts were matched by the university Drag Hunt. His proficiency was reflected in the early offer to become Master of the Vale of White Horse Hunt, which he turned down. His agent H Medlicott despaired at the danger to the family fortune, urging him to cut his relations loose; but he raised a new £30,000 mortgage on lands, which Medlicott complained he would have to sell. On coming down from Oxford in 1877, he purchased a Coach and Four for £200. After a year in Wiltshire, he married Lady Boyle.
Political career, 1880–1911Edit
Long was determined on a career in politics, campaigning at Marlborough in a traditional Liberal seat in 1879. After Sir George Jenkinson agreed to resign in North Wiltshire, he was adopted by 'half a dozen country gentlemen'. At the 1880 general election, Long was elected to parliament as a Conservative for North Wiltshire, a seat he held until 1885. A supporter of Lord Beaconsfield, the British Empire, Church of England and state, he was against extending education, but favoured bible teachings in schools. He won the two-member North Wiltshire seat by more than 2000 votes. At the time Beaconsfield died on 19 April 1881, he was making a record of his days in the Commons:
I rose somewhere about 8.30 and as a new member was duly called.
I selected as my time, midnight until, if necessary, eight in the morning. I used to leave London at 5.30 in the morning, providing the House was up, take the train down to Chippenham, have my hunt, and get back to London by train leaving Chippenham about 7.30... I was at the House at midnight and I would stay there till it rose.
He made his first speech on 26 July 1880 during the third reading of the Compensation for Disturbances (Ireland) bill.
Long won his seat with a reduced majority of 95 votes at the November 1885 general election. There was considerable anger at the Conservatives 'Fair Trade policy' for workers. He believed English people had little understanding of Ireland or the minority in Ireland that Home Rule would not protect, and that Gladstone's Home Rule policy would lead to the dismemberment of the empire. The home rule policy was defeated, Long was returned with an increased majority of 1726 votes in July 1886. Aged thirty-two, Long was asked to become a junior minister to C. T. Ritchie at the Local Government Board, in Salisbury's government. They had noticed his unswerving support from the backbenches. He was approachable and had a no-nonsense manner, an excellent memory: logical and crisp. He was both mature and responsible for a young MP. The very strong connections he had with the agricultural community assisted local government in his area. He entered government for the first time in 1886 in Lord Salisbury's second administration as Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board, serving under Charles Ritchie, and became one of the architects of the Local Government Act 1888, which established elected county councils.
Long dealt with Poor Law reform in the county areas, slum reforms, reform of the London County Council, and better housing for the working-classes. He was deputed to make speeches backing the government position on the LCC bill, although he was not responsible for its draft or passage. Ritchie was to deal with the towns in Local Government Act 1888, but was ill for the period, and Long had "a sound grasp its details and essentials." On 6 Feb 1887, he made an important speech in the "Plan of Campaign" from which unionism there seemed to encourage landlordism. However behind the law for tenant compensation, Long knew lay a deeper demand for independence. He continued to be worried by the Liberals' policy of Home Rule, supporting the Irish Unionists who opposed it. He could not square the retention of Irish MPs at Westminster under the scheme for the second home rule bill. Irish MPs could control English, Scottish, and Welsh affairs, so he argued. The issue was central to the general election of 1892. Long had returned from Canada on a tour speaking on the federal system there. He reiterated the claim that Ulster Unionists would never accept the bill. But Liberals argued that the Conservatives would raise bread prices, and lower wages if returned, "the labourers are ignorant lot and swallowed it whole", he decried. Long was defeated by 138 votes, losing his seat. In July 1892, Liverpool West Derby became vacant and Long defeated the Liberal candidate by 1357 votes at the by-election of 1893. Knowing his grasp of parliamentary procedure, Arthur James Balfour hired him to be a strategist in opposition. The Liberals appointed Long to the Royal Commission on Agriculture, meeting at Trowbridge on 18 January 1893.
Long continued in connections with Ireland throughout his career. He did not wish to sever legislative ties of Union with Ireland; but only to offer "an extension of the privileges of local government to the Irish people". Home Rule was thrown out by the Lords on 8 September 1893, by 419 votes to 41. In June 1895, the Liberals were resoundingly defeated in the Lords, and the following month Salisbury was returned for another ministry.
After the Conservative defeat in 1892, Ritchie's retirement made Long the chief opposition spokesman on local government, and when the Tories returned to power in 1895, he entered the cabinet as President of the Board of Agriculture. In this role he was notable for his efforts to prevent the spread of rabies. The creation of the Board of Agriculture had brought a boost to Long's career in 1889. But opposition rose up strongly, when the Dog Muzzlers act, prompted the Laymen's League in Liverpool to contest the Church discipline bill. Long became increasingly unpopular in his constituency accused of being "irascible and scheming", and was advised to change seats. But this did not prevent in 1895 admittance to the Privy Council. The bourgeois Navy League in Liverpool could not wait to get rid of him but his powerful friends, like the "somnolent" Duke of Devonshire gave large donations to the Anti-Socialist Union - and this would be disastrous to the Union, for it would immediately alienate every snob and mediocrity...." Yet Long was thick-skinned and seems impervious to the insults, for he remained remarkably successful at the polls.
For the 'Khaki election' of November 1900, Long won Bristol South. With the ministerial shuffle in 1900, he became President of the Local Government Board. Never an insider, Long worked closely with constituents on local issues showing "sensitivity to the wider needs of society". His capacity for hard work revealed that he was also stubborn, short-tempered, with a choleric temperament; a stickler for the letter of the law. He was frequently plagued by ill-health: neuralgia, arthritis, susceptible to colds and flu; a waspish character, he was not charismatic, nor was he analytic or probing, like his mentor Balfour. In this role, he was criticised as too radical for his support of the Unemployed Workmen's Act 1905, which created an unemployment board to give work and training to the unemployed.
In 1903, Long took a leading role as a spokesman for the protectionist wing of the party, advocating tariff reform and imperial preference alongside Joseph Chamberlain and his son Austen Chamberlain, which brought him into conflict with Charles Ritchie, Michael Hicks-Beach and others on the free-trade wing. Long was a moderate within the protectionist ranks and became a go-between for the protectionists and free-traders, increasing his prominence and popularity within the party. Perhaps his most significant achievement on the board was the unification of the London water-supply boards into the Metropolitan Water Board.
Chief Secretary for IrelandEdit
Long was offered the position of First Lord of the Admiralty in Lord Selborne's place, as the latter was appointed to the Governor-Generalship of South Africa. But he refused the promotion, advising the appointment of Lord Cawdor. Really what Long wanted was to remain at Local Government, but when George Wyndham resigned as Chief Secretary for Ireland, Balfour was faced with a crisis. Wyndham resigned on 5 March 1905, over what became known as the "Wyndham-MacDonnell Imbroglio".
Sir Antony MacDonnell was a successful Indian civil servant appointed as administrator in Dublin by Wyndham, on the strict understanding that the permanent post made MacDonnell's role a non-political position. MacDonnell was a Catholic from Mayo, whose appointment left unionists wondering if they had been betrayed by London. Nevertheless, having been an experienced and competent implementer of the 1903 Wyndham Land Act, MacDonnell came to be widely seen as a force for moderation. Wyndham was occupied in London with cabinet duties, and so appreciated the implied need for permanent governance. Balfour had already considered Long for the post in January 1905, and to that end consulted both Edward Carson and John Atkinson under pressure from Horace Plunkett and Gerald Balfour, to continue the policy of moderate reform. Due to his Irish connections (both his wife and his mother were Irish), it was hoped that Long might be more acceptable to Irish Unionists than his predecessor.
Long was reluctant to accept the offer; frustrated and angered by Lord Dunraven's proposals and MacDonnell's initiatives that he regarded as anti-Unionist. In Mid-March he was determined to bring Unionism back from the brink of extinction in Ireland. Arriving in Dublin on 15 March, at dinner there he took the pragmatic view to work with MacDonnell. Throughout March and April he saw no grounds for MacDonnell's dismissal. Yet labouring closely with Unionists to discuss agrarian and non-agrarian crime, and discipline in the RIC, he continued to appease Unionist opinion. He appointed Unionists William Moore as Solicitor-General for Ireland, John Atkinson, as Lord of Appeal, while Edward Saunderson, the Ulsterite member of the Orange Order, became a confidant and close friend. Patronage was usually dispensed by the Lord Lieutenant: this sparked a row with Lord Dudley, and a constitutional argument prompted an appeal to the Prime Minister. Long's motto of "patience and firmness" was designed to placate Irish Unionists at public meetings, speeches and tours of Ireland, made to reassure local community officials.
On 20 April 1905, he made an important speech at Belfast emphasizing that he was a stickler for order and the rule of law. But in the south and west, obdurate landlords refused land sales to tenantry leading to boycotts and cattle-driving. The damage done to unionist farms and farmers was frightening. MacDonnell continually urged compromise, but Long ignored him. The dispute with Lords Dudley and Dunraven dragged on into August 1905, with their attitude of intransigence towards Long's attempts at Unionist reform, and obedience to the law. On 25 May 1905, the issues were discussed in the Commons. He wished to strengthen Unionism; but both Dudley and Long appealed to Balfour for adjudication. Balfour opined that the Chief Secretary was both in the Commons and in the cabinet so Dudley had to be content that the power of the Lords was waning. During the last quarter of 1905, Long advised the postponement of dissolution, as it would hit Unionists hard in "the Country" and would hand numerous electorates to radicals. He warned of the loss of seats of Bristol West and South. In December 1905, true to his word, he himself was defeated by 2,692 votes. Long continued to distrust 'Birmingham & Co' as he called Chamberlain's struggle for a policy of Tariff recognition, which was already driving the party away from the Free Trade north. Nonetheless he continued to co-operate transnationally with conservative parties in Germany, such as Reichspartei right up until the second Moroccan crisis in 1911.
Unionist in oppositionEdit
Nonetheless Long's parliamentary career was far from finished. He was nominated as Unionist candidate for South County Dublin in 1906 winning by 1,343 votes. Long became one of the leading opposition voices against the Liberals' plans for Home Rule in Ireland. At this stage the Irish Unionist Party's leadership was still in the hands of his friend Edward Saunderson, who was far from energetic, unhelpfully described as "devoid of business capacity".
The dispute with MacDonnell was carried on in the pages of The Times - Long trying to galvanise Unionist opinion in both England and Ireland. Balfour, Jack Sandars (Balfour's private secretary), and Wyndham all thought he had been duped by Unionism "where his vanity and hopes are concerned", characterising the Chief Secretary as easily manipulated. In October 1906, Saunderson died, and Long was chosen as the new Chairman of Irish Unionist Alliance (IUA) - aimed at closer co-operation between northern and southern parties. Three months later, he was also elected as Chairman of the Ulster Unionist Council (UUC). In 1907, he formed the Union Defence League (UDL) as a support in Great Britain for Irish unionism. The UDL in London linked with the UUC in Belfast and the IUA in Dublin. It had support from Conservative backbenchers but not the leadership. It was active in 1907–1908 and again after 1911 when the Third Home Rule Bill was imminent; with the Primrose League it created the 1914 British Covenant mirroring the 1912 Ulster Covenant. Although Long never openly supported the most militant Unionists, who were prepared to fight the Southern nationalists (and perhaps the British Army) to prevent home rule for Ireland, contemporary accounts indicate that he probably had prior knowledge of the Larne gunrunning.
In the Commons Walter Long was an active opponent of Liberal social legislation. He founded a Budget Protest League to advance the cause of moderate tax changes. In the Lords the defeat of the 'people's budget' led to the constitutional crisis of 1911. He clashed with Edward Carson adopting a similarly equivocal position over the Parliament Bill of 1911, opposing the Bill, but recommending acquiescence. He sat as MP for the Strand between December 1910 and 1918 and St George's between 1918 and 1921.
Political career, 1911–1921Edit
When Balfour resigned as party leader in November 1911, Long, who had never been happy with his leadership style, was pre-eminent in the Conservative Party and one of the leading candidates to succeed him, the candidate of the 'country party'. As early as 1900, Long had denounced Chamberlain, as the "Conservative Party...will not be lead by a bloody radical". However, he was opposed by Austen Chamberlain, who was backed by the Liberal Unionists still under his father's leadership. Long feared 'the degradation' to the party that a divisive contest might split the protectionist majority of the Unionist coalition, so both candidates agreed to withdraw in favour of Bonar Law, the tertium quid, and a relatively unknown figure, on 12 November.
The unification of the Liberal Unionist and Conservative parties at the Carlton Club in 1912, was for Long acknowledgement of the end of its domination by the country interest. Long was always skeptical of coalition, and declared that it would not happen. So with the formation of the wartime coalition government in May 1915, Long's awaited return to office at the Local Government Board was greeted by his surprise. Asquith resisted attempts by Unionists to install Long as Chief Secretary. Long dealt with the plight of thousands of Belgian refugees. He was actively involved in undermining attempts by Lloyd George to negotiate a deal between Irish Nationalists and Unionists in July 1916 over introducing the suspended Home Rule Act 1914, publicly clashing with his arch-rival Sir Edward Carson. He was accused of plotting to bring down Carson by jeopardising an agreement with the nationalist leader John Redmond, that any partition would only be temporary. When Long wanted to alter the clause to permanent, Redmond abandoned further negotiations. Carson, in a bitter riposte, said of Long "The worst of Walter Long is that he never knows what he wants, but is always intriguing to get it". Austen Chamberlain, in 1911, was similarly critical of Long, saying he was "at the centre of every coterie of grumblers."
Long and the Unionists wanted General Maxwell to have authority over the police, but Asquith finally gave the Chief Secretaryship to a civilian, Henry Duke. With the fall of Asquith and the accession of the Lloyd George government in December 1916, Long had established himself as the cabinet's foremost authority on Irish policy. Chief Secretary Duke would have preferred to be Inspector-General; but Lloyd George, a natural home ruler, did not seem too happy with Long's brand of federated Unionism. Two allies of the Prime Minister, namely Carson and Lord Edward Cecil, supplied the most intransigent opposition to a united Ireland.
It was Long's policy on 16 April 1918 to promote the Conscription bill that would provoke the crisis for Irishness. Duke opposed a policy of conscription without an offer of home rule, whereas Long wanted the former without the latter. The crisis gave rise to the German Plot, and Long's pressure to act on intelligence against Sinn Féiners caused him to issue a large number of arrest warrants.
Long was promoted to the Colonial Office, serving until January 1919, when he became First Lord of the Admiralty, a position in which he served until his retirement to the Lords in 1921. From October 1919 on, he was, once again, largely concerned with Irish affairs, serving as the chair of the cabinet's Long Committee on Ireland. In this capacity, he was largely responsible for initiating the Partition of Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which followed certain proposals of Lloyd George's failed 1917–18 Irish Convention, and created separate home rule governments for Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland, the former subsequently evolving as the Irish Free State.
In March 1921, Bonar Law resigned as party leader due to ill-health. Sir Austen Chamberlain finally succeeded him in the former office after a ten-year wait. But Long too, getting tired and old, was 'kicked upstairs' with a peerage. He was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Wiltshire in February 1920, and was raised to the peerage as Viscount Long, of Wraxall in the County of Wiltshire, in May 1921.
Lord Long married Lady Dorothy (Doreen) Blanche, daughter of the 9th Earl of Cork and Orrery, in 1878. They had two sons, including Brigadier General Walter Long, who was killed in action in 1917, and three daughters. He died at his home, Rood Ashton House in Wiltshire, in September 1924, aged 70, and was succeeded by his 13-year-old grandson Walter. Lady Long died in June 1938.
- Long, Viscount Walter Hulme, Memories (London 1923)
- Report on the Political and Personal Papers of Walter Hume Long, 1st Viscount Long of Wraxall (1854-1924), Politician, 1880-1924. London. 1977.
- Bateman, John (2014). The Great Landowners of Great Britain and Ireland: List Of All Owners Of Three Thousand Acres And Upwards, Worth £3,000 A Year, In England, ... - British and Irish History, 19th Century). CUP. ISBN 1108075959.
- Green, Ewen (1995). Crisis of Conservatism, 1880-1914. Routledge. ISBN 041514339X.
- Hume, Alvin. Ulster Unionist politics: A Political Movement in the Era of Conflict and Change.
- Jackson, Alvin. The Ulster Party: Irish Unionists in the House of Commons, 1884–1911. OUP. ISBN 0198222882.
- Jackson, Alvin (2006). "Walter Hulme Long, 1st Baron Long of Wraxall". Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford.
- Jackson, Alvin (2004). Home Rule: An Irish History 1800 — 2000. Phoenix. ISBN 0753817675.
- Jenkins, Roy (1964). Asquith. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0002110210.
- Kendle, John (1992). Walter Long, Ireland, and the Union, 1905-1920. Toronto: McGill-Queen's University. ISBN 0773509089.
- Petrie, Sir Charles (1936). Walter Long and his Times. London: Hutchinson.
- Phillips, Gregory (1979). The Diehards. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
- Brooks, Colin (1998). Fleet Street, Press Barons and Politics: The Journals of Collin Brooks, 1932-1940. CUP.
- Coetzee, F.; Coetzee, M.S. (1986). "Rethinking the Radical Right in Germany and Britain before 1914". Journal of Contemporary History: 515–537.
- Crosby, Gerda Richards (1957). Disarmament and Peace in British Politics, 1914-1919. Boston. p. 39.
- Gordon, Peter (2008). Politics and Society: The Journals of Lady Knightley of Fawsley 1885-1913. London. pp. 248, 254–55, 381, 510. ISBN 0901275611.
- Jalland, Martin (1980). The Liberals and Ireland: The Ulster Question in British Politics to 1914. Brighton. ISBN 0312483473.
- Marder, Arthur.J (2014). From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow: Volume V Victory and Aftermath January 1914 to June 1915. Seaforth.
- Otte, Richard; Otte, Thomas.G; Readman, Paul (2013). By-Elections in British Politics, 1832-1914. Boydell. pp. 128, 255, 268.
- Winegard, Timothy.C (2011). Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War. CUP.
- Kelly's Handbook of the Titled, Landed and Official Classes, 1895. Kelly's. p. 767.
- Kelly's Handbook of the Titled, Landed and Official Classes, 1920. Kelly's. p. 1060.
- Sir C. Petrie, "Walter Long and His Times" (London 1936), pp. 31–2. John Kendle, "Walter Long and Unionism", p. 9.
- Walter Long, "Memories" (London 1923), pp. 80–83.
- Kendle, p. 15.
- The Times, 4 and 6 June 1892.
- Ramsden, p. 174.
- Kendle, p. 18.
- Claude Lowther to R. C. Blumenfeld, 7 September 1909, Bluemenfeld MSS.; Coetzee & Coetzee, 'The Radical Right before 1914', Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 21 (1986), p. 519.
- Kendle, p. 20.
- Kendle, p. 21.
- "The Great Fiscal Problem", The Evening Post, 11 June 1903.
- with his colleague in the Anti-Socialist Union, Claude Lowther MP.
- J. Mackay Wilson to Long, 2 February 1906, LP, BL, Add.MS.62410.
- Sandars to Balfour, 7 October 1906, Balfour Papers, BL, Add. MS.49764, pp. 226–69.
- Alvin Jackson, Home Rule: An Irish History 1800 — 2000 (Phoenix, 2004) p. 193.
- Kendle 1992, pp. 44–45.
- McNeill, Ronald John (1922). Ulster's Stand For Union. New York: Dutton. p. 37. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Green 1995, p. 279.
- Kendle 1992, pp. 68, 73.
- Kendle 1992, pp. 82–83.
- Captain F. E. Crawford, a leading figure in the gunrunning, recorded contemporaneously being called to meet Long and Bonar Law before he left to set up the event, and that they "wished me God's speed and a successful issue." Crawford's recollections, however, are often inaccurate. Long's Parliamentary Secretary, William Bull, was actively involved in the plot. Jackson, p. 154.
- Alvin Jackson, "Long, Walter Hulme, First Viscount Long (1854–1924)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
- J. Ramsden, "an appetite for Power: A History of the Conservative Party since 1880", Harper Collins, 1998, p. 531.
- Ramsden, p. 188.
- R. Blake, "The Conservative Party from Peel to Thatcher", Fontana Press, 2nd edition, 1985, p. 194.
- Ramsden, p. 215.
- "there has been no coalition - personally I do not favour it, and I doubt its success", cited in Ramsden, p. 230.
- C. Townshend, "Easter 1916: The Irish Rebellion" (London 2006), p. 296.
- Townshend, p. 304.
- Townshend, p. 314.
- Jackson, p. 193.
- Townshend, p. 324.
- War Cabinet, 3 April 1918. NA CAB 23/14.
- John Kendle, "Walter Long, Ireland and the Union 1915-1920" (Montreal 1992), p. 164. Townshend, "The Republic: The Fight For Irish Independence", p. 10.
- Townshend, p. 16.
- The Times (Monday, 16 February 1920), p. 15.
- The Times (Monday, 23 May 1921, p. 10); (Tuesday, 31 May 1921, p. 10).
- Inheriting the Earth: The Long Family's 500 Year Reign in Wiltshire; Cheryl Nicol at longfamilyofwiltshire.webs.com
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- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Long
- Photograph in the National Portrait Gallery
- Buckle, George Earle (1922). . Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.).