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The First Lord of the Admiralty,[1] or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty,[2] was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior advisor on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services. It was one of the earliest known permanent government posts, apart from being the political head of the Royal Navy the post holder simultaneously held the title of the President of the Board of Commissioners for Exercising the Office of Lord High Admiral (known as the Board of Admiralty). The office of First Lord of the Admiralty existed from 1628 until it was abolished when the Admiralty, Air Ministry, Ministry of Defence and War Office were all merged to form the new Ministry of Defence in 1964.

Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
Seal of H.M. Government
Department of the Admiralty
Member of Board of Admiralty
Reports to Prime Minister
Nominator Prime Minister
Appointer Prime Minister
Subject to formal approval by the Queen-in-Council
Term length Not fixed (typically 3–7 years)
Inaugural holder Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland
Formation 1628–1964

Contents

HistoryEdit

In 1628, during the reign of Charles I, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord High Admiral of England, was assassinated and the office was placed in commission, under the control of a Board of Commissioners.

The first such First Lord of the Admiralty was Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland, who was appointed in 1628 the First Lord was not always a permanent member of the board until the Admiralty Department was established as an official government department in 1709[3] with the First Lord as its head, it replaced the earlier Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs,.[4] During most of the 17th century and the early 18th century, it was not invariable for the Admiralty to be in commission, so there are gaps in the list of First Lords, and a small number of First Lords were for a time Lord High Admiral.

After the Revolution, in 1690, a declaratory Act was passed, during the reign of William and Mary, Parliament passed the Admiralty Act, vesting in the Commissioners the powers formerly held by the Lord High Admiral of England.[5] and at this point became a permanent Cabinet position.

The Admiralty Commission was dissolved in 1701, but was reconstituted in 1709 on the death of Prince George of Denmark,[3] who had been appointed Lord High Admiral. The office has been held in commission from that time onwards, however, except for a short period (1827–28) when the Duke of Clarence was Lord High Admiral. The Board of the Admiralty comprised a number of “Lords Commissioners” headed by a First Lord.[5]

From the early 1800s the post was always held by a civilian[6] (previously flag officers of the Royal Navy also held the post). In 1832 First Lord Sir James Graham instituted reforms and amalgamated the Board of Admiralty and the Navy Board. By the provisions of the Admiralty Act of 1832, two Lords in committee could legalize any action of the Board.[7]

In 1868 Prime Minister, William Gladstone appointed Hugh Childers First Lord, who would introduce a new system at the Admiralty. However these changes restricted communication between the board members who were affected by these new regulations and the sittings of the Board were discontinued altogether. This situation described was further exacerbated by the disaster of HMS Captain in 1870, a poorly-designed new vessel for the navy.

The responsibility and powers of the First Lord of the Admiralty were laid down by an Order in Council dated 14 January 1869,[8] and a later Order (19 March 1872) made the First Lord responsible to the Sovereign and to Parliament for all the business of the Admiralty. However, by describing the Lords of the Admiralty as the "assistants" of the First Lord,[9] and by specifically defining their duties, had, in fact, partially disabled the collective power of the Board .

In 1931, for the first time since 1709, the First Lord was not a member of the cabinet.[10] In 1964, the office of First Lord of the Admiralty was abolished, the last holder being the second Earl Jellicoe, the son of Admiral of the Fleet Earl Jellicoe, and the functions of the Sea Lords were then transferred to the Admiralty Board, which forms part of the tri-service Defence Council of the United Kingdom.

Responsibilities and dutiesEdit

Between 1800 and 1912 included:[11]

List of First Lords of the AdmiraltyEdit

First Lords of the Admiralty of England (1628–1701)Edit

First Lord of the Admiralty of England
Portrait Name Term of office Ref
  Richard Weston
1st Earl of Portland

[nb 1]
1628 1635 [12]
  Robert Bertie
1st Earl of Lindsey
1635 1636 [13]
  William Juxon
Bishop of London
1636 1638 [14]
  Algernon Percy
10th Earl of Northumberland

[nb 2]
1642 1643 [14]
  Francis Cottington
1st Baron Cottington
1643 1646 [14]
  Sir Henry Capell
MP for Tewkesbury
1679 1681 [15]
  Daniel Finch
2nd Earl of Nottingham
1681 1684 [16]
  Arthur Herbert
1st Earl of Torrington

[nb 3]
1689 1690 [17]
  Thomas Herbert
8th Earl of Pembroke
1690 1692 [18]
  Charles Cornwallis
3rd Baron Cornwallis
1692 1693 [19]
  Anthony Cary
5th Viscount Falkland
1693 1695 [20]
  Edward Russell
1st Earl of Orford
1694 1699 [21]
  John Egerton
3rd Earl of Bridgewater
1699 1701 [22]
  Thomas Herbert
8th Earl of Pembroke
1701 1702 [23]

First Lords of the Admiralty of Great Britain (1709–1801)Edit

First Lord of the Admiralty
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
Ref
  Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable
Edward Russell
1st Earl of Orford
PC

(1653–1727)
1709 1710 Godolphin–Marlborough Anne
 
(1702–1714)
[24]
  Admiral of the Fleet
Sir John Leake

MP for Rochester
(1656–1720)
1710 1712 Oxford–Bolingbroke [25]
  Lieutenant-General The Right Honourable
Thomas Wentworth
1st Earl of Strafford
KG PC DL
1712 1714 [26]
George I
 
(1714–1727)
  Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable
Edward Russell
1st Earl of Orford
PC

(1653–1727)
1714 1716 Townshend I [27]
  Vice-Admiral The Right Honourable
James Berkeley
3rd Earl of Berkeley
KG PC

(1679–1736)
1717 1727 Stanhope–Sunderland I [28]
Stanhope–Sunderland II
Walpole–Townshend
George II
 
(1727–1760)
  Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable
George Byng
1st Viscount Torrington
KB PC

(1663–1733)
1727 1733 [29]
Walpole
  Admiral The Right Honourable
Sir Charles Wager

MP for Westminster [nb 4]
(1666–1743)
1733 1741 [30]
  The Right Honourable
Daniel Finch
8th Earl of Winchilsea
PC

(1689–1769)
1741 1744 [31]
Carteret
  His Grace
John Russell
4th Duke of Bedford
PC FRS

(1710–1771)
1744 1748 Broad Bottom
(I & II)
[32]
  The Right Honourable
John Montagu
4th Earl of Sandwich
PC FRS

(1718–1792)
1748 1751 [33]
  The Right Honourable
George Anson
1st Baron Anson
PC FRS

(1697–1762)
1751 1756 [34]
Newcastle I
  The Right Honourable
Richard Grenville-Temple
2nd Earl Temple
PC

(1711–1779)
1756 1757 Pitt–Devonshire [35]
  The Right Honourable
Daniel Finch
8th Earl of Winchilsea
KG PC

(1689–1769)
1757 1757 1757 Caretaker [31]
  Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable
George Anson
1st Baron Anson
PC FRS

(1697–1762)
1757 1762 Pitt–Newcastle [36]
George III
 
(1760–1820)
[nb 5]
  The Right Honourable
George Montague-Dunk
2nd Earl of Halifax
PC

(1716–1771)
1762 1762 Bute [37]
  The Right Honourable
George Grenville

MP for Buckingham
(1712–1770)
1762 1763 [38]
  The Right Honourable
John Montagu
4th Earl of Sandwich
PC FRS

(1718–1792)
1763 1763 Grenville [38]
  The Right Honourable
John Perceval
2nd Earl of Egmont
PC FRS

(1711–1770)
1763 1766 [38]
Rockingham I
Chatham
  Vice-Admiral The Right Honourable
Sir Charles Saunders
KB

MP for Hedon
(c. 1715–1775)
1766 1766 [39]
  Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable
Sir Edward Hawke
KB

MP for Portsmouth
(1705–1781)
1766 1771 [40]
Grafton
North
  The Right Honourable
John Montagu
4th Earl of Sandwich
PC FRS

(1718–1792)
1771 1782 [41]
  Admiral The Right Honourable
Augustus Keppel
1st Viscount Keppel
PC

(1725–1786)
1782 1783 Rockingham II [42]
Shelburne
  Admiral The Right Honourable
Richard Howe
5th Viscount Howe
PC

(1726–1799)
1783 1783 [43]
  Admiral The Right Honourable
Augustus Keppel
1st Viscount Keppel
PC

(1725–1786)
1783 1783 Fox–North [44]
  Admiral The Right Honourable
Richard Howe
5th Viscount Howe
PC

(1726–1799)
1783 1788 Pitt I [45]
  The Right Honourable
John Pitt
2nd Earl of Chatham
KG PC

(1756–1835)
1788 1794 [46]
  The Right Honourable
George Spencer
2nd Earl Spencer
KG PC DL FRS FSA

(1758–1834)
1794 1801 [47]

First Lords of the Admiralty of the United Kingdom (1801–1964)Edit

First Lord of the Admiralty
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
  The Right Honourable
John Jervis
1st Earl of St Vincent
PC

(1735–1823)
1801 1804 Whig Pitt I George III
 
(1760–1820)
[nb 6]
Addington
  The Right Honourable
Henry Dundas
1st Viscount Melville
PC

(1742–1811)
1804 1805 Tory Pitt II
  The Right Honourable
Charles Middleton
1st Baron Barham
PC

(1726–1813)
1805 1806 Tory
  The Right Honourable
Charles Grey
Viscount Howick

MP for Northumberland
(1764–1845)
1806 1806 Whig All the Talents
  The Right Honourable
Thomas Grenville

MP for Buckingham
(1755–1846)
1806 1807 Whig
  The Right Honourable
Henry Phipps
3rd Baron Mulgrave
PC

(1755–1831)
1807 1810 Tory Portland II
Perceval
  The Right Honourable
Charles Philip Yorke

MP for St Germans
(1764–1834)
1810 1812 Tory
  The Right Honourable
Robert Dundas
2nd Viscount Melville
KT PC FRS

(1771–1851)
1812 1827 Tory Liverpool
George IV
 
(1820–1830)
  His Royal Highness
Prince William Henry
The Duke of Clarence

Lord High Admiral
(1765–1837)
[nb 7]
1827 1828 Canning
(CanningiteWhig)
Goderich
(CanningiteWhig)
  The Right Honourable
Robert Dundas
2nd Viscount Melville
KT PC FRS

(1771–1851)
1828 1830 Tory Wellington–Peel
William IV
 
(1830–1837)
  The Right Honourable
Sir James Graham
Bt

MP for East Cumberland [nb 8]
(1792–1861)
1830 1834 Whig Grey
  The Right Honourable
George Eden
2nd Baron Auckland
PC

(1784–1849)
1834 1834 Whig
Melbourne I
Wellington Caretaker
  The Right Honourable
Thomas Robinson
2nd Earl de Grey
PC

(1781–1859)
1834 1835 Conservative Peel I
  The Right Honourable
George Eden
2nd Baron Auckland
GCB PC

(1784–1849)
1835 1835 Whig Melbourne II
  The Right Honourable
Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound
2nd Earl of Minto
GCB PC

(1782–1859)
1835 1841 Whig
Victoria
 
(1837–1901)
  The Right Honourable
Thomas Hamilton
9th Earl of Haddington
PC FRS

(1780–1858)
1841 1846 Conservative Peel II
  The Right Honourable
Edward Law
1st Earl of Ellenborough
GCB PC

(1790–1871)
1846 1846 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
George Eden
1st Earl of Auckland
GCB PC

(1784–1849)
1846 1849 Whig Russell I
  The Right Honourable
Sir Francis Baring
Bt

MP for Portsmouth
(1796–1866)
1849 1852 Whig
  His Grace
Algernon Percy
4th Duke of Northumberland
PC

(1792–1865)
1852 1852 Conservative Who? Who?
  The Right Honourable
Sir James Graham
Bt GCB

MP for Carlisle
(1792–1861)
1852 1855 Peelite Aberdeen
(PeeliteWhig)
Palmerston I
  The Right Honourable
Sir Charles Wood
Bt GCB

MP for Halifax
(1800–1885)
1855 1858 Whig
  The Right Honourable
Sir John Pakington
Bt FRS

MP for Droitwich
(1799–1880)
1858 1859 Conservative Derby–Disraeli II
  His Grace
Edward Seymour
12th Duke of Somerset
KG PC

(1804–1885)
1859 1866 Liberal Palmerston II
Russell II
  The Right Honourable
Sir John Pakington
Bt GCB FRS

MP for Droitwich
(1799–1880)
1866 1867 Conservative Derby–Disraeli III
  The Right Honourable
Henry Lowry-Corry

MP for Tyrone
(1803–1873)
1867 1868 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Hugh Childers

MP for Pontefract
(1827–1896)
1868 1871 Liberal Gladstone I
  The Right Honourable
George Goschen

MP for City of London
(1831–1907)
1871 1874 Liberal
  The Right Honourable
George Ward Hunt

MP for Northamptonshire North
(1825–1877)
1874 1877 Conservative Disraeli II
  The Right Honourable
William Henry Smith

MP for Westminster
(1825–1891)
1877 1880 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Thomas Baring
1st Earl of Northbrook
GCSI PC FRS

(1826–1904)
1880 1885 Liberal Gladstone II
  The Right Honourable
Lord George Hamilton

MP for Ealing
(1845–1927)
1885 1886 Conservative Salisbury Caretaker
  The Most Honourable
George Robinson
1st Marquess of Ripon
KF GCSI CIE VD PC

(1827–1909)
1886 1886 Liberal Gladstone III
  The Right Honourable
Lord George Hamilton

MP for Ealing
(1845–1927)
1886 1892 Conservative Salisbury Unionist I
(Con.Lib.U.)
  The Right Honourable
John Spencer
5th Earl Spencer
KG PC

(1835–1910)
1892 1895 Liberal Gladstone IV
Rosebery
  The Right Honourable
George Goschen

MP for St George Hanover Square
(1831–1907)
1895 1900 Conservative Salisbury Unionist II
(Con.Lib.U.)
  The Right Honourable
William Palmer
2nd Earl of Selborne
PC

(1859–1942)
1900 1905 Liberal Unionist
Edward VII
 
(1901–1910)
Balfour
(Con.Lib.U.)
  The Right Honourable
Frederick Campbell
3rd Earl Cawdor
PC DL

(1847–1911)
1905 1905 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Edward Marjoribanks
2nd Lord Tweedmouth
PC

(1849–1909)
1905 1908 Liberal Campbell-Bannerman
  The Right Honourable
Reginald McKenna

MP for North Monmouthshire
(1863–1943)
1908 1911 Liberal Asquith
(I & II)
George V
 
(1910–1936)
  The Right Honourable
Winston Churchill

MP for Dundee
(1874–1965)
1911 1915 Liberal
  The Right Honourable
Arthur Balfour
FRS DL

MP for City of London
(1848–1930)
1915 1916 Conservative Asquith III
(Lib.Con.Lab.)
  The Right Honourable
Sir Edward Carson
QC

MP for University of Dublin
(1854–1935)
1916 1917 Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)

(Lib.Con.Lab.)
  The Right Honourable
Sir Eric Geddes
GCB GBE

MP for Cambridge
(1875–1937)
1917 1919 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Walter Long
FRS

MP for Westminster St George's
(1854–1924)
1919 1921 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Arthur Lee
1st Viscount Lee of Fareham
GBE KCB PC

(1868–1947)
1921 1922 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Leo Amery

MP for Birmingham Sparkbrook
(1873–1955)
1922 1924 Conservative Law
Baldwin I
  The Right Honourable
Frederic Thesiger
1st Viscount Chelmsford
GCSI GCIE GBE PC

(1868–1933)
1924 1924 Labour MacDonald I
  The Right Honourable
William Bridgeman
1st Viscount Bridgeman
PC JP DL
[nb 9]
(1864–1935)
1924 1929 Conservative Baldwin II
  The Right Honourable
A. V. Alexander

MP for Sheffield Hillsborough
(1885–1965)
1929 1931 Labour
(Co-op)
MacDonald II
  The Right Honourable
Sir Austen Chamberlain
KG

MP for Birmingham West
(1863–1937)
1931 1931 Conservative National I
(N.Lab.Con.Lib.N.Lib.)
  The Right Honourable
Bolton Eyres-Monsell
1st Viscount Monsell
GBE PC
[nb 10]
(1881–1969)
1931 1936 Conservative National II
(N.Lab.Con.Lib.N.Lib.)
National III
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
Edward VIII
 
(1936)
  The Right Honourable
Sir Samuel Hoare
Bt GCSI GBE CMG JP

MP for Chelsea
(1880–1959)
1936 1937 Conservative
George VI
 
(1936–1952)
  The Right Honourable
Duff Cooper
DSO

MP for Westminster St George's
(1890–1954)
1937 1938 Conservative National IV
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
  The Right Honourable
James Stanhope
7th Earl Stanhope
KG DSO MC PC

(1880–1967)
1938 1939 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Winston Churchill
CH TD

MP for Epping
(1874–1965)
1939 1940 Conservative Chamberlain War
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
  The Right Honourable
A. V. Alexander
CH

MP for Sheffield Hillsborough
(1885–1965)
1940 1945 Labour
(Co-op)
Churchill War
(All parties)
  The Right Honourable
Brendan Bracken

MP for Paddington North
(1901–1958)
1945 1945 Conservative Churchill Caretaker
(Con.N.Lib.)
  The Right Honourable
A. V. Alexander
CH

MP for Sheffield Hillsborough
(1885–1965)
1945 1946 Labour
(Co-op)
Attlee
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
George Hall
1st Viscount Hall
PC

(1881–1965)
1946 1951 Labour
  The Right Honourable
Frank Pakenham
1st Baron Pakenham
PC

(1905–2001)
1951 1951 Labour
  The Right Honourable
James Thomas
1st Viscount Cilcennin
PC
[nb 11]
(1903–1960)
1951 1956 Conservative Churchill III
Elizabeth II
 
(1952–present)
Eden
  The Right Honourable
Quintin Hogg
2nd Viscount Hailsham
PC QC

(1907–2001)
1956 1957 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
George Douglas-Hamilton
10th Earl of Selkirk
AFC AE PC QC

(1906–1994)
1957 1959 Conservative Macmillan
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Peter Carington
6th Baron Carrington
KCMG MC PC DL

(born 1919)
1959 1963 Conservative
  The Right Honourable
George Jellicoe
2nd Earl Jellicoe
DSO MC PC

(1918–2007)
1963 1964 Conservative

From 1 April 1964 Elizabeth II assumed the title of Lord High Admiral. Ministerial responsibility for the Royal Navy was transferred to the newly created Secretary of State for Defence.[48]

Notes
  1. ^ Baron Weston from 1628, created Earl of Portland in 1633.
  2. ^ Lord High Admiral 1638–1642.
  3. ^ Lord High Admiral 1689.
  4. ^ MP for Portsmouth until 1734; MP for Westminster from 1734.
  5. ^ The Prince of Wales served as Prince Regent from 5 February 1811.
  6. ^ The Prince of Wales served as Prince Regent from 5 February 1811.
  7. ^ Office of Lord High Admiral held by an individual rather than in commission.
  8. ^ MP for Cumberland until 1832; MP for East Cumberland from 1832
  9. ^ MP for Oswestry until 1929; thereafter created Viscount Bridgeman.
  10. ^ MP for Evesham until 1935; thereafter created Viscount Monsell.
  11. ^ MP for Hereford until 1955; thereafter created Viscount Cilcennin.

Boards, departments and offices under the First LordEdit

Fictional First LordsEdit

 
W. H. Smith portrayed in a Punch cartoon from 13 October 1877 when First Lord, saying: "I think I'll now go below." In Pinafore, Sir Joseph Porter similarly sings: "When the breezes blow / I generally go below".

The "Radical" First Lord, and a major character, in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic opera H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), is Sir Joseph Henry Porter, KCB. W. S. Gilbert wrote to Arthur Sullivan he did not intend to portray the real-life then First Lord, the bookseller and newsagent W. H. Smith, a Conservative,[49] although some of the public, including Prime Minister Disraeli (who later referred to Smith as "Pinafore Smith"), identified Porter with him.[50] The counterparts shared a known lack of naval background. It has been suggested the character was drawn on Smith's actual "Radical" predecessor of 1868–71, Hugh Childers.[51]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Eberle, Sir James (2007). Wider horizons: naval policy & international affairs. Roundtuit Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 9781904499176. 
  2. ^ Pryde, E. B. (23 February 1996). Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge University Press. p. 135. ISBN 9780521563505. 
  3. ^ a b Blake, Nicholas; Lawrence, Richard (2005). The Illustrated Companion to Nelson's Navy. Stackpole Books. p. 8. ISBN 9780811732758. 
  4. ^ Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David; Loades, Professor of History David (29 April 2016). Elizabethan Naval Administration. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9781317145035. 
  5. ^ a b Hamilton, Admiral Sir. Richard. Vesey, G.C.B. (1896). Naval Administration: The Constitution, Character, and Functions of the Board of Admiralty, and of the Civil Departments it Directs. George Bell and Sons, London.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ Constable, Archibald (1861). The Edinburgh Review, Or Critical Journal: ... To Be Continued Quarterly. Austrian National Library, 4 November 2013. p. 291. 
  7. ^ (eISB), electronic Irish Statute Book. "electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB), Admiralty Act, 1832". irishstatutebook.ie. Government of Ireland, 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  8. ^ Hamilton, C. I. (2011). The making of the modern admiralty : British naval policy-making 1805-1927. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780521765183. 
  9. ^ Marder, Arthur (19 June 2014). From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow: Volume II: To The Eve of Jutland 1914-1916. Seaforth Publishing. p. 268. ISBN 9781848321632. 
  10. ^ Cannon, John; Crowcroft, Robert (2015). The Oxford Companion to British History. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780199677832. 
  11. ^ Archives, The National. "Organisation of Admiralty Business". discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk. National Archives, 1885-1923, ADM 116/3392. Retrieved 8 March 2017.   This article contains text from this source, which is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0. © Crown copyright.
  12. ^   Lee, Sidney, ed. (1899). "Weston, Richard (1577-1635)". Dictionary of National Biography. 60. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 364. 
  13. ^   "Bertie, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  14. ^ a b c Thomas Mason, Serving God and Mammon: William Juxon, 1582–1663 (ISBN 0-87413-251-7)
  15. ^ N.Y.), Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York; Baetjer, Katharine (2009). British Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1575-1875. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 19. ISBN 9781588393487. 
  16. ^ Phillips, G. (29 November 2012). Rutland. Cambridge University Press. p. 132. ISBN 9781107696419. 
  17. ^ Stewart, William (28 September 2009). Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present. McFarland. p. 163. ISBN 9780786482887. 
  18. ^ Cannon, John; Crowcroft, Robert (2015). The Oxford Companion to British History. Oxford University Press. p. 714. ISBN 9780199677832. 
  19. ^ Murray, J. (1859). Correspondence of Charles, First Marquis Cornwallis. J. Murray. p. 2. 
  20. ^ Fieldgate, Barrie (2007). The Captain's Steward: Falklands, 1982. Melrose Press. p. 305. ISBN 9781905226467. 
  21. ^ Aldridge, David Denis (2009). Admiral Sir John Norris and the British Naval Expeditions to the Baltic Sea 1715-1727. Nordic Academic Press. p. 286. ISBN 9789185509317. 
  22. ^ Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Baron Macaulay (1915). The History of England: From the Accession of James the Second, Volume 6. Macmillian. p. 3018. 
  23. ^ Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 4, Admiralty Officials 1660-1870
  24. ^ Childs, John (1991). The Nine Years' War and the British Army, 1688-1697: The Operations in the Low Countries. Manchester University Press. p. 353. ISBN 9780719034619. 
  25. ^ Winfield, Rif (10 March 2010). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1603-1714: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 9781783469246. 
  26. ^ Holmes, Geoffrey (1987). British Politics in the Age of Anne. A&C Black. p. 541. ISBN 9780907628736. 
  27. ^ Aldridge, David Denis (2009). Admiral Sir John Norris and the British Naval Expeditions to the Baltic Sea 1715-1727. Nordic Academic Press. p. 286. ISBN 9789185509317. 
  28. ^ Stewart, William (28 September 2009). Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present. McFarland. p. 28. ISBN 9780786438099. 
  29. ^ Howard, Joseph J.; Crisp, Frederick A. (1 September 1997). Visitation of England and Wales Notes: Volume 6 1906. Heritage Books. p. 172. ISBN 9780788407031. 
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AttributionEdit

This article contains some text from: Vesey, Richard Sir, Admiral, (1896), Naval Administration: The Constitution, Character, and Functions of the Board of Admiralty, and of the Civil Departments it Directs, George Bell and Sons, London. Now in the public domain.

SourcesEdit

  • Hamilton, C. I. (2011). The Making of the Modern Admiralty: British Naval Policy-Making, 1805-1927. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521765183.
  • Rodger, N. A. M., The Admiralty (Lavenham, 1979)
  • Sainty, J. C. Admiralty Officials, 1660–1870 (London, 1975)

External linksEdit