Volvo B18 engine
This B18 is a 1.8 litres (1,778 cc) automobile Inline-four engine produced by Volvo from 1961 through 1968. The cam-in-block engine had overhead valves (OHV) operated by pushrods. The crankshaft rode in five main bearings, making the B18 quite different in design from its predecessor, the three-bearing B16. A larger 2.0 litres (1,986 cc) version called the B20 appeared in 1969.
|Volvo B18, B20|
|Configuration||Naturally aspirated Inline-4|
|Piston stroke||80 mm (3.15 in)|
|Block material||Cast iron|
|Head material||Cast iron|
|Compression ratio||8.5:1 - 10.5:1|
|Management||Bosch D-Jetronic or K-Jetronic|
|Oil system||Wet sump|
|Cooling system||Water cooled|
|Power output||40–225 bhp (29.8–167.8 kW)|
|Predecessor||Volvo B4B engine|
|Successor||Volvo Redblock Engine|
Despite their OHV and pushrod design, the engines can rev to 6,500 rpm.
The B18 displaced 1.8 L; 108.5 cu in (1,778 cc), with a bore of 84.14 mm (3.31 in) and stroke of 80 mm (3.15 in). The engine was used in Volvo's PV544, P210 Duett, 120 (Amazon), P1800 and 140 series. The B18 could also be found in the L3314 and the Bandvagn 202 military vehicles. It was fitted to many Volvo Penta sterndrive marine propulsion systems. It was also used in the Facel Vega Facel III and the Marcos 1800 GT.
There are four variations of this engine:
- B18A: 8.5:1-8.7:1 compression. single carburetor version. 75 bhp (55.9 kW) SAE
- B18B: 9.5:1-10:1 compression. Dual carburetor version. 100 and 115 bhp (74.6 and 85.8 kW) SAE with a higher compression ratio, fitted variously with dual sidedraft SU or Zenith/Stromberg carburettors.
- B18C: single carburetor version. 40 bhp (29.8 kW) SAE with a lower compression ratio and 2500 RPM mechanical regulator, fitted in the gasoline powered versions of the Volvo BM 320 tractor. This version was also used for the elevator in the PS-15 radar system.
- B18D: 8.5:1-8.7:1 compression. Dual SU carburetor version. 90 and 95 bhp (67.1 and 70.8 kW) SAE
In 1971 Swedish engineer Gunnar Axelsson developed a DOHC cylinder head for the B18 engine family. This cylinder head was used in competition Volvos for several years. On 1 January 2014 the Grainger & Worrall company announced that they had partnered with Axelsson to reproduce the DOHC head for the B18 engine. Power output of the base engine was expected to be 190 bhp (141.7 kW), while a high-output version developing 225 bhp (167.8 kW) would also be available.
In 1952 Volvo unveiled the Volvo Philip concept car powered by a 3.6 litre V8 engine that would later be called the B36. The V8 engine had exactly the same bore and stroke dimensions as the four-cylinder B18, leading some to suggest that the B18 is one-half of the V8. Significant differences between the two engines included the fact that while the cylinder heads on the V8 are crossflows, the four cylinder has both intake and exhaust ports on the same side. This suggests that the engines are for the most part separate designs.
The B20 engine displaced 2.0 L; 121.2 cu in (1,986 cc), with the cylinders on 105 / 108 mm (4.13 / 4.25 in) split bore centers, where the spacing between cylinders 2 and 3 is wider than between cylinders 1 and 2 or 3 and 4. The design is virtually identical to the earlier B18, but with an enlarged 88.9 mm (3.5 in) bore, thus most parts are functionally interchangeable, albeit with running changes to the manufacture and design of components. The B20 engine was used in the Volvo 120, 1800, 140, C202 and 240 series, and also in the Bofors Haubits FH77 howitzer. A modified version was used in the one-off 1969 Volvo GTZ concept car. The B20 was produced from 1969 to 1981.
There are five variations of this engine:
- B20A: 8.7:1 compression. Single carburetor version. 82 bhp (61.1 kW). First produced in 1969.
- B20B: 9.5:1 compression. Dual carburetor version. 118 bhp (88.0 kW) with a higher compression ratio, fitted variously with dual SU or Zenith/Stromberg sidedraft carburetors. First produced in 1969.
- B20D: 8.7:1 compression. Dual carburetor version. 105 bhp (78.3 kW) up to 1971 then 110 bhp (82.0 kW) from 1972 with a lower compression ratio, fitted variously with dual SU or Zenith/Stromberg sidedraft carburetors. First produced in 1969.
- B20E: 10.5:1 compression. Bosch D-Jetronic electronic fuel injection up to 1973 then K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection from 1974 on. 130 bhp (96.9 kW) for 1970 and 1971 and 135 bhp (100.7 kW) from 1972. First produced in 1970.
- B20F: 8.7:1 compression. D-Jetronic fuel injection up to 1973 then K-Jetronic fuel injection from 1974 on. 118 bhp (88.0 kW). First produced in 1972 for lower emissions.
The B20E and B20F versions featured larger valves, and intake/exhaust ports and for 1974-1975 switched from electronic D-Jetronic to mechanical K-Jetronic injection.
In 1974 the number of bolts holding the flywheel increased from 6 to 8 and the size of the connecting rods was increased. From 1975 the thread standard changed from SAE to Metric as Volvo switched over with the new 200 series.
The B20A was revived for four years for use in the C202 from 1977 to 1981.
From the 1969 model year Volvo produced a six-cylinder version of this engine called the B30 for the newly released Volvo 164. Adding two extra cylinders with the same dimensions to the B20 produced a 3.0 L; 181.8 cu in (2,979 cc) engine.
|B18A||1962–1964||Zenith 36VN||75 hp (55.9 kW) at 4500 rpm||101 lb⋅ft (137 N⋅m) at 2800 rpm||8.5:1|
|1965–1968||ZS 175-CD2-S||85 hp (63.4 kW) at 5000 rpm||108 lb⋅ft (146 N⋅m) at 3000 rpm||8.7:1|
|B18B||1961–1963||2 x SU HS6||100 hp (74.6 kW) at 5500 rpm||108 lb⋅ft (146 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm||9.5:1|
|1964–1966||108 hp (80.5 kW) at 5800 rpm||110 lb⋅ft (149 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm||10:1|
|1967–1968||115 hp (85.8 kW) at 6000 rpm||112 lb⋅ft (152 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm|
|B18C||40 hp (29.8 kW) at 2500 rpm|
|B18D||1961–1963||2 x SU HS6||90 hp (67.1 kW) at 5000 rpm||105 lb⋅ft (142 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm||8.5:1|
|1964–1966||95 hp (70.8 kW) at 5400 rpm||107 lb⋅ft (145 N⋅m) at 3800 rpm||8.7:1|
|1967||100 hp (74.6 kW) at 5700 rpm||108 lb⋅ft (146 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm|
|B20A||1969–1971||ZS 175-CD2-SE||90 hp (67.1 kW) at 4800 rpm||119 lb⋅ft (161 N⋅m) at 3000 rpm|
|B20B||1969–1970||2 x 175-CD2-SE||118 hp (88.0 kW) at 5800 rpm||123 lb⋅ft (167 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm||9.5:1|
|1972–1974||2 x SU HIF6||97 hp (72.3 kW) at 5800 rpm||103 lb⋅ft (140 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm||8.7:1|
|B20E||1970–1973||Bosch D-Jetronic||130 hp (96.9 kW) at 6000 rpm||130 lb⋅ft (176 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm||10.5:1|
|B20F||1972||107 hp (79.8 kW) at 6000 rpm||113 lb⋅ft (153 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm||8.7:1|
|1973||112 hp (83.5 kW) at 6000 rpm||115 lb⋅ft (156 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm|
|1974||Bosch K-Jetronic||109 hp (81.3 kW) at 5500 rpm||115 lb⋅ft (156 N⋅m) at 2500 rpm|
|19751||98 hp (73.1 kW) at 6000 rpm||110 lb⋅ft (149 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm|
194 hp (70.1 kW) and 105 lb⋅ft (142 N⋅m) when equipped with a catalytic converter.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Volvo B18 engine.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Volvo B20 engine.|
- "Highest vehicle mileage". www.guinnessworldrecords.com. 14 May 2014.
- Neff, John (26 October 2007). "Man with 2.6 million-mile Volvo P1800 aims for 3 million". www.autoblog.com.
- LaChance, David (July 2007). "Volvo B18". Hemmings Motor News. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Gardh, Karl (4 August 1999). "Spaningsradar PS-15 - Historik, Erfarenheter" [Surveillance Radar PS-15 - History, Experiences] (PDF) (in Swedish).
- Charlesworth, Simon (27 January 2014). "Classic Volvo DOHC 16-valve Conversion". www.dep-o.co.uk.
- Tift, Duncan (29 January 2014). "Grainger & Worrall works with Swedish designers on new engines for classic Volvos". www.thebusinessdesk.com.
- "New cylinder head for historic Volvo range…". 1 January 2014.
- Dredge, Richard (23 May 2016). Volvo Amazon: The Complete Story. The Crowood Press UK. ISBN 978-1785001048.
- Aamodt, Hans-Petter. "Volvo B 36 V8". www.leopardmotor.com (in Norwegian).
- Severson, Aaron (2 September 2011). "Sainted Swede: The Volvo P1800 and 1800ES". ateupwithmotor.com.
- "Volvo Engines". The Volvo Owners's Club.
- Grimshaw, Paul (15 January 2003). "Special Article - Chronology of Volvo Engine Development" (PDF).
- "Volvo B18B/D workshop manual" (PDF). volvo1800pictures.com. Retrieved 24 August 2019.</ref>