Voice acting in Japan
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Voice acting in Japan is acting as a narrator or as an actor in radio plays or as a character actor in anime and video games. It also involves performing voice-overs for non-Japanese movies and television programs. Because Japan's large animation industry produces 60% of the animated series in the world, voice acting in Japan has a far greater prominence than voice acting in most other countries.
Some voice actors—especially certain voice actresses—often have devoted international fan-clubs. Some fans may watch a show merely to hear a particular voice actor. Some Japanese voice actors have capitalized on their fame to become singers and many others have become live movie or television actors.
There are around 130 voice acting schools in Japan. Broadcast companies and talent agencies often have its own troupes of vocal actors. Magazines focusing specifically on voice acting are published in Japan, with Voice Animage being the longest running.
The term character voice (abbreviated CV), has been commonly used since the 1980s by such Japanese anime magazines as Animec and Newtype to describe a voice actor associated with a particular anime or game character.
Actors and seiyūEdit
Initially, dubbing and doing voice-overs was a performance of actors who used only their voice, who were called "voice actors" (声の俳優 koe no haiyū). For convenience, the term was shortened to a new compound consisting of the first and last kanji to make seiyū (声優).
It was only after the voice acting booms, however, that the word became widespread. Elderly voice actors resent being called seiyū because during their time, the term had a different (and minimizing) connotation. The Chikao Ohtsuka, who dubbed Charles Bronson, was quoted in a special issue of Animage as saying, "We are actors. Even if a performance only requires the use of our voice, we still remain actors, and it is therefore incorrect to refer to us as just voice actors, isn't it?". He was opposed to the new trend of separating actors and voice actors, even in the face of emerging voice actors like Genzō Wakayama, who learned how to act using their voice and never set foot in a theater.
There are three main factors that set voice actors and actors apart.
- Their professional upbringing by the Tokyo Broadcasting Drama Troupe (東京放送劇団 Tōkyō Hōsō Gekidan), formed by NHK and other private networks during the golden age of radio dramas.
- The lack of Japan-made movies and dramas forced TV networks to air foreign shows, which raised demand for voice actors.
- The boom in the anime world market, which produced a wave of young talents who wanted to become voice actors, rather than actors.
Voice acting has existed in Japan since the advent of radio. It was only in the 1970s that the term seiyū entered popular usage because of the anime Space Battleship Yamato. According to a newspaper interview with a voice talent manager, "Since the Yamato boom, the word 'seiyū' has become instantly recognized, before that actors and actresses who introduced themselves as seiyū were often asked, 'You mean you work for Seiyu supermarket?'"
Radio drama eraEdit
In 1925, the Tokyo Broadcasting Company (predecessor to the NHK, Japan's public broadcasting system) started radio broadcasts. In that same year, twelve students who were specializing in voice-only performances became the first voice actors in Japan when a performance of a radio drama was broadcast. They referred to themselves as "seiyū", but in those days the term "radio actor" (ラジオ役者 radio yakusha) was used by newspapers to refer to the profession.
In 1941, NHK opened a training program to the public to prepare actors to specialize in radio dramas.This was called the "Tokyo Central Broadcasting Channel Actor Training Agency" (東京中央放送局専属劇団俳優養成所 Tōkyō Chūō Hōsō Kyoku Senzoku Gekidan Haiyū Yōsei Sho). Then in 1942, the Tokyo Broadcasting Drama Troupe debuted its first performance. This was the second time that the term "seiyū" was used to refer to voice actors.
There are several theories as to how the term "seiyū" was coined. One theory is that Oyhashi Tokusaburo, a reporter for the Yomiuri Newspaper, coined the term. Another theory is that Tatsu Ooka, an entertainment programming managing producer for the NHK, came up with it.
At first, voice actors, like those at the Tokyo Radio Drama Troupe and similar companies specialized in radio dramas; with the advent of television, the term took on the additional meaning of one who does dubbing for animation. Television broadcasting aside, when radio was the leading mass medium, actors who played in radio dramas were not without their fans; for example, actors in the Nagoya Radio Drama troupe who played the lead love interest roles often received many fan letters.
In 1961, during the early days of commercial television broadcasting, the Five-Company Agreement (Gosha Agreement) caused the supply of Japanese movies that were available to Japanese television stations to dry up. As a result, in the 1960s many foreign dramas and other foreign programming was imported and dubbed into Japanese language for television broadcast.
At first, the NHK subtitled most foreign shows; however, shows dubbed in the Japanese language soon became the standard. At the center of the first voice acting boom were actors like Nachi Nozawa, who dubbed the same foreign actors, in Nozawa's case Alain Delon, Robert Redford, and Giuliano Gemma. Because of problems with pay guarantees arising from the Gosha Agreement, cinema actors were prevented from dubbing foreign movies for television. Television actors were also prevented from dubbing because of a similar agreement. This caused studios to turn to actors from the radio age and actors from the Shingeki style of acting. Around this time dubbing of foreign animation was done by Rakugo story tellers, Asakusa comedians, and the like, and voice actors were called "dubbing talents" if they specialized in dubbing, while those giving voice to a character went under the name of "ateshi". It is during this golden age for dubbing that the Tokyo Actor's Consumer's Cooperative Society was founded. Later, Haikyo voice acting managers left and opened their own management agencies. Voice actors in Japan also voiced anime.
The first dubbed show broadcast in Japan was an episode of the American cartoon Superman, on October 9, 1955, on KRT (today TBS), and the first non-animated dubbed show broadcast was Cowboy G-Men, again by KRT, in 1956. Both were dubbed live; the first show to be broadcast with pre-recorded dubbing was The Adventures of Television Boy (テレビ坊やの冒険 Terebi Bōya no Bōken) on April 8, 1956.
During the late 1970s, Akio Nojima, Kazuyuki Sogabe, Akira Kamiya, Tōru Furuya and Toshio Furukawa were the first to unite into a band, Slapstick, and perform live. Many other voice actors released their own albums. At around 1979 the first anime magazines began to be published. The then editor-in-chief of Animage, Hideo Ogata, was the first to publish editorials on the ongoing transformation of voice actors into idols. Following his lead, the other magazines created "seiyū corners" with information and gossip about voice actors; this was one of the main causes of young anime fans yearning to become voice actors. This led to a sudden increase in the number of students in voice acting schools. For the first time, anime voice actors were young people who grew up dreaming to become that, as opposed to being members of drama troupes or theatre actors who performed as a hobby. This boom lasted until the first half of the 1980s.
In 1989, the voice actors of the five main stars of the animated television show Ronin Warriors (Nozomu Sasaki, Takeshi Kusao, Hiroshi Takemura, Tomohiro Nishimura and Daiki Nakamura) formed an all-male singing group called "NG5". The group was featured as the subject of a special documentary program on MBS.
During this period, voice acting production companies also began to provide specialized courses at on-site training schools specifically for training in animation dubbing.
The 1960s and 1970s booms were centered on media, such as the TV. In the 1990s, a new boom centered on more personal ways of communication, such as radio shows, Original Video Animation, television quizzes, public events and the Internet, gave way to the publication of the first dedicated voice acting magazines, Seiyū Grand Prix and Voice Animage. Voice actors acquired many new fans thanks to the radio, and their CD sale figures increased. Concerts began to be held in the bigger halls. While the second boom also saw the voice actors become DJs, this time the recording houses backed the voice actor radio shows as sponsors, and large sums of money began to circulate. Megumi Hayashibara, Hekiru Shiina and Mariko Kōda are the first examples of this new trend. Recording companies and voice acting schools began to devise new ways to raise young voice actors.
When voice acting was introduced in television games, the same voice actors would perform in a series of events related to the television game world, making appearances and participating in radio programs based on the television games to attract the fanbase.
In the second half of the 1990s, the boom in the animation world led to the increase of anime shown in the Tokyo area. With the Internet, gathering information on their favourite voice actors became easy for fans, and voice actors began to appear in Internet-based radio shows.
From 1994satellite radio broadcaster, St.GIGA, transmitted episodic video games with voice acted overdubs in a separate and continually streaming vocal track (a technique called SoundLink), to be played in Japan on Nintendo's Super Famicom video game console with its Satellaview peripheral. BS Zelda no Densetsu was identified by Nintendo as the world's first integrated radio-game.to 2000 , the world's first digital
2000-present: Idol and real-life crossoversEdit
During the mid-to-late 2000s, voice acting talents began crossing over with the Japanese idol industry. Prominent examples include Aya Hirano, Koharu Kusumi, Nana Mizuki, and Riisa Naka, all of whom were established actors or singers in mainstream entertainment before entering voice acting. While character song tie-ins were already common in the film industry by then, some voice actors also began making crossover television, stage, and concert appearances as their characters as well, leading them to be closely associated with one another. The term "2.5D", which picked up frequent usage in the mid-2010s, was used to describe voice actors who would portray their characters in real life, such as television or stage plays. Over the mid-to-late 2010s, multimedia projects where the voice actors would appear as their characters in real-life became popular, such as Love Live!
Apart from other performances related to the characters they play, such as press conferences, anime news programmes or interviews, voice actors are also hired for company-internal training videos, supermarket announcements, bus route information broadcasts, ring announcers for professional wrestling and other fighting disciplines, and even railway station route announcements - tasks usually performed by professional announcers, even though the voice actors' employment or name are not always made public.
Voice-over and dubbingEdit
This is the core of the voice actor's job: speaking a role and recording it.
A voice actor's role in anime consists of reading the lines before the production is finished. In Japan, the lines are usually performed before the anime has completed. The artist then draws in every expression to the key of the voice actors reading it off. This is the most common way of prerecording in Japan. Young voice actors are used in both the anime and OVAs. However, in fan-oriented productions and products they use voice actors because voice actors are often used as a selling point.
Dubbing into JapaneseEdit
In the case of foreign dramas, movies, cartoons, news and documentaries, the localization voice-over requires more exact timing in relation to what appears on the screen. In order to perform voice-overs, the volume of the original language voice track is lowered, leaving only a faint sound remaining or, in some cases, no sound at all except for the music-and-effects tracks. Voice-over work is primarily performed for news and original foreign dramas. Auditions are held in order to determine who will take on the roles.
Unlike in anime or dubbing roles, in a video game the voice tracks are often recorded separately due to the way individual voice tracks are selected and played depending on a player's progress. Typically a voice actor uses a script with only a single part's lines and matches it to the timing of the recording. Because of this, many collaborating voice actors in a production may never see each other in person. Popularity rankings may play a role in video game casting, but it is also possible to negotiate fees when a client requests a particular cast.
Radio drama or CD dramaEdit
With a radio drama or CD drama there is more freedom given in voicing because there is no need to match a dub to the original actors, or to match an animated character. Because of this a voice actor's particular interpretation of an act or acting ability are considered. If the drama is based on an anime or manga then the voice actor from the anime are used. However, original drama or works based on literature rarely employ typical voice actors or younger voice actors. Auditions are rarely employed, and the cast is directly selected by the production staff.
Puppet and kigurumi showsEdit
In puppet shows, the voice actor must time the voice-over in relation to the puppet movements. While timing is of the essence in kigurumi shows as well, in this case the voice actor's voice acting is recorded beforehand, and it is left to the kigurumi entertainer to move and act based on the spoken lines.
Voice actors are also commonly employed as narrators in radio and television commercials, radio and television programs, press release videos and other kinds of media that require the voice actor to read text that clarifies what the program is about from a script. Even though the narration role falls within a voice actor's area of expertise, it is not uncommon for regular actors, young talents or announcers to be chosen instead. The fee is proportional to the popularity of the person employed, and veterans are usually preferred for this role due to the high acting ability it requires. Candidates are required to send a short sample recording as a demonstration, and these samples play a large part in the selection process.
It is not uncommon for Shingeki actors and actors performing in small theatres to take a voice acting course in specialized schools and become voice actors, considering the small difference between actor and voice actor. Those who successfully become voice actors sometimes take stage acting roles of their own choosing, and the voice actor's agency takes no part unless the theatre management requires it.
Some voice actors branch into music, releasing albums, holding their concert in their own name and becoming full-time singers.
However, it has become common for voice actors to sing the opening or closing themes of shows in which their character stars, or participate in non-animated side projects such as audio dramas (involving the same characters in new storylines) or image songs (songs sung in character that are not included in the anime but further develop the character), releasing CDs in the character's name rather than their own. Sometimes the singing style of an anime character is quite different from that of the voice actor, and tracks sung using the style of the character are often included in CDs the voice actors release in their own name. This made singing a central activity for many voice actors, especially those who do voice-overs for anime characters.
The limitations imposed on singer voice actors by their recording companies are also less strict than the ones imposed on regular singers. This allows voice actors to release CDs in their character's name with different companies.
Radio talk shows are also called aniradio. Initially the vast majority was aired by local broadcast stations only, but after the communication boom of the 1990s the metropolitan radio stations began to also employ them. Some such programs aired for over ten years. This was the result of fans who regard radio talks as a way to get to know the voice actors as human beings rather than just voices for the characters they play.
Agencies and managementEdit
Relations between voice actors and music, movie and anime companies in Japan are regulated by voice acting management agencies, each with its specialization. In exchange for a fee from the voice actor, they take care of the business affairs and sales promotions. These agencies can also act as a bridge between entertainment companies and private agencies the voice actors may be affiliated with. Sometimes the producers leave it to the agencies to recruit voice actors for minor roles, or handle their schedule.
Voice actors for child roles are sometimes selected from renowned youth theatrical companies, such as the Troupe Himawari. In most cases, adult female voice actors play child roles.
- Frederick, Jim (August 4, 2003). "What's Right with Japan". Time Asia. Archived from the original on April 3, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- Poitras, Gilles (2001). Anime Essentials: Every Thing a Fan Needs to Know. Berkeley, California, USA: Stone Bridge Press. p. 90. ISBN 1-880656-53-1.
- "Short anime glossary [Краткий анимешно-русский разговорник]". anime*magazine (in Russian) (3): 36. 2004. ISSN 1810-8644.
- Terumitsu Otsu and Mary Kennard (April 27, 2002). "The art of voice acting". The Daily Yomiuri. p. 11.
- さよならセント・ギガ. SRAD.jp. 30 September 2003.
- Mamoru, Sakamoto. PCM音声放送デッドヒートのゆくえ（St.GIGA開局前夜 Archived 2012-05-01 at WebCite. Alpha-Net. 2 October 2003.
- Nintendo (February 13, 1995). Sore wa Namae o Nusumareta Machi no Monogatari (in Japanese). Satellaview. Nintendo/St.GIGA.
Kabe shinbunsha: ８月６日（日）のスタート以来、全国を興奮と感動の渦に巻き込んでいる、世界初のラジオ／ゲーム連動プログラム「ＢＳゼルダの伝説」が大好評につき９月の再放送がついに決定した。
- "角川とアップフロントがアイドル声優オーディション開催". Oricon (in Japanese). 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
- Junko Yano (2006-10-25). "月島きらり starring 久住小春（モーニング娘。）『スーパーアイドル・きらりの2ndシングルPV到着！』-". Oricon (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-12-27.
- "男性アイドルシーンに異変 「地方」「2.5次元」「アニメ」の異色出自アイドルたち". Oricon (in Japanese). 2016-02-07. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
- Hiroki Tai (2015-02-15). "最近よく聞く"2.5次元"、その定義とは？". Oricon. Retrieved 2019-01-16.