Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod (comma) shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. Typically found in salt water, Vibrio species are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores. All members of the genus are motile. They are able to have polar or lateral flagellum with or without sheaths. Vibrio species typically possess two chromosomes, which is unusual for bacteria. Each chromosome has a distinct and independent origin of replication, and are conserved together over time in the genus. Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes (multilocus sequence analysis).
O. F. Müller (1773, 1786) described eight species of the genus Vibrio (included in Infusoria), three of which were spirilliforms. Some of the other species are today assigned to eukaryote taxa, e.g., to the euglenoid Peranema or to the diatom Bacillaria. However, Vibrio Müller, 1773 became regarded as the name of a zoological genus, and the name of the bacterial genus became Vibrio Pacini, 1854.Filippo Pacini isolated micro-organisms he called "vibrions" from cholera patients in 1854, because of their motility. In Latin "vibrio" means "to quiver".
Several species of Vibrio are pathogens. Most disease-causing strains are associated with gastroenteritis, but can also infect open wounds and cause sepsis. They can be carried by numerous marine animals, such as crabs or prawns, and have been known to cause fatal infections in humans during exposure. Risk of clinical disease and death increases with certain factors, such as uncontrolled diabetes, elevated iron levels (cirrhosis, sickle cell disease, hemochromatosis), and cancer or other immunocompromised states. Pathogenic Vibrio species include V. cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. V. cholerae is generally transmitted by contaminated water. Pathogenic Vibrio species can cause foodborne illness (infection), usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. When ingested Vibrio bacteria can primarily result in watery diarrhea along with other secondary symptoms.The pathogenic features can be linked to quorum sensing, where bacteria are able to express their virulence factor via their signalling molecules.
V. vulnificus outbreaks commonly occur in warm climates and small, generally lethal, outbreaks occur regularly. An outbreak occurred in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, and several lethal cases occur most years in Florida. As of 2013 in the United States, Vibrio infections as a whole were up 43% when compared with the rates observed in 2006–2008. V. vulnificus, the most severe strain, has not increased. Foodborne Vibrio infections are most often associated with eating raw shellfish.
V. parahaemolyticus is also associated with the Kanagawa phenomenon, in which strains isolated from human hosts (clinical isolates) are hemolytic on blood agar plates, while those isolated from nonhuman sources are not hemolytic.
Many Vibrio species are also zoonotic. They cause disease in fish and shellfish, and are common causes of mortality among domestic marine life.
Medical care depends on the clinical presentation and the presence of underlying medical conditions.
Because Vibrio gastroenteritis is self-limited in most patients, no specific medical therapy is required. Patients who cannot tolerate oral fluid replacement may require intravenous fluid therapy.
Although most Vibrio species are sensitive to antibiotics such as doxycycline or quinolones, antibiotic therapy does not shorten the course of the illness or the duration of pathogen excretion. However, if the patient is ill and has a high fever or an underlying medical condition, oral antibiotic therapy with doxycycline or a quinolone can be initiated.
Noncholera Vibrio infectionsEdit
Patients with noncholera Vibrio wound infection or sepsis are much more ill and frequently have other medical conditions. Medical therapy consists of:
- Prompt initiation of effective antibiotic therapy (doxycycline or a quinolone)
- Intensive medical therapy with aggressive fluid replacement and vasopressors for hypotension and septic shock to correct acid-base and electrolytes abnormalities that may be associated with severe sepsis
- Early fasciotomy within 24 hours after development of clinical symptoms can be life-saving in patients with necrotizing fasciitis.
- Early debridement of the infected wound has an important role in successful therapy and is especially indicated to avoid amputation of fingers, toes, or limbs.
- Expeditious and serial surgical evaluation and intervention are required because patients may deteriorate rapidly, especially those with necrotizing fasciitis or compartment syndrome.
- Reconstructive surgery, such as skin grafts, are used in the recovery phase.
V. harveyi is a pathogen of several aquatic animals, and is notable as a cause of luminous vibriosis in shrimp (prawns). V. fischeri (or Aliivibrio fishceri) is known for its mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, which is dependent on microbial luminescence.
The "typical", early-discovered Vibrio species, such as V. cholerae, have a single polar flagellum (monotrichous) with sheath. Some species, such as V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, have both a single polar flagellum with sheath and thin flagella projecting in all directions (peritrichous), and the other species, such as V. fischeri, have tufts of polar flagella with sheath (lophotrichous).
Natural transformation is a common bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer that employs numerous bacterial gene products. For a recipient bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must become competent, that is, enter a special physiologic state. The DNA-uptake process of naturally competent V. cholerae involves an extended competence-induced pilus and a DNA-binding protein that acts as a rachet and reels DNA into the periplasm. Natural transformation has also been described for V. fisheri, V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus.
V. cholerae has been used in discoveries of many bacterial small RNAs. Using sRNA-Seq and Northern blot candidate sRNAs were identified and characterised as IGR-sRNA (intragenic region), AS-sRNAs (transcribed from the antisense strand of the [[open reading frame (ORF) and ORF-derived. One of the candidates from this study, IGR7, was shown to be involved in carbon metabolism and later renamed MtlS RNA. Other sRNAs identified in V. cholerae through genetic screens and computational methods include Qrr RNA, Vibrio regulatory RNA of OmpA, MicX sRNA, Vibrio cholerae ToxT activated RNAs, tfoR RNA, and VqmR sRNA.
- Thompson FL, Gevers D, Thompson CC, Dawyndt P, Naser S, Hoste B, Munn CB, Swings J (2005). "Phylogeny and Molecular Identification of Vibrios on the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Analysis". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71 (9): 5107–5115. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.9.5107-5115.2005. PMC 1214639. PMID 16151093.
- Ryan KJ; Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0.
- Faruque SM; Nair GB, eds. (2008). Vibrio cholerae: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-33-2.
- Madigan, Michael; Martinko, John, eds. (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-144329-7.
- Khan, Fazlurrahman; Tabassum, Nazia; Anand, Raksha; Kim, Young-Mog (2020-10-01). "Motility of Vibrio spp.: regulation and controlling strategies". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 104 (19): 8187–8208. doi:10.1007/s00253-020-10794-7. ISSN 1432-0614.
- Trucksis, Michele; Michalski, Jane; Deng, Ying Kang; Kaper, James B. (1998-11-24). "The Vibrio cholerae genome contains two unique circular chromosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 95 (24): 14464–14469. Bibcode:1998PNAS...9514464T. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.24.14464. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 24396. PMID 9826723.
- Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Honda, Takeshi (2005-01-15). "Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes". Journal of Bacteriology. 187 (2): 752–757. doi:10.1128/JB.187.2.752-757.2005. ISSN 0021-9193. PMC 543535. PMID 15629946.
- Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole (2007-07-11). "The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle". The EMBO Journal. 26 (13): 3124–3131. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601747. ISSN 0261-4189. PMC 1914095. PMID 17557077.
- Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Chang, LeeAnn; Chang, Sarah; Gevers, Dirk; Polz, Martin F. (2010-01-01). "Vibrio chromosomes share common history". BMC Microbiology. 10: 137. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-137. ISSN 1471-2180. PMC 2875227. PMID 20459749.
- Pot, B., Gillis, M., and De Ley, J., The genus Aquaspirillum. In: Balows, A., Trüper, H.G., Dworkin, M., Harder, W., Schleifer, K.-H. (Eds.). The prokaryotes, 2nd ed, vol. 3. Springer-Verlag. New York. 1991
- Hugh, R. (1964). The proposed conservation of the generic name Vibrio Pacini 1854 and designation of the neotype strain of Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854
- Hugh, R. (1964). "The Proposed Conservation of the Generic Name Vibrio Pacini 1854 and Designation of the Neotype Strain of Vibrio Cholerae Pacini 1854". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. doi:10.1099/0096266X-14-2-87. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- Stöppler, MD, Melissa. "Medical Definition of Vibrio cholerae". MedTerms Dictionary. MedicineNet. Retrieved 2021-06-03.
- C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Lee, Michelle T.; Dinh, An Q.; Nguyen, Stephanie; Krucke, Gus; Tran, Truc T. (2019-03-28). "Late-onset Vibrio vulnificus septicemia without cirrhosis". Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings. 0 (2): 286–288. doi:10.1080/08998280.2019.1580661. ISSN 0899-8280. PMC 6541083. PMID 31191157.
- Cabanillas-Beltrán, Héctor; LLausás-Magaña, Eduardo; Romero, Ricardo; Espinoza, Abel; García-Gasca, Alejandra; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Ishibashi, Masanori; Gomez-Gil, Bruno (2006-12-01). "Outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by the pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3 : K6 in Mexico". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 265 (1): 76–80. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00475.x. ISSN 0378-1097.
- "Symptoms | Vibrio Illness (Vibriosis) | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2021-03-02. Retrieved 2021-03-30.
- Tan, Wen-Si; Muhamad Yunos, Nina Yusrina; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan (8 July 2014). "Characterisation of a Marine Bacterium Vibrio Brasiliensis T33 Producing N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules". Sensors. 14 (7): 12104–12113. doi:10.3390/s140712104. PMC 4168498. PMID 25006994.
- Jablecki J, Norton SA, Keller GR, DeGraw C, Ratard R, Straif-Bourgeois S, Holcombe JM, Quilter S, Byers P, McNeill M, Schlossberg D, Dohony DP, Neville J, Carlo J, Buhner D, Smith BR, Wallace C, Jernigan D, Sobel J, Reynolds M, Moore M, Kuehnert M, Mott J, Jamieson D, Burns-Grant G, Misselbeck T, Cruise PE, LoBue P, Holtz T, Haddad M, Clark TA, Cohen A, Sunenshine R, Jhung M, Vranken P, Lewis FM, Carpenter LR (2005). "Infectious Disease and Dermatologic Conditions in Evacuees and Rescue Workers After Hurricane Katrina - Multiple States, August–September, 2005". Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report. 54: 1–4.
- Bureau of Community Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health (2005). "Annual Report, Florida". Food and Waterborne Illness Surveillance and Investigation: 21.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Infections from some foodborne germs increased, while others remained unchanged in 2012". Centers for Disease Control. April 18, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Joseph S, Colwell R, Kaper J (1982). "Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related halophilic Vibrios". Crit Rev Microbiol. 10 (1): 77–124. doi:10.3109/10408418209113506. PMID 6756788.
- "Noncholera Vibrio Infections - Infectious Diseases". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 2021-03-30.
- Austin B, Zhang XH (2006). "Vibrio harveyi: a significant pathogen of marine vertebrates and invertebrates". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 43 (2): 119–214. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01989.x. PMID 16869892.
- "Aliivibrio fischeri", Wikipedia, 2020-04-26, retrieved 2020-04-26
- George M. Garrity, ed. (2005). Bergey's manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Vol. 2 Part B (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 496–8. ISBN 978-0-387-24144-9.
- Chen I, Dubnau D (2004). "DNA uptake during bacterial transformation". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2 (3): 241–9. doi:10.1038/nrmicro844. PMID 15083159. S2CID 205499369.
- Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Michod RE (2018). Sex in microbial pathogens. Infection, Genetics and Evolution volume 57, pages 8-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2017.10.024
- Matthey N, Blokesch M (2016). "The DNA-Uptake Process of Naturally Competent Vibrio cholerae". Trends Microbiol. 24 (2): 98–110. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2015.10.008. PMID 26614677.
- Pollack-Berti A, Wollenberg MS, Ruby EG (2010). "Natural transformation of Vibrio fischeri requires tfoX and tfoY". Environ. Microbiol. 12 (8): 2302–11. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02250.x. PMC 3034104. PMID 21966921.
- Gulig PA, Tucker MS, Thiaville PC, Joseph JL, Brown RN (2009). "USER friendly cloning coupled with chitin-based natural transformation enables rapid mutagenesis of Vibrio vulnificus". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75 (15): 4936–49. doi:10.1128/AEM.02564-08. PMC 2725515. PMID 19502446.
- Chen Y, Dai J, Morris JG, Johnson JA (2010). "Genetic analysis of the capsule polysaccharide (K antigen) and exopolysaccharide genes in pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6". BMC Microbiol. 10: 274. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-274. PMC 2987987. PMID 21044320.
- Liu, Jane M.; Livny, Jonathan; Lawrence, Michael S.; Kimball, Marc D.; Waldor, Matthew K.; Camilli, Andrew (April 2009). "Experimental discovery of sRNAs in Vibrio cholerae by direct cloning, 5S/tRNA depletion and parallel sequencing". Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (6): e46. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp080. ISSN 1362-4962. PMC 2665243. PMID 19223322.