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United States Army Futures Command

United States Army Futures Command (AFC)[3][4] is a United States Army command aimed at modernizing the Army.[5][6][7] It focuses on six priorities:[Note 1] long-range precision fires,[8][9] next-generation combat vehicle,[10] future vertical lift platforms,[11] a mobile & expeditionary Army network,[12] air & missile defense capabilities,[13] and soldier lethality.[14]AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs)[15] are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future.[16][17]

United States Army Futures Command
Army Futures Command SSI.png
ActiveJuly 1, 2018–present
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeArmy Command
Garrison/HQAustin, TX
Motto(s)"Forge the future"[1]
Websitearmyfuturescommand.com
Commanders
Commanding General[2]GEN John M. Murray
Deputy Commanding General[2]LTG James M. Richardson
Command Sergeant Major[2]CSM Michael A. Crosby
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia[1]
Army Futures Command Distinctive Unit Insignia.png

Futures Command (AFC) was established in 2018 as a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and Army Materiel Command (AMC), the other Army commands (ACOMs—providing forces, training and doctrine, and materiel respectively).[18][19] Previously the United States military focused on fighting insurgents, since 2001.[20][21] The other Army commands focus on their readiness to "Fight tonight" when called upon by the nation. In contrast, AFC is focused on future readiness[22] for competition with near-peers, who have updated their capabilities.[23][24]

AFC declared its full operational capability (FOC) in July 2019,[25][26] after an initial one-year period.[27] The FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.[28] The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.[28][29] Over 30 projects[30][31] are envisioned to become the materiel basis needed for overmatching any potential competitors in the continuum of conflict over the next ten years,[32][33] in Multi-domain operations (MDO).[34]

Transition to multi-domain operations (MDO)Edit

We're moving out and there's no turning back. We've shown the will to act over the last year, and now we have to show the will to follow through.

— Then-Under Secretary McCarthy[35][36]

In the view of Secretary McCarthy, there will be three elements in Futures Command:[37]

  1. Futures and Concepts: assess gaps (needs versus opportunities,[38] given a threat).[37] Concepts for realizable future systems (with readily harvestable content)[39] will flow into TRADOC doctrine, manuals, and training programs.
  2. Combat Development: stabilized concepts.[39][40] Balance the current state of technology and the cash-flow requirements of the defense contractors providing the technology, that they become deliverable experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes, in an iterative process of acquisition.[41] (See #Value stream)
  3. Combat Systems: experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes.[42] Transition to the acquisition, production, and sustainment programs of AMC.[42][43]

Then-Secretary Esper emphasized that the 2018 administrative infrastructure for the Futures and Concepts Center (formerly ARCIC) and CCDC (formerly RDECOM) remains in place at their existing locations.[44] What has changed or will change is the layers of command (operational control, or OPCON)[45] needed to make a decision.[44]

You've got to remain open to change, you've got to remain flexible, you've [got] to remain accessible. That is the purpose of this command.

— Secretary Esper[44][46]

Cross-functional teams (CFTs)Edit

Under Secretary McCarthy characterized a Cross-functional team (CFT) as a team of teams, led by a requirements leader, program manager, sustainer, tester.[47] Each CFT must strike a balance for itself amid constraints: the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment. A balance is needed in order for a CFT in order to produce a realizable concept before a competitor achieves it.

Cross-functional teams[15] for materiel and capabilities were first structured in a task force, in order to de-layer the Army Commands. Each CFT addresses a capability gap, which the Army must now match for its future: there can be a Capability development integration directorate (CDID), for each CFT.[Note 1] Initially, the CFTs were placed as needed; eventually they might each co-locate at a Center of Excellence (CoE) listed below. For example, the Aviation CoE at Fort Rucker, in coordination with the Aviation program executive office (PEO), also contains the Vertical Lift CFT and the Aviation capability development integration directorate (CDID). Modernization reform is the priority for AFC, in order to achieve readiness for the future.

The CFTs will be involved in all three of AFC's elements: Futures and concepts, Combat development, and Combat systems.[48] "We were never above probably a total of eight people" — BG Wally Rugen, Aviation CFT.[49] Four of the eight CFT leads have now shifted from dual-hat jobs to full-time status. Each CFT lead is mentored by a 4-star general.[49]

Although AFC and the CFTs are a top priority of the Department of the Army, as AFC and the CFTs are expected to unify control of the $30 billion-dollar modernization budget,[50][26] "The new command will not tolerate a zero-defects mentality. 'But if you fail, we'd like you to fail early and fail cheap,' because progress and success often builds on failure." —Ryan McCarthy:[51] Holland notes that prototyping applies to the conceptual realm ('harvestable content') as much as prototyping applies to the hardware realm.[39][40]

A 2019 GAO report[52] cautions that lessons learned from the CFT pilot[15] are yet to be applied; Holland notes that this organizational critique applies to prototyping hardware, a different realm than concept refinement ("scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development").[39][40]

Joint collaboration on modernizationEdit

The Secretaries of the Army, Air Force, and Navy meet regularly to take advantage of overlap in their programs:[53]

  • Hypersonics — The US Army (August 2018) has no tested countermeasure for intercepting maneuverable hypersonic weapons platforms,[54][55] and in this case the problem is being addressed in a joint program of the entire Department of Defense.[56] The Army is participating in a joint program with the Navy and Air Force, to develop a hypersonic glide body.[57][58] [59][60][61] The Long range precision fires (LRPF) CFT is supporting Space and Missile Defense Command's pursuit of hypersonics.[59][62] Joint programs in hypersonics are informed by Army work,[63][64] however at the strategic level, the bulk of the hypersonics work remains at the Joint level.[65][66][67][61] Long range precision fires (LRPF) is an Army priority, and also a DoD joint effort.[64] A wind tunnel for testing hypersonic vehicles will be built in Texas (2019).[68] The Army's Land-based Hypersonic Missile "is intended to have a range of 1,400 miles".[60]:p.6 [61] By adding rocket propulsion to a shell or glide body, the joint effort shaved five years off the likely fielding time for hypersonic weapon systems.[53][69] Countermeasures against hypersonics will require sensor data fusion: both radar and infrared sensor tracking data will be required to capture the signature of a hypersonic vehicle in the atmosphere.[70][71]
  • Multi-Domain Operations (MDO)[72][73][74] — Joint planning and operations are also part of the impending DoD emphasis on multi-domain operations.[23][75] [76][77] [78][20] [79][34] [80][81] Multi-domain battalions, first stood up in 2019,[82] comprise a single unit[83] for air, land, space, and cyber domains. [84] [53][77] A hypersonics-based battery similar to a THAAD battery is under consideration for this type of battalion,[57] denoted a strategic fires battalion.[85][86]
    • The ability to punch-through any standoff defense of a near-peer competitor is the goal which Futures Command is seeking.[87][88][89]

[90][91][73] [92][81][61] Critical decisions to meet this goal will be decided by data from the results of the Army's ongoing tests of the protoypes under development.[88][59]

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) Modernization[93][94] — The Secretary of the Army has directed the establishment of an Army AI task force (A-AI TF) to support the DoD Joint AI center. The execution order will be drafted and staffed by Futures Command:[95][96]
    • Army AI task force[97][98] (its relationship with the CFTs is cross-cutting, in the same sense as the Assured Position, Navigation, Timing CFT (A-PNT) and the Synthetic Training Environment CFT (STE) are also cross-cutting) will use the resources of the Army to establish scalable machine learning projects at Carnegie Mellon University
    • the CIO/G-6 will create an Identity, Credential, and Access Management system to efficiently issue and verify credentials to non-person entities (AI agents and machines)[99]
    • DCS G-2 will coordinate with CG AFC, and director of A-AI TF, to provide intelligence for Long-Range Precision Fires
    • CG AMC will provide functional expertise and systems for maintenance of materiel with AI
    • AFC and A-AI TF will establish an AI test bed for experimentation, training, deployment, and testing of machine learning capabilities and workflows.[100] Funding will be assured for the Fiscal Year 2019.[53]

PartnersEdit

AFC is actively seeking partners outside the gates of a military reservation,[103] including research funding to over 300 colleges and universities.[26] "We will come to you. You don't have to come to us. — General Mike Murray, 24 August 2018"[27]:minute 6:07 Multiple incubator tech hubs are available in Austin,[104] especially Capital Factory, with offices of DIUx and AFWERX (USAF tech hub).[105] Gen. Murray will stand up an Army Applications Lab[Note 2] there to accelerate acquisition and deployment of materiel to the Soldiers, using AI [95] as one acceleration technique; Murray will hire a Chief Technology Officer for AFC.[106] Gen. Murray, in seeking to globalize AFC,[107] has embedded U.S. military allies into some of the Cross-functional teams (CFTs).[108][26]

AFC is seeking to design signature systems in a relevant time frame according to priorities[Note 1] of the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[48] AFC will partner with other organizations such as Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) as needed.[63][109] If a team from industry presents a viable program idea to a CFT, that CFT connects to the Army's requirements developers, Secretary Esper said, and the program prototype is then put on a fast track.[110]

The Secretary of the Army has approved an Intellectual Property Management Policy, to protect both the Army and the entrepreneur or innovator.[111][112]

For example, the Network cross-functional team (CFT) and the Program Executive Office Command, Control, Communications—Tactical (PEO C3T) hosted a forum on 1 August 2018 for vendors to learn what might function as a testable/deployable[113] in the near future.[114] A few of the hundreds of white papers from the vendors, adjudged to be 'very mature ideas', were passed to the Army's acquisition community, while many others were passed to CERDEC for continuation in the Army's effort to modernize the network for combat.[115] Although some test requirements were inappropriately applied, the Command post computing environment (CPCE) has passed a hurdle.[116]

While seeking information, the Army is especially interested in ideas that accelerate an acquisition program, in for example the Future Vertical Lift Requests for Information (RFIs): “provide a detailed description of tailored, alternative or innovative approaches that streamlines the acquisition process to accelerate the program as much as possible”.[117]

AFC eventsEdit

See the AFC events below

AcquisitionEdit

 
DoD (2007) Acquisition process denoting Milestones A, B, C along a timeline. When a milestone has been met, the triangle then points downward, at this time. Otherwise the milestone is planned, but not yet met at this time.

Futures Command partners with the ASA(ALT),[118][17] who, in the role of the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE),[119] has milestone decision authority (MDA)[42] at multiple points in a Materiel development decision (MDD).[120] (Thus, from the perspective of AFC, which seeks to modernize, consolidate the relevant expertise into the relevant CFT. The CFT balances the constraints needed to realize a prototype, beginning with realizable requirements, science and technology, test, etc. before entering the acquisition process (typically the Army prototypes on its own, and currently initiates acquisition at Milestone B, in order to have the Acquisition Executive, with the concurrence of the Army Chief of Staff, decide on production as a program of record at Milestone C).[121] Next, refine the prototype to address the factors needed to pass the Milestone decisions A, B, and C which require Milestone decision authority (MDA) in an acquisition process.[121] This consolidation of expertise thus reduces the risks in a Materiel development decision (MDD), for the Army to admit a prototype into a program of record.) The role of the existing processes (in April 2018) for a Materiel development decision (MDD) is to be announced.[119][120][39]

In order to achieve its mission of achieving overmatch,[122][72][38] each Futures Command CFT partners with the acquisition community.[123] This community (the Army acquisition workforce (AAW)) includes an entire Army branch (the Acquisition Corps),[124][125][126][127] U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC), Army Contracting Command, (.. This list is incomplete).[120] The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) is also deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command,[119] and leads the PEOs; he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[128]

The current acquisition system has pieces all throughout the Army. ... There’s chunks of it in TRADOC and chunks of it in AMC and then other pieces. So really all we’re trying to do is get them all lined up under a single command…..from concept, S&T, RDT&E, through the requirements process, through the beginnings of the acquisition system — Milestone A, B, and C — ….aligned under that same commander. ... We will finally achieve… unity of command — Secretary Esper.[37]

The PEOs work closely with their respective CFTs.[123] The list of CFTs and PEOs below is incomplete.[Note 1] Operationally, the CFTs offer "de-layering" (fewer degrees of separation between the echelons of the Army — Rugen estimates two degrees of separation),[49] and provide a point of contact (POC) for Army reformers[38] interested in adding value in the midst of constraints to be balanced while modernizing.[49] "... and if we're really good, we'll continue to adapt. Year over year over year." —Secretary Esper[27]:minute 19:00[5] (See #Value streams.)

Prototyping and experimentationEdit

"Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn’t exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper.[129] The development process will be cyclic,[130] consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation,[110] in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record.[26]

AFC activities include at least one Cross-functional team, its Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[131]:Para. 2b and the associated Battle Lab,[131]:Para. 2b for each Center of Excellence (CoE) respectively. Each CDID and associated Battle Lab work with their CFT[46] to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.

ASA(ALT), in coordination with AFC, has dotted-line relationships between its PEOs and the CFTs. In particular, the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office of ASA(ALT) has a PEO who is charged with developing experimental prototype 'units of action' for rapid fielding to the Soldiers. The prototypes are currently for Long range hypersonic weapons, High energy laser defense, and Space, as of June 2019.[132][58][133][56][69][85][134]

Tests are run by JMC and WSMR, which hosts ATEC.[135] As ATEC reports directly to the Army Chief of Staff,[19] the test support level from ATEC[136] is to be specified by the CFT,[46] or PEO.[137] Fort Bliss and WSMR together cover 3.06 million acres, large enough to test every non-nuclear weapon system in the Army inventory.[138]:minute 1:26:00JMC runs live developmental experiments to test the concepts or capabilities for analysis by the Fort Leavenworth Operations research activities, denoted TRAC,[46] or AMSAA, denoted the Data Analysis Center at APG. CCDC (formerly RDECOM, at APG) includes the several Army research laboratory locations (ARLs),[139] as well as research, development and engineering centers (RDECs) listed:[131][46][5]

In internal partnerships, CCDC (formerly RDECOM) has taken Long range precision fires (LRPF) as its focus in aligning its organizations (the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)); as of September 2018, RDECOM's 'concept of operation' is first to support the LRPF CFT,[140] with ARDEC. AMRDEC is looking to improve the energetics and efficiency of projectiles. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Center is working on high-voltage components for Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA) that save on size and weight.[140] Two dedicated RDECOM people support the LRPF CFT, with reachback support from two dozen more at RDECOM.[141] In January 2019 RDECOM was reflagged as CCDC; General Mike Murray noted that CCDC will have to support more Soldier feedback, and that prototyping and testing will have to begin before a project ever becomes a program of record.[142][5]

Although the Army Research Laboratory has not changed its name, Secretary Esper notes that the CCDC objectives supersede the activities of the Laboratory;[46][39][40] the Laboratory remains in its support role for the top-six priorities for modernizing combat capabilities.[Note 1]

Acquisition specialists are being encouraged to accept lateral transfers to the several research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), where their skills are needed: Ground vehicle systems center (formerly TARDEC, at Detroit Arsenal), Aviation and missile center (formerly AMRDEC, at Redstone Arsenal), C5ISR center (formerly CERDEC, at Aberdeen Proving Ground), Soldier center (formerly NSRDEC, Natick, MA), and Armaments center (formerly ARDEC, at Picatinny Arsenal) listed below.[143]

AFC branch locationsEdit

The following activities for Futures Command are at 23 locations.[144]

  1. AFC HQ, Austin TX[26][4][27][72][145]
  2. AFSG Army Future Studies Group,[39][40] 2530 Crystal Dr, Arlington, VA 22202
  3. Futures and Concepts Center of AFC,[146] formerly ARCIC Fort Eustis VA
  4. JMC Joint Modernization Command,[105] Fort Bliss, which is contiguous to WSMR
  5. WSMR White Sands Missile Range NM,[135] also houses ARL,[147] TRAC,[148] and ATEC.[138]:minute 1:19:00
  6. FT LVN Operations research: Mission Command Battle Lab,[149][150][73] Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[151] The Research Analysis Center (TRAC), formerly TRADOC Analysis Center,[148][152] Fort Leavenworth KS
     
    Train the trainer: A trainer (not shown) is interviewing a virtual Soldier in a role-playing session. The virtual Soldier has a leadership role in an Army unit. The trainer must tell the virtual Soldier what the Soldier is not doing correctly. Trainers using this program show a 40% increase in their knowledge of the SHARP policy. Trainers using this role-playing program can review missed concepts and practice lessons they didn't get right during their first trial.
    • CFT: Synthetic Training Environment (STE):[153][154][155] The HQ for STE has opened in Orlando (January 28, 2019).[156]
  7. CCOE Cyber CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[157] Fort Gordon GA
    • CFT: Mobile and Expeditionary Network[113]
  8. MCOE Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[158] Fort Benning GA
    • CFT: Next-Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV)[159]
    • CFT: Soldier Lethality
  9. AVNCOE Aviation CoE - (its CDID),[160][89] at Fort Rucker
    • CFT: Future Vertical Lift (FVL)
  10. FCOE Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[161][162][163] Fort Sill OK
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF)[69][162]
    • CFT: Air and Missile Defense
  11. ICOE Intelligence CoE - (its CDID),[164] Fort Huachuca AZ
  12. MSCOE Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[165] Fort Leonard Wood MO
  13. SCOE Sustainment CoE - (its CDID),[166] Fort Lee VA
  14. APG[167][168] Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen MD, also houses Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC,[169] formerly RDECOM), Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA), and C5ISR center[170] (formerly CERDEC)
    • CFT: Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)[170]
    • CFT: Network CFT (N-CFT)[167]:p.5
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires,[140]
  15. Armaments center (formerly Armament research, development and engineering center —ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, PEO AMMO, and the Cross Functional Team for Long Range Precision Fires
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires
  16. Ground vehicle systems center (formerly Tank Automotive research, development and engineering center —TARDEC), Detroit Arsenal (Warren, Michigan)
    • CFT: Next-Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV)
  17. Aviation and missile center (formerly Aviation and Missile research, development and engineering center —AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville AL[171]
    • CFT: Air and Missile Defense
  18. Soldier center[172] (formerly Natick Soldier research, development and engineering center —NSRDEC), General Greene Ave, Natick, MA 01760
  19. ARL-Adelphi Army Research Laboratory,[173][174] Adelphi MD
  20. ARL-Orlando Army Research Laboratory,[156] Orlando FL
  21. ARL West, Playa Vista[175] CA
  22. ARL-RTP Army Research Laboratory, Raleigh-Durham NC
  23. AI task force at Carnegie-Mellon University[93][46]

Need for modernization reformEdit

Between 1995 and 2009, $32 billion was expended on programs such as the Future Combat System (2003-2009), with no harvestable content by the time of its cancellation.[176] The Army has not fielded a new combat system in decades.[177][79][178][179][32]

Secretary of the Army Mark Esper has remarked that AFC will provide the unity of command and purpose needed to reduce the requirements definition phase from 60 months to 12 months.[180][22][45] A simple statement of a problem (rather than a full-blown requirements definition) that the Army is trying to address may suffice for a surprising, usable solution. —General Mike Murray, paraphrasing Trae Stephens[36]:minute 41:50 (One task will be to quantify the lead time for identifying a requirement; the next task would then be to learn how to reduce that lead time.—Gap analysis )[27]:minute 11:00[181][182][5] Process changes are expected.[181][39] The development process will be cyclic, consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation, in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record. The ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette[123] has cautioned the acquisition community to 'call-out' unrealistic processes which commit a program to a drawn-out failure,[183] rather than failing early, and seeking another solution.[184]

Secretary Esper scrubbed through 800[185] modernization programs to reprioritize funding[186] for the top 6 modernization priorities,[50] which will consume 80% of the modernization funding,[187] of 18 systems.[187] The Budget Control Act will restrict funds by 2020.[188][189][190] [191][192][193] [194][195][196] [28][29][197][198] Realistically, budget considerations will restrict the fielding of new materiel to one Armor BCT per year;[199] at that rate, updates would take decades.[199]

The CIO/G6 has targeted Futures Command (Austin) in 2019 as the first pilot for "enterprise IT-as-a-service"-style service contracts; General Murray now (July 2019) has a sensitive compartmented information facility in his headquarters, as a result of this pilot.[25] Two other locations are to be announced for 2019. Six to eight other pilots are envisioned for 2020. However 288 other enterprise network locations remain to be migrated away from the previous "big bang" migration concept from several years ago, as they are vulnerable to near-peer cyber threats.[200][138]:minute 16:50 The CIO/G6 emphasizes that this enterprise migration is not the tactical network espoused in the top six priorities (a 'mobile & expeditionary Army network').[200][201]

  1. After AFC, the following G6 service contracts are high priority:[200]
  2. The Combat Training Centers (Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and Grafenwöhr)
  3. TRADOC and its Centers of Excellence (CoEs)
  4. The power projection bases from which deployments spring

SilosEdit

Chief Milley noted that AFC would actively reach out into the community in order to learn,[26] and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command.[27]:minute 7:30[22] In fact, AFC soldiers would blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms [to work side-by-side with civilians in the tech hubs],[26][202] Milley noted in the 24 August 2018 press conference.[27]:minute 6:20 Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process;[27]:minute 18:20 the Network CFT and PEO have detected a process failure in the DOT&E[203] requirements process: some test requirements were inappropriately applied.[116][204]

In the Department of Defense, the materiel supply process was underwritten by the acquisition, logistics, and technology directorate of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), with a deputy secretary of defense (DSD) to oversee five areas, one of them being acquisition, logistics, and technology (ALT).[205] ALT is overseen by an under secretary of defense (USD).[206] (Each of the echelons at the level of DSD and USD serve at the pleasure of the president, as does the secretary of defense (SECDEF).) The Defense Acquisition University (DAU) trains acquisition professionals for the Army as well.

In 2016 when RDECOM reported to AMC (instead of to AFC, as it does as of 2018), AMC instituted Life cycle management command (LCMC)[123] of three of RDECOM's centers for aviation and missiles, electronics, and tanks:[207] AMRDEC,[208] CERDEC,[209][210] and TARDEC[211] respectively, as well as the three contracting[212] functions for the three centers.[183]

This Life Cycle Management (formulated in 2004)[213][214] was intended to exert the kind of operational control (OPCON)[45] needed just for the sustainment function (AMC's need for Readiness today), rather than for its relevance to modernization for the future, which is the focus of AFC.

Relevance for modernizationEdit

The CFTs,[Note 1] as prioritized 1 through 6 by the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA), each have to consider constraints: a balance of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment.

The DOTMLPF method of mission planning was instituted to quantify tradeoffs in joint planning.[45] TRADOC's Mission Command CoE uses DOTMLPF.[215] DOTMLPF will be used for modernization of the Army beyond materiel alone, which (as of 2019) is the current focus of the CFTs.[216] The updated modernization strategy, to move from concept to doctrine as well, will be unveiled by summer 2019.[216] DOTMLPF (doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities) itself is planned as a driver for modernization.[22][216] The plan is to have an MDO-capable Army by 2028, and an MDO-ready Army by 2035.[216][20]

TRADOC, ASA (ALT), and AFC are tied together in this process, according to Vice Chief McConville.[217] AFC will have to be "a little bit disruptive [but not upsetting to the existing order]" in order to institute reforms within budget in a timely way.[218]

The ASA(ALT), or Assistant Secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics, and technology is currently (2018) Dr. Bruce Jette. The ASA(ALT) is the civilian executive overseeing both the acquisition and the sustainment processes of the Department of the Army. The ASA(ALT) will coordinate the acquisition portion of modernization reform with AFC.

Congress has given the Army OTA (Other Transaction Authority),[219][Note 2] which allows the PEOs to enter into Full Rate Production quicker by permitting the services to control their own programs of record, rather than DoD.[128] This strips out one layer of bureaucracy as of 2018.[128][220][61]

Besides the AFC Cross-Functional Teams, the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC)[221][222][223] could also play a part in acquisition reform;[224][225] as of September 2018 the Deputy Chief of Staff G-8 (DCS G-8), who leads AROC and JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council) has aligned with the priorities of AFC.[226] The DCS G-8 is principal military advisor to the ASA (FM&C).[119]

In addition, the Program Executive Officers (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) are to maintain a dotted-line relationship[Note 1] (i.e., coordination) with Futures Command.[123][37]

There is now a PEO for Rapid Capabilities, to get rapid turnaround. The Rapid capabilities office (RCO)'s PEO gets two program managers, one for rapid prototyping, and one for rapid acquisition, of a capability.[227] The Rapid capabilities office (RCO) does not develop its own requirements; rather, the RCO gets the requirements from the Cross-functional team (CFT).[228] Rapid Capabilities (RCO) was headed by Tanya Skeen as PEO RCO[123] but Skeen moved to DoD, in late 2018.[229] In 2019 RCO became the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO) The Pentagon, headed by LTG L. Neil Thurgood,[58] lately of ASA(ALT)'s Army Hypersonics office.[133][57]

Progress toward MDOEdit

The CG of Army Futures Command (AFC) is set to announce full operational capability (FOC) 31 July 2019.[230][231] The Army G8 is monitoring just how producible (Milestone C) the upcoming materiel will be; for the moment, the G8 is funding the materiel.[31] Follow-up on Modernization reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis, according to the G8.[232][233]

The progress in the top six priorities being:[Note 1][43] [32][110] [234][87]

  • Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) is a systematic program to extend the artillery's range.[235] The current tests show the range has doubled.[140][236]
    • The current Paladin (M109A6) cannon range is doubling (M109A7).[237]:minute 2:30[238] An operational test of components of Long range cannon (LRC) is scheduled for 2020.[239] LRC is complementary to Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA).[239][235] Investigations for ERCA in 2025: rocket-boosted artillery shells:[140] Tests of the Multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) XM30 rocket shell have demonstrated a near-doubling of the range of the munition, using the Tail controlled guided multiple launch rocket system, or TC-G.[240] The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) Field Artillery Brigade - DIVARTY has been named a command position.[Note 3]
    • The Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) is slated to replace the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) in 2023.[140] PrSM flight testing is delayed beyond 2 August 2019, the anticipated date for the expiration of the INF Treaty, which set 499 kilometer limits on intermediate-range missiles.[241] (David Sanger and Edward Wong project that the earliest test of a longer range missile could be a ground-launched version of a Tomahawk cruise missile,[242] followed by a test of a mobile ground launched IRBM with a range of 1800-2500 miles before year-end 2019.)[242]
    • The Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW) will use precision targeting data against anti-access area denial (A2AD) radars and other critical infrastructure of near-peer competitors by 2023.[243][61] LRHW does depend on stable funding.[233]
  • Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) portfolio:[244][245] —Maj. Gen. Dave Bassett, PEO GCS 2016[246][247][248] Note: In 2018 MG Bassett became PEO C3T — Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical
    • Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): in Limited User Tests[245]
    • A ground mobility vehicle competition, bids closing 26 October 2018[249]
      • The JLTV was approved for full rate production in June 2019.[250] Joint Modernization Command (JMC) is supporting a TCM Stryker study on the optimum number of JLTVs for light infantry brigades.[251]
    • Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF):[252][253] approved by joint requirements oversight council.[245] Two vendors were selected to build competing prototype light tanks (MPF), with contract award in 2022.[254] A unit of 82nd Airborne Division will begin assessment of prototype MPFs beginning in March 2020.[255]
    • Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV):[110] soliciting input, in requirements definition stage; 2 should fit in a C-17.[245] A request for proposal (RFP) for a vehicle prototype was placed March 29, 2019.[110]
    • Robotic Combat Vehicles (RCVs):[30][110] General Murray envisions that by FY2023 critical decisions will be made on RCVs after years of experimentation.[88]
    • Next Generation main battle tank:[256] futures
  • Future Vertical Lift (FVL)[39][11][257]
    • Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Soldier feedback remains an item for discussion in the Future Vertical Lift CFT.[258]
    • Future Vertical Lift will use the DoD modular open systems approach (MOSA),[11] an integrated business and technical strategy in FARA,[259][260][261] and in FLRRA:[262][263][117]
      • Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstrator (JMR-TD): prototypes by two teams to replace UH-60 with Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRRA).[264]
      • The Future Attack and Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) is smaller than FLRRA. The Army issued requests for proposals (RFPs) for FARA.[265] RFPs were due in December 2018;[266][267][260][268] in April 2019, the Army awarded 5 Other transaction authority (OTA) contracts[269] to vendors with a Milestone C in 2028.[270][271] Each agreement spans the entire acquisition process, from design, to prototype, to flight test, to low-volume production, to fielding, to full-rate production (Milestone C);[270] but each agreement is subject to cancellation, if need be.
      • Future tactical unmanned aircraft systems (FTUAS): drones which do not require runways[272][273]
  • Mobile, Expeditionary Network: In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT will leverage Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[274] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[275] Avoid overspecifying the requirements (in Integrated Tactical Network (ITN)[276][277][278] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document) to meet operational needs,[275] such as interoperability with other networks.[279][138]:minute 26:40[278] ITN to have Capability set '21, '23, '25 incrementally.[280]
    • Up through 2028, every two years the Army will insert new capability sets for ITN (Capability sets '21, '23, '25, etc.).[281] and take feedback from Soldier-led experiment & evaluation.[282] [12][283]
    • Five Rapid Innovation Fund (RIF) awards have been granted to five vendors via the Network CFT and PEO C3T's request for white papers. That request, for a roll-on/roll-off kit that integrates all functions of mission command on the Army Network, was posted at the National Spectrum Consortium and FedBizOpps, and yielded awards within eight months.[284][Note 2] Two more awards are forthcoming.
    • The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s Emerging Technologies Office structured a competition to find superior AI/Machine Learning algorithms for electronic warfare, from a field of 150 contestants, over a three-month period.[285][Note 2]
    • The Multi-Domain Operations Task Force (MDO TF) is standing up an experimental Electronic Warfare Platoon to prototype an estimated 1000 EW soldiers needed for the 31 BCTs of the active Army.[286][72]
    • An Army leader dashboard from PEO Enterprise Information Systems is underway.[287]
  • Air, Missile Defense (AMD):[288][289][290] [13]
    • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS) second limited user test is scheduled to take place in the fourth quarter of FY20.[290] On 1 May 2019 an Engagement Operations Center (EOC) for the Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS) was delivered to the Army, at Huntsville, Alabama,[291] which is intended to integrate the following:
      • Lower tier air and missile defense sensor (LTAMDS)[290] —PEO RCO is accelerating LTAMDS experimentation by downselecting to two competitors with award by 2023[292][Note 2]
        • LTAMDS uses gallium nitride (GaN) RF elements. It replaces the Patriot radar.[293]
      • Indirect fire protection capability (IFPC) Multi-mission launcher (MML)[294][290]
      • Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD)[290][295] with laser cannon prototypes in 2020,[296] fielding 50 kW lasers on Strykers[86][243] in 2021 and 2022 to two battalions per year.[78][297]
      • F-35,[298] Aegis, Patriot, and THAAD radars will interoperate.[293] [71] On 30 August 2019 at Reagan Test Site on Kwajalein atoll, THAAD Battery E-62 successfully intercepted a medium range ballistic missile (MRBM), using a radar which was well-separated from the interceptors;[299] the next steps could potentially test Patriot missiles as interceptors while using THAAD radars as sensors;[299] a THAAD radar has a longer detection range than a Patriot radar.[299] THAAD Battery E-62 engaged the MRBM without knowledge of just when the medium range ballistic missile had launched.[299]
    • Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) 7.0 is the vehicle for an Air Defense Artillery battery very similar to a THAAD battery: beginning in 2020, these batteries will train for a hypersonic glide vehicle which is common to the Joint forces.[57] The Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW)[243] glide vehicle is to be launched from transporter erector launchers.[57]
    • Although on 21 August 2019 the Missile defense agency (MDA) cancelled the $5.8 billion dollar contract for the Redesigned kill vehicle (RKV),[300] [301] [71] the Army's 100th Missile Defense Brigade will continue to use the Exo-Atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). The current Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) programs continue per plan, with 64 ground-based interceptors (GBIs) in the missile fields for 2019.
      • The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) for Strategic Missile Defense (SMD) has accepted the charter for DOTMLPF for the Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT).[302][20]
    • U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command’s High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL TVD) laser system, a 100 kilowatt laser demonstrator for use on the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles, was awarded 15 May 2019.[303][58] A 300 kilowatt laser demonstrator (HEL-IFPC) effort supersedes the HEL TVD (after the critical design review).[304][296] System test at White Sands Missile Range in 2023.[303]
  • Soldier Lethality:[14][305]
    • Next-generation squad weapon: Expect 100,000 to be fielded to Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, Special Forces, and Combat engineers. Tests at Fort Benning in 2019. —Chief of Staff Milley[306]
    • Nine thousand systems, with two drones apiece are being purchased over a three year period for the 9-man infantry squads heading to Afghanistan.[307]
    • Enhanced night vision goggles (ENVG)-B, will be fielded to an Armor brigade combat team (ABCT) going to South Korea in October 2019[308][309][14]
    • Synthetic training environment (STE)—a CFT devoted to an augmented reality system[156][310] to aid planning, using mapping techniques, even at squad level[311][312] will begin fielding by 2021.[313][154][314] In October 2019 the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) prototype is being used by Special Operations for planning actual missions.[315]

Enterprise campaign planningEdit

In 2019 DoD planners are exercising DOTMLPF in planning, per the National Defense Strategy (NDS),[316] in the shift from counterinsurgency (COIN) to competition with near-peer powers.[316] The evaluations from planners' scenarios will be determining materiel and organization by late 2020.[316][20][317]

Futures Command is formulating multiyear Enterprise campaign plans, in 2019.[318][150] The planning process includes Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC), AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs), Futures and Concepts (FCC), Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), and Army Reserve's Houston-based 75th Innovation Command. At this stage, one goal is to formulate the plans in simple, coherent language which nests within the national security strategic documents.[318]

FuturesEdit

AFC faces multiple futures, both as threat and opportunity. The Army's warfighting directive, viz., "to impose the nation's political will on its enemy" —Chief of Staff Milley, is to be ready for multiple near-term futures.[319] Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Gen. Murray functions as the Army's Chief Investments Officer[106] (more precisely, its "chief futures modernization investment officer").[119]:Section 4[Note 2][38] Funding for the top six priorities could mean that existing programs might be curtailed.[320]

In the top six priorities:

  • LRPF Long range precision fires[321][322]
  • NGCV Next generation combat vehicle
    • Much small and lighter ground combat vehicles, optionally unmanned[159] (See Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC)) for robotic vehicles[326]
      • If robotic combat vehicles (RCVs) do not need to be manned, neither would they need to be armored; use of sensors and batteries could replace the armor.[327][328] Soldiers have learned to remotely operate the weapons on such RCVs in several days;[327] the CCDC RCV Center and CFT are placing RCV prototypes and the Soldier's vehicle prototypes in company-level scenarios in Europe, in 2020 and forward.[327]
    • Robotic warfare, as a concept or capability at the Joint Corps echelon, was demonstrated at the operational level using Joint Warfighting assessment (JWA) 18.1 in April 2018.
    • JWA 19 (April–May 2019): I Corps, at JLBM (Joint base Lewis-McChord), is getting modernization training on the robotic complex breaching concept (RCBC),[329] and the command post computing environment (CPCE)[330] from Joint modernization command (JMC) training staff.[331]
    • Create decisive lethality:[332][88] Robotic experiments[333]
  • FVL "Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn’t exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[129]
    • The FARA (Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft) scout helicopter prototypes are to be designed to fly along urban streets, to survive air defenses.[270] Five design vendors were selected, with downselect to two for prototyping by February 2020.[270]
    • These aircraft are envisioned as platforms for utilizing sensor networks to control and enable weapons delivery, as demonstrated in a 2019 experiment.[334]
  • Mobile & Expeditionary Network / MDO Multi-domain operations [199]
    • In the battlefield of the future, where nowhere is safe for long, "you will miss opportunities to get to positions of advantage if you don't synthesize the data very quickly"—LTG Wesley (AI for multi-domain command and control: MDC2)[83][335][73]
    • Cybersecurity[336][337][338][339] RAND simulations show Blue losses[78]
    • Cyber warfare[340] / urban warfare[20] / Underground warfare / Multi-domain combined maneuver[341][88][342][73] [343]
    • Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)[344][345] A solar-powered drone successfully stayed aloft at Yuma Proving Ground for nearly 26 days, at times descending to 55,000 feet to avoid adverse weather conditions, while remaining well above the altitudes flown by commercial aircraft, and landing per plan in the summer of 2018, to meet other testing commitments.[346]
    • An A-PNT event is scheduled at WSMR for August 2019[347]:Positioning, Navigation and Timing Assessment Exercise (PNTAX)[348][349]
    • Prototype jam-resistant GPS kits are being fielded to 2nd Cavalry Regiment in EUCOM before year-end 2019.[130] More than 300 Strykers of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment are being fitted with the Mounted Assured Precision Navigation & Timing System (MAPS), with thousands more planned for EUCOM.[350]
    • A Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) to Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) is under development.[351][84]
    • CCDC Army Research Laboratory researchers have proposed and demonstrated a way for small ground-based robots with mounted antennas to configure phased arrays, a technique which usually takes a static laboratory to develop. Instead the researchers used robots to covertly create and focus a highly directional parasitic array (see Yagi antenna).[352]
  • Air,Missile Defense[322][82][293][353][354]
    • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)[355] award, including next software build.[356][82] $238 million also funds initial prototypes of the command and control system for fielding in FY22.[290]
    • Hypersonic glide vehicle launch preparations,[61] beginning in 2020, and continuing with launches every six months.[57]
    • At Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake an FVL CFT-sponsored demonstration of interconnected sensors handed-off the control of a glide munition which had been launched from a Grey Eagle unmanned aircraft system (UAS). During the flight of that munition, another group of sensors picked up a higher-priority target; another operator at the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) redirected the glide munition to the higher-priority target and destroyed it.[334]
  • Soldier lethality
    • Sensor-to-shooter prototype for multi-domain battle, 2019 operational assessment: Air Force RCO / Army RCO / Network CFT[90][91][92]
    • Night vision goggles thermal polarimetric camera.[357] Integrated vision augmentation system (IVAS)[358][359]
    • Natick Soldier RDEC has awarded an Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract to prototype soldier exoskeletons which augment human leg strength under harsh conditions.[360][361][362]
    • Plans for the Infantry squad vehicle (ISV) are underway.[363][364] An ISV is meant to be airdropped for a squad of 9 paratroopers.[365]
    • Assured pointing, navigation and tracking (A-PNT) devices are being miniaturized, with increased redundant positioning sources. This aids wearability.[348]

Other ArmiesEdit

The British Army is also investigating innovations, such as robots and drones, including 70 technologies funded by a $1 billion (₤800 million) innovation fund launched in 2016.[366] Two hundred troops will engage in "surveillance, long-range, and precision targeting, enhanced mobility and the re-supply of forces, urban warfare and enhanced situational awareness".[366]

Russia jammed the GPS signal during NATO exercises in November 2018.[367][130][368] (See: meaconing) General Valery Gerasimov advocates hybrid warfare, a "blend of political, economic and military power to bear against adversaries".[369][370]

China — RAND simulations show Blue losses.[78] Six of the top 15 defense companies in the world are now Chinese, in 2019 for the first time.[371] The competition with China is being shaped in the current decade 2010-2020, according to David Kriete.[372] [373]

Headquarters (HQ) and commanderEdit

On July 13, 2018, U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper said AFC's headquarters would be based in Austin, Texas.[374] AFC spreads across three locations totalling 75,000 square feet;[103] one of the locations in a University of Texas System building at 210 W. Seventh St. in downtown Austin,[375][376] on the 15th and 19th floors.[377] The UT Regents will not be charging rent to AFC until December 2019.[377] The command began initial operations on July 1, 2018.[378]

On July 16, 2018, Lieutenant General John M. Murray was nominated for a fourth star and appointment as Army Futures Command's first commanding general.[379][380] His appointment was confirmed August 20, 2018[381] and he assumed command during the official activation ceremony of AFC on August 24, 2018, in Austin, Texas.[103]

Value streamEdit

The AFC commander, in a hearing before Congress' House Armed Services Committee, projects that materiel will result from the value stream below, within a two-year time frame,[17] from concept to Soldier. The commanding general is assisted by three deputy commanders.

  • the Futures and Concepts Center,[146] led by AFC deputy commander Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley,[63] who is seeking 4 value streams for reducing the time invested to define a relevant requirement:[181][39][40]
  1. Science and technology (S&T: discovery / collection of ideas with usable effects)[382][202]
  2. Experiments (Testing of a system to a known expectation of effects, or else observation of that system, in the absence of a specific expectation of effects)
  3. Concepts development[38] (Development of a relevant idea about that system)[152][149]
  4. Requirements development (Development of the terms and conditions for that system)
  • Combat Development element,[169][383] Army Futures Command.[146] Lt. Gen. James M. Richardson is the deputy commander. He assists the commander with efforts to assess and integrate the future operational environment, emerging threats, and technologies to develop and deliver concepts, requirements, and future force designs to posture the Army for the future.[384][156][187]
    • The Capability development integration directorate (CDID) of each Center of Excellence (CoE), works with its CFT[Note 1] and its research, development and engineering center (RDEC) to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.
    • The Battle Labs and The Research Analysis Center (TRAC)[148][152] prototype and analyze the concepts to test.
    • JMC is capable of providing live developmental experiments to test those concepts or capabilities, "scalable from company level to corps, amid tough, realistic multi-domain operations".[105][23][76]
    • RDECOM becomes the Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), part of the Combat Development element, on 3 February 2019.[169][46][142][385][40]
  • Combat Systems Directorate[383] will be led by Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski[386][387] (Principal Military Deputy (PMILDEP) to the ASA(ALT))[119]:AD2018-15,6b:PMILDEP will additionally be AFC director, Combat Systems [128] who will produce those developed solutions and seek feedback.[42][388]
    • Gen. Robert Abrams has tasked III Corps with providing Soldier feedback for the Next Generation Combat Vehicles CFT, XVIII Corps for the Soldier feedback on the Soldier lethality CFT, the Network CFT, as well as the Synthetic training CFT, and I Corps for the Long Range Precision Fires CFT.[258]
    • Combat Systems refines, engineers, and produces the developed solutions from Combat Development.[389][390]
    • An analysis by AMSAA can then assess that concept or capability, as a promising system for a materiel development decision.[120]

... what I do think you will see is some of the capabilities the cross-functional teams are working will be in production and being delivered and in the hands of soldiers in the next two years" —Gen. John "Mike" Murray (2018).[17]

Army Chief of Staff Milley is looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019.[27][33][52]

[391]

I think we have been actually executing the mission for the last six to eight months if not longer.[25] —Gen. John "Mike" Murray, 19 July 2019

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using Cross Functional Teams (CFTs) for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next-generation combat vehicle—(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Ross Coffman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland)
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence— Lead: MG Pete Gallagher ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing— (Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
    5. Air and missile defense—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality—(Fort Benning, Georgia) Lead: BG David M. Hodne ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment —(Orlando, Florida) Lead: MG Maria Gervais ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 23, 2018) Army Futures Command Wants YOU (To Innovate)
    • —Adam Jay Harrison's list for types of Funding Authority
  3. ^ Tribune staff (August 22, 2019) Colonel named division artillery director TCM to do what needs to be done across the Army for MLRS, HIMARS

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Futures Command reveals new insignia as it 'forges' ahead; by Sean Kimmons, Army News Service; dated 6 December 2018, last accessed 3 February 2019
  2. ^ a b c Army Futures Command: Meet Our Leadership
  3. ^ Army Futures Command Task Force (Wednesday, March 28, 2018) Army Futures Command
  4. ^ a b Vergun, David A. (13 July 2018). "Austin to be U.S. Army Futures Command location, says Army". Army.mil. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e Army Directive 2017-33 (Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force) (7 November 2017) References Decker-Wagner 2011
  6. ^ Vergun, David A. (7 December 2017). "US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army". Army.mil. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  7. ^ Roper and Grassetti (1 October 2018) Seizing the High Ground – United States Army Futures Command
  8. ^ Capt. Steve Draheim and Maj. Paul Santamaria (22 June 2018) Long-range, short term
  9. ^ Ed Lopez (21 June 2018) Picatinny Arsenal, PEO (AMMO) Army modernization advances with early team collaboration
  10. ^ John Liang (August 27, 2018) Inside the Army highlights
  11. ^ a b c New Army aircraft will be durable, lethal, unmanned for modern conflicts
  12. ^ a b Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (July 22, 2019) CCDC's road map to modernizing the Army: the network 4th in a series
  13. ^ a b MG Cedric T. Wins (09.10.2019) CCDC’S road map to modernizing the Army: air and missile defense DVIDS release
  14. ^ a b c Bridgett Siter, Communications Director, Soldier Lethality CFT (September 10, 2019) Soldier Lethality team delivers first big win for AFC Enhanced night vision goggle - binocular (ENVG-B) significantly aids marksmanship by the Close Combat Force
  15. ^ a b c Army Directive 2017-24 (Cross-Functional Team Pilot In Support of Materiel Development)
  16. ^ Phillip B. Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (October 8, 2019) Army Futures Command to highlight modernization efforts at 2019 AUSA
  17. ^ a b c d Matthew Cox (14 Sep 2018) Head of Army Futures Command Fields Tough Questions From Congress
  18. ^ Source: Organization, United States Army. For detail, see AR10-87
  19. ^ a b Army Commands, Army Service Component Commands, and Direct Reporting Units ARN2541_AR10-87_WEB_Final.pdf section 20-2a, p.27
  20. ^ a b c d e f Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (August 31, 2018) An interview with retired Gen. David McKiernan
  21. ^ Michael Hardy (Aug 24, 2018) Austin’s New Army Futures Command Marks ‘Biggest Reorganization of the Army Since 1973’
  22. ^ a b c d Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (April 1, 2019) The number one priority: An interview with Gen. Mark Milley: Readiness (both current and future)
  23. ^ a b c Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (Nov-Dec 2017) Multi-Domain Battle: The Advent of Twenty-First Century War
  24. ^ Sébastien Roblin (Oct. 11, 2019) China's stealth drones and hypersonic missiles surpass — and threaten — the U.S.
  25. ^ a b c Scott Maucione (July 19, 2019) Army Futures Command fully operational, dinged by GAO on announcement
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (July 10, 2019) Embracing a new culture at Army Futures Command
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i DVIDs video, 24 August 2018 press conference
  28. ^ a b c Army Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (February 26, 2019) FY20 budget proposal realigns $30 billion
  29. ^ a b Sydney J Freedberg Jr (May 29, 2019) Army Big 6 Gets $10B More Over 2021-2025
  30. ^ a b Army ALT Magazine, Commentary (March 20, 2019) Driving the Future
  31. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (September 19, 2019) Can Army Control Costs Of Its New Weapons? Currently the Army has 692 programs of record
  32. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 March 2019) Army ‘Big Six’ Ramp Up in 2021: Learning From FCS
  33. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (January 11, 2019) 12 Moments Of Truth For Army Modernization In 2019
  34. ^ a b APG News (June 13, 2018) News Briefs: The U.S. Army Modernization Strategy
  35. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 9, 2018) After hitting milestones, Futures Command looks ahead to more
  36. ^ a b AUSA 2018 CMF #1: Army Futures Command Unifies Force Modernization DVIDS video of panelists Gen. Murray, Sec. McCarthy, Dr. Jette, and Trae Stephens
  37. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (26 March 2018) Army Outlines Futures Command; Org Chart In Flux
  38. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 25, 2017) Can The Pentagon Protect Young Innovators? Fixing the 'up or out' culture, which favors generalists
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lt. Col. Thomas “Bull” Holland, PhD, U.S. Army (15 January 2019) Proposed Army Futures Command Process Tenets
    1. 'Scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development';
    2. Incorporate 'scientific research into "Appendix C: Functional Concepts" and specify pathways for technology development';
    3. Buy into the 'fail fast' mentality;
    4. '6.3-funded projects to produce knowledge (technical data) that can be consumed by requirements developers as opposed to PMs';
    5. Use 'evidence-based requirements process' (early hypothesis testing) with citations for evidence:
      • All projects will be executed in no less than two increments.
      • No new requirements once an increment is started.
    6. Summary: 'advances on the battlefield requires comprehensive, coordinated changes in the entire acquisition system';
  40. ^ a b c d e f g The RAND Corporation (2000) Discovery and Innovation: Federal Research and Development in the Fifty States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico RAND MR1194 Appendix B: Government-Wide and DOD Definitions of R&D See Appendix B p.615 for DOD Financial Management Regulation (Volume 2B, Chapter 5)
  41. ^ Neil Hollenbeck and Benjamin Jensen (December 6, 2017) Why the Army needs a Futures Command Enable a culture of experimentation, and develop concepts and technology together.
  42. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Sep 2018) Futures Command Won’t Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress
  43. ^ a b ASA(ALT) Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized. 440 pages.
    • By Modernization priority
    • By Acquisition or Business System category (ACAT or BSC). The Weapon systems in each ACAT are sorted alphabetically by Weapon system name. Each weapon system might also be in several variants (Lettered); a weapon system's variants might be severally and simultaneously in the following phases of its Life Cycle, namely — °Materiel Solution Analysis; °Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction; °Engineering & Manufacturing Development; °Production & Deployment; °Operations & Support
    • ACAT I, II, III, IV are defined on page 404
  44. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg (7 May 2018) Permanent Evolution: SecArmy Esper On Futures Command
  45. ^ a b c d JP-1 p.xxi has the definition of operational control (OPCON). Note that "command authority may not be delegated" (COCOM being command authority). p.xxii has the definition of administrative control (ADCON): one application being coordinating authority.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h Army R&D Chief: ‘I Don’t Think We Went Far Enough’ – But Futures Command Can
  47. ^ Scott Maucione (14 Sep 2018) Army leaders ask for trust in lieu of metrics for Futures Command
  48. ^ a b Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (August 31, 2018) Modernizing at the speed of relevance: An interview with Under Secretary of the Army Ryan McCarthy
  49. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (14 August 2018) Inside Army Futures Command: CFT Chiefs Take Charge
  50. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (29 August 2018) Army Futures Command: $100M, 500 Staff, & Access To Top Leaders
  51. ^ (22 April 2018) New Army Futures Command success hinges on relationship building
  52. ^ a b GAO report: GAO-19-132 (Jan 23, 2019) ARMY MODERNIZATION: Steps Needed to Ensure Army Futures Command Fully Applies Leading Practices
  53. ^ a b c d Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (February 11, 2019) Army aligning modernization programs with other services
  54. ^ In, for example Waverider hypersonic weapons delivery, China has flown a Mach 5.5 vehicle for 400 seconds, at 30 km altitude, demonstrating large-angle deviations from a ballistic trajectory, as well as recovery of the payload. See Current test targets, such as Zombie Pathfinder are not hypersonic. Rand Corporation (28 September 2017) Hypersonic Missile Nonproliferation estimates there is less than a decade to prevent Hypersonic Missile proliferation.
  55. ^ Stephen Carlson (14 Nov 2018) DARPA issues contract proposition for hypersonic missile defense
  56. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (22 August 2018) Army Warhead Is Key To Joint Hypersonics
  57. ^ a b c d e f Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (May 31, 2019) Joint hypersonic weapon tests to start next year
  58. ^ a b c d Colin Clark (May 24, 2019) Army Moves Out On Lasers, Hypersonics: Lt. Gen. Thurgood
  59. ^ a b c Joe Lacdan (October 16, 2018) The Army joins the Air Force, Navy in attempt to develop hypersonic weaponry
  60. ^ a b Kelley M. Sayler, Analyst in Advanced Technology and Global Security. Congressional Research Service R45811 (July 11, 2019) Hypersonic Weapons: Background and Issues for Congress Lists names for hypersonics programs
  61. ^ a b c d e f g Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (August 30, 2019) Hypersonics: Army Awards $699M To Build First Missiles For A Combat Unit prototypes— Dynetics: Common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB); Lockheed: Long range hypersonic weapon (LRHW)
  62. ^ Mary Kate Aylward (5 February 2019) Experiments in hyperspeed more on Prompt Global Strike
  63. ^ a b c (15 August 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  64. ^ a b Long-range precision fires modernization a joint effort, Army tech leader says
  65. ^ Aaron Gregg (August 2, 2019) In conversations with investors, defense firms double down on hypersonic weapons As of August 2019, Lockheed reports $3.5 billion in hypersonics work, while Raytheon reports $1.6 billion; Boeing declined to give the value of its hypersonics awards.
  66. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (March 01, 2018) DoD Boosts Hypersonics 136 % In 2019: DARPA
  67. ^ Jason Cutshaw (September 19, 2018) Secretary of the Navy visits AMC, SMDC memorandum of agreement in June to co-develop a hypersonic vehicle
  68. ^ Haley Britzky (August 14, 2019) The Army is getting a new $130 million hypersonics playground in Texas
  69. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2018) Aiming The Army’s Thousand-Mile Missiles Multi-domain Ft Sill
  70. ^ John L. Dolan, Richard K. Gallagher & David L. Mann (23 April 2019) Hypersonic Weapons – A Threat to National Security Hypersonic and Ballistic Tracking Space Sensor (HBTSS)
  71. ^ a b c Jen Judson (20 August 2019) US Missile Defense Agency boss reveals his goals, challenges on the job Increase the discrimination of the radars and other sensors. Use Large aperture sensors. Use Space-based missile sensors. An SM-3 Block IIA missile test against ICBM is scheduled for 2020. Plan out the detection, control and engagement; the sensors, the command-and-control, the fire control, and the weapons (the kill vehicles).
  72. ^ a b c d Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (March 13, 2019) Futures Command Deputy Commanding General talks the U.S. Army's Future at South by Southwest U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley, Deputy Commanding General (DCG), Army Futures Command
  73. ^ a b c d e Todd South (13 September 2019) Massive simulation shows the need for speed in multi-domain ops "400 participants working with 55 formations, 64 concepts and 150 capabilities"
  74. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 December 2018) Army Multi-Domain Update: New HQs, Grey Zones, & The Art of The Unfeasible
  75. ^ Stephen Clark (August 8, 2019) Atlas 5 launch adds to U.S. military’s secure communications satellite network Air Force’s fifth AEHF — Advanced Extremely High Frequency communications satellite
  76. ^ a b US Army (Sep 4, 2018) U.S. Army Pacific Commander Gen. Robert Brown: State of the Pacific
  77. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 May 2019) How To Wage Global Cyber War: Nakasone, Norton, & Deasy
  78. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 March 2019) US ‘Gets Its Ass Handed To It’ In Wargames: Here’s A $24 Billion Fix Army prepositioned stocks (APS) vulnerability
  79. ^ a b Matthew Cox (28 April 2018) How Future Combat Systems Failed
  80. ^ Association of the U.S. Army (Sep 7, 2018) AUSA Aviation Hot Topic 2018 - PANEL 1 - Multi Domain Maneuver
  81. ^ a b Jason Cutshaw (USASMDC) (August 8, 2019) Leader gives space and missile defense update at SMD Symposium Integrated fires across domains
  82. ^ a b c d I Corps has I2CEWS Battalion or Intelligence, Information, Cyber, Electronic Warfare and Space Battalion —Joe Lacdan (6/19/2019) Army leaders say service must shore up its space defense
  83. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (November 30, 2018) Artificial Intelligence: Forget The Terminator For Future Army: LTG Wesley
  84. ^ a b THERESA HITCHENS and SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR. (August 07, 2019) Army Seeks Small Satellites To Support Ground Troops 3 programs: Gunsmoke, Lonestar and Polaris.
  85. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 June 2019) Coming soon to the US Army: Combat-capable hypersonic and laser weapons
  86. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (June 7, 2019) Army accelerates delivery of directed energy, hypersonic weapon prototypes
  87. ^ a b Kerensa Crum, CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (14 August 2019) Leader updates Army’s modernization priorities Standoff
  88. ^ a b c d e Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (June 25, 2019) Robotic combat vehicles could change way Army looks, fights
  89. ^ a b Kelly Morris (Rucker) (August 1, 2019) Aviation Industry Days: Army Aviation aims for more lethal Multi-Domain Operations capability Maj. Gen. David J. Francis, USAACE and Fort Rucker commanding general: MDO to defeat standoff
  90. ^ a b Claire Heininger (August 9, 2018) Army, Air Force team on sensor to shooter prototype for multi-domain battle
  91. ^ a b c Mark Pomerleau (April 11 2018) In the move to multi-domain operations, what gets lost? The space, cyber, and information domains transcend geographic AoRs
  92. ^ a b Dan Gouré (August 02, 2019) Army Futures Command’s Report Card After Its First Year Need: MDO doctrine in DoD, Two theater operation at island & continent, augment BCTs with higher echelon capability
  93. ^ a b (12 February 2019) SUMMARY OF THE 2018 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STRATEGY
  94. ^ Ashton Carter (2012-11-21) Autonomy in Weapon Systems Most recent DoD guideline: 2012
  95. ^ a b Army Directive 2018-18 (Army Artificial Intelligence Task Force in Support of the Department of Defense Joint Artificial Intelligence Center) 2 October 2018
  96. ^ Terri Moon Cronk (December 13, 2018) Artificial intelligence experts address getting capabilities to warfighters
  97. ^ (February 01, 2019) Carnegie Mellon Hosts Activation of U.S. Army AI Task Force. Brigadier General Matt Easley is Director of Army Artificial Intelligence task force (A-AI TF)
  98. ^ Gary Sheftick (August 13, 2019) AI Task Force taking giant leaps forward Coordinating with: NREC, Talent management task force, the CFTs, and DOD's Joint AI Center
  99. ^ Douglas Scott (August 6, 2019) New wearable authentication more than a "token" gesture Tactical Identity and Access Management (TIDAM) see Army AI task force (A-AI TF)
  100. ^ RDECOM Research Laboratory Public Affairs (December 18, 2018) Black Hawk helicopter pilot interns with Army researchers
  101. ^ THERESA HITCHENS (September 25, 2019) IC Must Embrace Public Data to Use AI Effectively: Sue Gordon IC is the Intelligence Community
  102. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (August 12, 2019) Big Data For Big Wars: JEDI vs. China & Russia
  103. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 15, 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  104. ^ Dan Lamothe (14 July 2018) Why the Army decided to put its new high-tech Futures Command in Texas
  105. ^ a b c Maj. Brett Lea,24th Press Camp Headquarters (5 Sep 2018) "Army establishes Futures Command; U.S. Army JMC at Fort Bliss is operational arm" Fort Bliss Bugle
  106. ^ a b Lauren C. Williams (Sep 14, 2018) Army Futures Command to set up DIU-like innovation lab
  107. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (October 10, 2018) Army Futures Command to become 'global command,' says its leader
  108. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (April 4, 2019) Allies to join Army Futures Command
  109. ^ Technology Review (19 December 2016) The Pentagon's Innovation Experiment
  110. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (April 3, 2019) Army 'Shark Tank' enabling quick prototyping of new systems
  111. ^ Devon L. Suits (December 11, 2018) Army secretary approves new Intellectual Property Management Policy
  112. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 March 2019) IP Rights For Robot Tanks: NGCV To Test-Drive New Policy
  113. ^ a b David Vergun (29 March 2018) Army network modernization efforts spearheaded by new Cross-Functional Teams. The Army conducts a network demonstration at Fort Bliss, Texas. The Army is pursuing network modernization through Cross-Functional Teams.
  114. ^ (27 June 2018) U.S. Army to host tactical Cloud computing industry forum
  115. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 3, 2018) Army leveraging industry ideas to modernize network
  116. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 June 2019) Army Wrestles With Testers Over Network Upgrades
  117. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 April 2019) US Army plans to field a future long-range assault helicopter by 2030 FLRRA
    • RFI posted on the Federal Business Opportunities, April 4
    • Contract award: fourth quarter of FY21
    • preliminary design review (PDR) second quarter of FY23
    • first flight in the third quarter of FY24
    • critical design review (CDR) in the fourth quarter of FY24
    • fielding to first unit in second quarter of FY30
  118. ^ Ms. Karen Diane Kurtz (ASA (ALT)) and Steven Y. Lusher (JPEO CBRND PAO) (October 8, 2018) ASA(ALT) Participates in U.S. Army Futures Command Panel at AUSA
  119. ^ a b c d e f Army Directive 2018-15 (U.S. Army Futures Command Relationship With the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) and DCS G-8, 27 August 2018
  120. ^ a b c d Richard Simonetti (23 April 2018) "US Army turns to new technologies"
  121. ^ a b Acquisition process: Materiel development decision (MDD)
  122. ^ USArmy tweet: Futures Command will have the overarching objective to achieve clear overmatch in future conflicts, making Soldiers and units more lethal to win the nation's wars, then return home safely.
  123. ^ a b c d e f Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) ASA(ALT)— Org Chart as of 11/26/18
  124. ^ Mr. Craig A. Spisak, Director, Acquisition Career Management (October 3, 2018) A vigorous talent management strategy keeps the acquisition workforce prepared for threats
  125. ^ A sample career path here: Aviation Engineering director to SES
  126. ^ (1 Aug 2018) Military (Officer) Corner: Army Acquisition Centralized Selection List
  127. ^ (29 Apr 2015) Army Acquisition Corps Recognized
  128. ^ a b c d Ms. Audra Calloway (Picatinny) (September 19, 2018) With new Army Futures Command, senior acquisition leader discusses role of Program Executive Offices
  129. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 January 2019) Bell V-280 Flies 322 MPH: Army Secretary Praises Program
  130. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 June 2019) Army Fields Anti-Jam GPS In Germany This Fall
  131. ^ a b c Secretary of the Army, Mark T. Esper, ESTABLISHMENT OF UNITED STATES ARMY FUTURES COMMAND Army General order G.O.2018-10
  132. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (June 14, 2019) Partnering for speed: Army rapid prototyping office hosts industry open house
  133. ^ a b Jen Judson (13 March 2019) Army Rapid Capabilities Office is getting a new name and mission
  134. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 March 2019) Army Sets 2023 Hypersonic Flight Test; Strategic Cannon Advances
  135. ^ a b Team White Sands Organizations (TWSO)
  136. ^ For example,
  137. ^ (January 2011) Implementing Acquisition Reform: The Decker-Wagner Army Acquisition Review
  138. ^ a b c d DoD (May 16, 2018) Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request
  139. ^ U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (February 4, 2019) CCDC Research Laboratory
  140. ^ a b c d e f Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, CG RDECOM (September 25, 2018) RDECOM's road map to modernizing the Army: Long-range precision fires
  141. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin (October 17, 2018) RDECOM at the forefront of creating a more modern, lethal Army
  142. ^ a b "... another thing we’ve not done very well — is doing the prototyping and experimentation with soldiers from the beginning, so we got soldier input into a program before it ever becomes a program of record" —Gen. 'Mike' Murray: Freedberg (31 Jan 2019) Army Completes Biggest Reorg In 45 Years: Can Futures Command End Weapons Disasters?
  143. ^ Ms. Jacqueline M. Hames, USAASC (October 10, 2018) Get that moving truck ready
  144. ^ Futures Command locations
  145. ^ University Communications (May 23, 2019) UT Austin Becomes Major Research Hub for Army Futures Command Robotics, AI, hypersonics, and biodefense
  146. ^ a b c YouTube clip (7 December 2018) ARCIC Transition of Authority Ceremony 07 Dec 2018 to Futures and Concepts Center, AFC
  147. ^ (2016) ARL locations
  148. ^ a b c Tisha Swart-Entwistle (6 December 2018) TRAC makes official move to Futures Command
  149. ^ a b Mission Command Battle Lab
  150. ^ a b Jen Judson (February 26, 2018) US Army’s war-gaming is under-resourced, three-star says
  151. ^ Mission Command Center Of Excellence (MC-CoE CDID)
  152. ^ a b c TRADOC Analysis Center. Combined Arms training center. Fort Leavenworth
  153. ^ Maj. Gen. Maria R. Gervais (August 31, 2018) The Synthetic Training Environment revolutionizes sustainment training
  154. ^ a b Jacqueline M. Hames and Margaret C. Roth (January 14, 2019) Virtual battlefield represents future of training Training as a service; more content at scale needed.
  155. ^ Army ALT Magazine (January 29, 2019) THEN AND NOW: TRAINING FOR THE FUTURE critique
  156. ^ a b c d By Patrick D Morgan (TRADOC) (March 18, 2019) STE CFT Cuts Ribbon in Orlando
  157. ^ Cyber CoE - (its CDID)
  158. ^ Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  159. ^ a b Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (September 17, 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  160. ^ Aviation CoE - (its CDID)
  161. ^ Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  162. ^ a b Col. Yi Se Gwon, Fort Sill Fires Bulletin (September-October 2018) The Army Multi-Domain Targeting Center
  163. ^ a b Maj. Anthony Clas, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division Public Affairs: (SEPTEMBER 4, 2019) Target Mensuration course: Bulldog Brigade trains target acquisition with precision Target Mensuration Only (TMO) Including TMO in a unit training plan
  164. ^ Intelligence CoE - no information on its CDID
  165. ^ Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  166. ^ Sustainment CoE CDID not found
  167. ^ a b APG Guide (12 January 2019) Aberdeen Proving Ground 2019 Your road map to the ‘Home of Innovation’ with more than 90 tenant organizations
  168. ^ (12 September 2018) ASA(ALT) MilDep talks APG’s role in Futures Command Paul Ostrowski is PMILDEP to ASA(ALT)
  169. ^ a b c Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC HQ Public Affairs (January 31, 2019) RDECOM transitions to Army Futures Command
  170. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (August 22, 2019) Army showcases new electronic warfare tech PEO IEW&S, PNT, EWPMT, VMAX, VROD
  171. ^ RCCTO is now located in Huntsville
  172. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (August 23, 2019) Soldiers 'at the heart of' modernizing warfighter gear
  173. ^ Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (February 25, 2019) Army-funded researcher wins Nobel Prize
  174. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC (August 21, 2019) Army develops cold spray technology to repair Bradley gun mounts
  175. ^ (15 April 2016) US Army Research Lab Opens at USC ICT in Playa Vista
  176. ^ Dan Lamothe Washington Post (2018-07-12) Army to unveil details about new Futures Command in biggest reorganization in 45 years
  177. ^ Thomas E. Ricks (MARCH 2, 2015)Why hasn’t the Army’s regular acquisition process produced anything in decades? --Future of War conference.
  178. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard Army.mil (6 September 2018) Safer, smarter, faster: An interview with Gen. James McConville
  179. ^ "US edge has eroded to a dangerous degree"
  180. ^ US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army
  181. ^ a b c Army has picked a location for its new Futures Command, but now comes the hard part
  182. ^ Association of the United States Army (AUSA): Scott R. Gourley (Friday, January 13, 2017) CLOSING THE CAPABILITIES GAP: SEVEN THINGS THE ARMY NEEDS FOR A WINNING FUTURE
  183. ^ a b GAO report: GAO-17-457 (Jun 2017) ARMY CONTRACTING Leadership Lacks Information Needed to Evaluate and Improve Operations
  184. ^ Bruce Jette, Building the Army of the future
  185. ^ Hannah Wiley (April 6, 2018) Program cuts likely under Army secretary's new Futures Command
  186. ^ Jen Judson (17 July 2018) US Army asks Congress to shift millions in FY18 dollars. What’s behind the request?
  187. ^ a b c David Vergun (September 5, 2018) Richardson confirmed as Futures Command deputy commander
  188. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 28, 2018) CHIPS Articles: Army Secretary defines goals for coming decade — modernization, Futures Command
  189. ^ Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment? video
  190. ^ Daniel Goure (October 18, 2018) Can Trump Rebuild The Military As Deficits Balloon?
  191. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 26, 2018) Joint Experiments Will Pick Budget Winners & Losers: Dunford Task is to cut $33 Billion from 2020 budget
  192. ^ Youtube: What will $716 Billion Buy You? US Defense Budget 2019 Weapons
  193. ^ Michael J. Meese (23 Dec 2016) Chapter 4 : The American Defense Budget 2017–2020 Note Fed chart 1970-2026
  194. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (October 26, 2018) Trump Orders DoD To Take Surprise $33B Budget Cut 2020 DoD budget cut from $733 billion to $700 billion
  195. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (November 14, 2018) The Pentagon’s First-Ever Audit: A Big Disappointment?
  196. ^ Wesley Morgan (09 December 2018) Trump reverses course, tells Pentagon to boost budget request to $750 billion
  197. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (23 July 2019) Esper Confirmed As SecDef; Budget Deal Leaves DoD Spending Flat Next Year
  198. ^ United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) (September 2018) DEFENSE MANAGEMENT. DOD Needs to Address Inefficiencies and Implement Reform across Its Defense Agencies and DOD Field Activities
  199. ^ a b c Todd South, Military Times (8 May 2019) 4 things the general in charge of the Army's newest command says are needed to win the wars of the future
  200. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 March 2019) Army Bets Big On Service Contracts To Fix Aging IT
  201. ^ Maj. Gen. Randy S. Taylor, CECOM (July 8, 2019) Sustaining data delivery on the future Army network Halt, fix pivot (WIN-T)| ITN: Integrated Tactical Network | IEN: Integrated Enterprise Network
  202. ^ a b Joyce M. Conant, ARL Public Affairs (19 Feb 2016) ARL West hires its first employee, meet Dr. Benjamin T. Files
  203. ^ The DOT&E Mission
  204. ^ Shelby Oakley (June 26, 2019) GAO Defends Annual Weapons Review: Let’s Look at All the Facts GAO reply
  205. ^ DoDI 5000.02: Defense Acquisition Life Cycle Compliance Baseline (Pre‐Tailoring)
  206. ^ DoD org chart
  207. ^ Dennis Via, CG AMC (6 April 2016) AMC announces Mission Command alignment
  208. ^ (10 April 2018) AMRDEC Industry days
  209. ^ (December 23, 2009) About CECOM LCMC
  210. ^ Megan Paice (26 July 2018) From RDECOM to CECOM
  211. ^ (June 2016) U.S. ARMY TACOM LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT COMMAND (TACOM)
  212. ^ Ed Worley(November 2, 2018) ACC celebrates 10 years of enabling readiness, modernization Contracting officers are embedded with every CFT
  213. ^ Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC) 2004
  214. ^ Ed Worley (October 1, 2018) Two contracting centers achieve full operational capability
  215. ^ Mission Command Center of Excellence (MCCoE)
  216. ^ a b c d Connie Lee (3/26/2019) NEWS FROM AUSA GLOBAL: Army Fleshing Out Updated Modernization Strategy
  217. ^ Lauren C. Williams (Aug 21, 2018) PEO structure survives Army Futures reorg, for now
  218. ^ Sydney Freeberg (6 September 2018) ‘A Little Bit Disruptive’: Murray & McCarthy On Army Futures Command
  219. ^ AcqNotes (17 Jan 2017) Other Transaction Authority (OTA) Guide – 17 Jan 2017
  220. ^ Paul McCleary (31 December 2018) Amidst Turmoil, Pentagon Persists On Acquisition Reform: Ellen Lord
  221. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Army in final stages of hashing out Stryker lethality requirements at an AROC council in January 2019
  222. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (December 14, 2018) Army Bradley Brigade Will Get Israeli Anti-Missile System: Iron Fist
  223. ^ Lt. Gen. John M. Murray, deputy chief of staff, G-8 (September 8, 2016) Modernization vital to joint force success
  224. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (August 27, 2018) Can Army Futures Command Overcome Decades Of Dysfunction?
  225. ^ HQ Dept of the Army (22 July 2011) Army Acquisition Policy Army Regulation 70–1
  226. ^ Devon L. Suits (September 19, 2018) New G-8 embraces streamlining tech acquisition
  227. ^ Jen Judson (March 26 2018) The next Army program executive office will be the Rapid Capabilities Office
  228. ^ Jen Judson (7 Oct 2018) Army Rapid Capabilities Office realigned to focus on top modernization priorities
  229. ^ RCCTO (2019) About Us
  230. ^ Jon Harper (7/17/2019) BREAKING: Army Futures Command to Reach Full Operational Capability by End of Month
  231. ^ Matt Beinart (July 21, 2019) U.S. Army Futures Command To Announce It’s Fully Operational
  232. ^ Joe Lacdan (September 19, 2019) G-8: Army operations in the Pacific crucial to future battlefield success Follow-up on Modernization Reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis.
  233. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (September 20, 2019) Congress’ Budget Gridlock Threatens Army Hypersonics G8 is posing a heuristic to get beyond delay in NDAA (national defense authorization act) for 2020 (get Army funding by calendar year-end)
  234. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (July 18, 2019) Futures Command showcases efforts ahead of upcoming FOC
  235. ^ a b Defense updates (Dec 14, 2018) EXTENDED RANGE CANNON ARTILLERY OF U S ARMY- FULL ANALYSIS 5:00 clip. XM1113 shell and XM657 propellant on XM907
  236. ^ Daniel Cebul (October 8, 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire LRPF in an Integrated Network of fires, targeting hubs, and sensors: artillery & MSHORAD, IBCS, Patriot, and THAAD radars
  237. ^ M109A7 has 30-foot barrel and double the range
  238. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (September 13, 2018) Cross-functional teams already producing results, says Futures Command general, House Armed Services Sub-committee hearing, 13 September 2018
  239. ^ a b Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (September 20, 2018) Army doubles cannon range in prototype demo
  240. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (May 8, 2019) Army demonstrates extended ranges for precision munitions
  241. ^ Paul McLeary (July 19, 2019) Army Readies Long-Range Missile Tests — Post INF
  242. ^ a b David Sanger and Edward Wong The New York Times (2 August 2019) US ends cold war missile treaty, to counter arms buildup by China. p.A7
  243. ^ a b c Ryan Pickrell (5 June 2019) The US Army says it will have hypersonic missiles and laser weapons ready for combat in less than 4 years LRHW announcement
  244. ^ GVSC Public Affairs (October 7, 2019) Virtual experiments helping shape Next-Generation Combat Vehicle
  245. ^ a b c d Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (September 17, 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  246. ^ Defense & Aerospace Report (Oct 12, 2016) US Army Ground Combat Systems Chief on Armored Vehicle Programs
  247. ^ (11 Oct 2017) US Army's Bassett on Trophy Active Protection Decision, AMPV, Future Vehicle Tech
  248. ^ Marty Beckerman (October 17, 2018) A serious participation Trophy
  249. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) US Army triggers start of possible ground mobility vehicle competition after long delay
  250. ^ Program Executive Office for Combat Support & Combat Service Support (June 21, 2019) Army approves JLTV Full-Rate Production
  251. ^ Jonathan Koester, Joint Modernization Command (10 September 2019) Newest Army vehicle arrives on Fort Bliss
  252. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Decision coming soon on who will build prototypes for a new Army light tank
  253. ^ Youtube: MPF
  254. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (December 17, 2018) Army Picks BAE, GD For MPF Light Tank Prototypes: Upstart SAIC Is Out
  255. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (June 27, 2019) 82nd Airborne infantry Soldiers to test light tank next year
  256. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (October 9, 2018) Next Generation Combat Vehicles to replace Bradley starting fiscal year 2026
  257. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (April 2019) Army Aviation Modernization $57 billion to modernization 2019-2024. $4.7 billion to Aviation 2019-2024
  258. ^ a b Myers (March 27 2018) Abrams: Army units will be tasked to work on each of Futures Command’s priorities
  259. ^ DoD Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA)
  260. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 October 2018) Army Wants Revolutionary Scout Aircraft For $30 Million, Same As Apache E FARA Solicitation
  261. ^ Eric Adams (5 July 2019) The Pirouetting S-97 Raider Makes Your Helicopter Look Lazy
  262. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (March 28, 2019) FVL: Next Steps For UH-60 & Shadow Replacements In ‘Weeks’
  263. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 24, 2018) Future Vertical Lift projects to build on recent progress FVL Deliverables— 1: Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstration (JMR). 2: Analysis of alternatives (AoA). Phase II award— 2020-2023
  264. ^ FLRRA, JMR-TD: Flight test
  265. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 June 2019) Sikorsky Be Nimble: S-97 Raider Shows Off For Army FARA S-97 demo
  266. ^ Yasmin Tadjdeh (10/11/2018) Army Sees Progress with Future Vertical Lift Projects
  267. ^ Jen Judson (10 October 2018) Can the Army pull off buying two new helicopters back to back?
  268. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 March 2019) Don’t Panic About Apaches: Army Not Junking Gunships
  269. ^ U.S. Army Futures Command (April 23, 2019) Army announces attack reconnaissance aircraft prototype award
  270. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 April 2019) FARA: Army Awards 5 Design Contracts; Winner Enters Production in 2028—Awards for Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft designs went to Bell, Boeing, Karem, Sikorsky, and a partnership of AVX and L-3.
  271. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 02, 2019) Bell Unveils Army Scout Helicopter — With Wings
  272. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 March 2019) Textron, Martin Win $99.5M For Army Scout Drone: FTUAS
  273. ^ Jen Judson (29 March 2019) US Army picks 2 drones to test as Shadow replacement
  274. ^ PEO C3T May 30, 2018
  275. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (October 3, 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network In 2018 MG Bassett became (Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical) PEO C3T)
  276. ^ Jared Serbu (August 24, 2018) Army experimenting with SOF-tested equipment while building long-term tactical network plan
  277. ^ U.S. Army (April 30, 2019) Profile: Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical (PEO C3T)
  278. ^ a b Mark Pomerleau (April 1, 2019) How the Army will sustain its tactical network of the future ITN to take advantage of Tobyhanna depot. 5-3-1 model
  279. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (October 25, 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
  280. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI: Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
  281. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (June 21, 2019) New tech, accessibility to improve Army tactical networks
  282. ^ Amy Walker, PEO C3T (June 18, 2019) Modernizing the Network
  283. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (August 29, 2019) The Fraying Edge: Limits Of The Army’s Global Network
  284. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (October 17, 2018) New players bring novel approaches to the Army's network modernization goals
  285. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (November 8, 2018) Cutting through the noise: Army, industry work together to speed up signal detection
  286. ^ SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR. (November 19, 2018) Can Army Afford The Electronic Warfare Force It Wants?
  287. ^ Ellen Summey, PEO EIS (July 1, 2019) Army Leader Dashboard, creating insight-driven decisions
  288. ^ AARON MAK (MAY 12, 2019) Report: Missile System and Surveillance Plane Funding Will Go Towards the Border Wall
  289. ^ Jason Cutshaw (SMDC/ARSTRAT) (March 22, 2019) Army's senior air defender talks future of air, missile defense
  290. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (March 13, 2019) FY20 budget to boost air & missile defense
  291. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (1 May 2019) IBCS: Northrop Delivers New Army Missile Defense Command Post 11 EOCs as well as 18 IBCS integrated fire control network (IFCN) relays by year-end 2019
  292. ^ Jen Judson (8 Oct 2018) What’s the rush? US Army races to get missile defense radar early LTAMDS
  293. ^ a b c Jen Judson (27 March 2019) Army debuts missile defense framework in move to counter drones, hypersonic threats
  294. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2018) Army nearing strategy on way ahead for Indirect Fire Protection Capability
  295. ^ Army rebuilding short-range air defense Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (July 2, 2019) Army rebuilding short-range air defense Manpad training for 19K MOS using synthetic training environment (STE)
  296. ^ a b Claire Heininger, U.S. Army (August 1, 2019) Army awards laser weapon system contract RCCTO has awarded Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract July 26 2019 for $203 million to two subcontractors, for prototype high energy lasers (HELs) for MSHORAD
  297. ^ Joe Lacdan (October 22, 2018) Army to fuse laser technology onto air defense system
  298. ^ Jen Judson (6 August 2019) F-35 talks to US Army’s missile command system, says Lockheed
  299. ^ a b c d Paul McCleary (August 30, 2019) Army Tests Dispersed THAAD; Beginning Of Modular Missile Defense? A step toward IBCS
  300. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (August 21, 2019) Pentagon Cancels Multi-Billion $ Boeing Missile Defense Program
  301. ^ Paul McCleary (6 September 2019) Pentagon Issues Classified RFP For New Missile Interceptor No Refund of Monies expected. Rework is To Be Determined
  302. ^ Jason Cutshaw U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command (7.24.2019) SMDC colonel accepts TCM SMD Assumption of Charter from AMD to SMD
  303. ^ a b Jen Judson (15 May 2019) Dynetics-Lockheed team beats out Raytheon to build 100-kilowatt laser weapon
  304. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (August 05, 2019) New Army Laser Could Kill Cruise Missiles Demonstrator lasers in test 2023, with fielding in 2024
  305. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC Public Affairs (March 29, 2019) CCDC technology to increase Soldier readiness in multi-domain operations: capabilities by 2023
  306. ^ David Vergun (October 8, 2018) Next-generation squad weapon to be very capable, lethal, says Army chief of staff
  307. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (June 17, 2019) Army Buys 9,000 Mini-Drones, Rethinks Ground Robots
  308. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (April 4, 2019) Army to field new night vision goggles
  309. ^ Robert Purtiman (September 21, 2018) Lethality Cross-Functional Team bringing next generation technologies to Soldiers ENVG-B, Next Generation Squad Weapons, and the Adaptive Soldier Architecture
  310. ^ Joe Lacdan (3 June 2019) Army testing synthetic training environment platforms Reconfigurable Virtual Collective Trainer-Air (RVCT-A), -Ground (RVCT-G), and 3-D terrain database (One World)
  311. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 22, 2018) Synthetic training environment to enhance Soldier lethality
  312. ^ Joe Lacdan (July 16, 2019) One World Terrain (OWT) to allow Soldiers to train anywhere
  313. ^ The Army Strategy 2018
  314. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (May 15, 2019) Let The (War) Games Begin: Army Buying High-Tech Training Sims
  315. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 13, 2019) Special Ops Using Army’s Prototype 3D Maps On Missions: Gervais
  316. ^ a b c Paul McCleary (April 16, 2019) Esper: Chinook & JLTV ‘Designed For a Different Conflict’
  317. ^ Joe Lacdan (September 25, 2019) More joint efforts likely as the Army prepares for multi-domain operations A speedup in tempo, as driven by the CFTs is needed, according to Lt. Gen. Wesley
  318. ^ a b Phil Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (August 7, 2019) Army Futures Command charts a campaign plan No uniforms
  319. ^ AUSA, ILW selected papers, David Perkins, moderator (October 24, 2018) ILW Launches Landpower Education Forum 4 views
  320. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 08, 2018) Army Moves $25B To Big Six, From New Tanks To 6.8mm Rifle
  321. ^ A series on: Army Strategic Fires
  322. ^ a b Sydney J. Freeberg, Jr. (28 May 2019) Beyond INF: An Affordable Arsenal Of Long-Range Missiles? INF Treaty likely to expire in August 2019
  323. ^ Matthew Cox (14 September 2018) The Army is developing a new strategic cannon to devastate targets over 1,000 miles away
  324. ^ Monica K. Guthrie, LRPF communications director (October 9, 2019) Army Futures Command gains new general
  325. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 Oct 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire
  326. ^ Mark Gardiner The New York Times (Friday 21 Sep 2018) p.B4
  327. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (July 11, 2019) Soldiers to operate armed robotic vehicles from upgraded Bradleys (Mission Enabler Technologies-Demonstrators, or MET-Ds)
  328. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 14, 2019) Army Robots Go Rolling Along – Ahead Of Schedule Robotic combat vehicles in "Four Years, Three Phases, Three Weight Classes"
  329. ^ Daniel Lafontaine, CCDC (May 21, 2019) Army Futures leveraging mission command for effective Soldier, robot teams
  330. ^ Devon L. Suits (July 26, 2018) CERDEC unveils more than a dozen new technologies for mission command CPCE COE MCE
  331. ^ Maj. Rich Marsh, Joint Modernization Command (February 14, 2019) JMC sets the stage for largest annual modernization exercise
  332. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) The Army’s future tank may not be a tank Buy back size, weight, and power
  333. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2019) Titan Robot Test-Fires Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Remote-controlled test-fires of FGM-148 Javelin antitank missiles from unmanned ground vehicle
  334. ^ a b Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (September 9, 2019) Smart sensor network helps redirect missile GBU-69 was redirected; FARA is slated to replace AH-64 in subsequent A3I experiments
  335. ^ Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (March 13, 2019) Futures Command highlights changes, new structure at SXSW
  336. ^ NPR on the GAO report: GAO-19-128 Bill Chappell NPR (October 9, 2018) Cyber Tests Showed 'Nearly All' New Pentagon Weapons Vulnerable To Attack, GAO Says
  337. ^ GAO-19-128 (October 2018) report on weapon system vulnerabilities
  338. ^ David Vergun (September 24, 2018) Cybersecurity: 'Remain vigilant, be accountable, stand ready' Army major general says
  339. ^ ARL Public Affairs (September 6, 2018) Army research takes proactive approach to defending computer systems Moving target defense (MTD)
  340. ^ Shane Harris (March 27, 2019) Palantir Wins Competition to Build Army Intelligence System
  341. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (September 10, 2018) Multi-domain operations to exploit enemy vulnerabilities, say Army leaders
  342. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (September 4, 2019) Army looks to enhance mission command with robotic swarms
  343. ^ Headquarters, Dept of the Army (July 2019) ADP 6-0 Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces 4 chapters. See also ADP 3-0; ADP 6-22; FM 6-22; ADP 1-1; and ADP 5-0
  344. ^ ARL Public Affairs (October 16, 2018) Researchers develop technique to locate robots, Soldiers in GPS-challenged environments
  345. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (June 10, 2019) Army leaders: Space tech crucial to future combat
  346. ^ Mark Schauer (ATEC) (February 12, 2019) Unmanned aircraft stays aloft for nearly 26 days above U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground
  347. ^ Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing Cross Functional Team Assessment Exercise 1-16 Aug 2019, WSMR
  348. ^ a b Jonathan Koester, Joint Modernization Command Public Affairs (4 September 2019) Army, JMC assess new navigation, positioning systems Wearable A-PNT
  349. ^ Mark Pomerleau (28 March 2019) If GPS goes out, the Army now has a requirement for that
  350. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (October 7, 2019) Army fields anti-jam GPS, plans for thousands more by 2028
  351. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (June 17, 2019) Futures Command looks to enable plug-and-play PNT across Army platforms
  352. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory (August 29, 2019) Army scientists discover a new way for robots to exchange directed messages
  353. ^ Paul McLeary (January 17, 2019) Missile Defense Review a Multi-Billion IOU to White House
  354. ^ Miles Brown (July 5, 2019) Aviation, missile commander addresses workforce CG Todd Royar's statement of his expectations
  355. ^ PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE MISSILES AND SPACE (2018) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Program Overview
  356. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 01, 2018) Army Awards Northrop $289M For IBCS Missile Defense Network
  357. ^ ARL (September 24, 2018) New Army technology guides Soldiers in complete darkness
  358. ^ Joe Lacdan (May 13, 2019) Augmented reality training on the horizon to give Soldiers edge in combat allows repetition, for training
  359. ^ Tom McKay (6 April 2019) The Army Just Gave a Press Demo of Microsoft's HoloLens 2 Military Prototype
  360. ^ NSRDEC Public Affairs (October 15, 2018) Natick's exoskeleton work is a powerful step toward the future of Soldier lethality
  361. ^ RDECOM Soldier Center, Public Affairs Office (January 23, 2019) Soldier Center partners with industry experts to advance exoskeleton technologies
  362. ^ Harvard (Sep 17, 2018) Multi-joint Personalized Exosuit Breaks New Ground video clip
  363. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (August 29, 2019) Army closer to delivering new infantry squad vehicle (ISV)
    • 9 Soldiers of an infantry squad will maneuver in an ISV
    • Plans to purchase 649 prototypes were approved in February 2019
    • 3 industry leaders have been named (Aug. 23, 2019), to deliver ISV prototypes
      1. Oshkosh Defense/Flyer,
      2. GM Defense, and
      3. SAIC/Polaris
    • Prototypes are due for initial assessment at Aberdeen Test Center 13 November 2019 through December 2019
    • At Fort Bragg a second round of operational testing by Soldiers will be performed on the candidate ISV prototypes
    • Downselect to one vendor is expected 2nd Quarter of FY2020
  364. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 08, 2019) Who Will Build 651 Parachuting Trucks For The Army? 2 air-drop-able prototypes from each vendor due 13 November 2019,
  365. ^ Kyle Mizokami (Oct 13, 2019) Meet the Army's New Airborne Trucks
  366. ^ a b MIT Technology Review (13 November 2018) The British Army is carrying out a massive test of military robots and drones
  367. ^ (4 November 2018) Russia Jammed GPS During Major NATO Military Exercise With US Troops
  368. ^ Russia has figured out how to jam U.S. drones in Syria, officials say
  369. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (March 2, 2019) Russian General Pitches ‘Information’ Operations as a Form of War
  370. ^ Paul McCleary (May 30, 2019) Dunford: Leaders Mull First NATO Strategy In Decades
  371. ^ Defense News (July 2019) Top 100 for 2019
  372. ^ THERESA HITCHENS (July 31, 2019) Competition (With China) IS The New Deterrence, US Military Leaders Say Vice Adm. David Kriete of US Strategic Command
  373. ^ aj.com (1 Oct 2019) China Confirms New Hypersonic Nuclear Missile On 70th Anniversary DF-17
  374. ^ "Army Futures Command: U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper announces that Austin has been chosen as the location for the new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  375. ^ (13 July 2018) University of Texas System to serve as home base for U.S. Army Futures Command
  376. ^ Stripes.com: Army’s new Futures Command to set up headquarters at University of Texas
  377. ^ a b Ralph K.M. Haurwitz - American-Statesman Staff (10 August 2018) UT regents give Army’s Futures Command free use of space temporarily
  378. ^ "Army announces Austin as the home of new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  379. ^ "PN2622 — Lt. Gen. John M. Murray — Army". U.S. Congress. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  380. ^ McBride, Courtney (24 May 2018). "General selected to lead Army Futures Command". Inside Defense. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  381. ^ Austin gets its general; Army Futures Command leader confirmed
  382. ^ As an example, any number of effects can be weaponized (see p.1 The New York Times 2 September 2018 "Invisible strikes may be cause of envoy's ills", describing the Microwave auditory effect), or else countered. Hypersonic vehicles are a countermeasure to ballistic missiles.
  383. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (10 Dec 2018) US Army’s Brain Transplant: Futurists Move To Futures Command
  384. ^ AFC:"Who we are":"Meet our leadership":Lt. Gen. James M. Richardson :wiki: James M. Richardson (general)
  385. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (April 29, 2019) Army selects senior research scientist for terminal ballistics Fewer than 50 STs across the Army: An ST is a general-0fficer equivalent
  386. ^ Jen Judson (6 September 2018) Military deputy to US Army acquisition now has two bosses
  387. ^ Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski Bio
  388. ^ ASA(ALT) (September 20, 2019) Army Acquisition Reform
  389. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (July 18, 2019) The Cheese Has Moved: An Interview With Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski
  390. ^ Ft Meade Soundoff! (July 19, 2018) New site for Army Futures Command
  391. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (October 1, 2019) Bridging the gap to Army 2028: An interview with Gen. John "Mike" Murray

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