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United States Army Futures Command

United States Army Futures Command (AFC)[2][3] is a United States Army command aimed at modernizing the Army.[4][5] It focuses on six priorities:[Note 1] long-range precision fires,[6][7] next-generation combat vehicle,[8] future vertical lift platforms,[9] a mobile & expeditionary Army network, air & missile defense capabilities, and soldier lethality.[10]AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs)[11] are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future.[12]

United States Army Futures Command
Army Futures Command SSI.png
ActiveJuly 1, 2018–present
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeArmy Command
Garrison/HQAustin, TX
Motto(s)"Forge the future"[1]
Commanding GeneralGEN John M. Murray
Distinctive unit insignia[1]
US Army Futures Command DUI.png

Futures Command (AFC) was established in 2018 as a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and Army Materiel Command (AMC), the other Army commands (ACOMs—providing forces, training and doctrine, and materiel respectively).[13][14] The other Army commands focus on their readiness to "Fight tonight" when called upon by the nation. In contrast, AFC is focused on future readiness[15] for future combat with near-peer competitors who have updated their capabilities,[16] while the United States military has been fighting insurgents since 2001.[17][18]

Full operational capability (FOC) for AFC is projected to be August/September 2019, a one-year period.[19] The FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.[20] The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.[20]


Transition to full operational capability (FOC)Edit

We're moving out and there's no turning back. We've shown the will to act over the last year, and now we have to show the will to follow through.

— Under Secretary McCarthy[21][22]

In the view of Under Secretary McCarthy, there will be three elements in Futures Command:[23]

  1. Futures and Concepts: assess needs and opportunities,[24] given a threat.[23] Concepts for realizable future systems (with readily harvestable content)[25] will flow into TRADOC doctrine, manuals, and training programs.
  2. Combat Development: stabilized concepts.[25] Balance the current state of technology and the cash-flow requirements of the defense contractors providing the technology, that they become deliverable experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes, in an iterative process of acquisition.[26] (See #Value streams)
  3. Combat Systems: experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes.[27] Transition to the acquisition, production, and sustainment programs of AMC.[27][28]

Secretary Esper emphasized that the 2018 administrative infrastructure for the Futures and Concepts Center (formerly ARCIC) and CCDC (formerly RDECOM) remains in place at their existing locations.[29] What has changed or will change is the layers of command (operational control, or OPCON)[30] needed to make a decision.[29]

You've got to remain open to change, you've got to remain flexible, you've [got] to remain accessible. That is the purpose of this command.

— Secretary Esper[29][31]

Cross-functional teams (CFTs)Edit

Under Secretary McCarthy characterized a Cross-functional team (CFT) as a team of teams, led by a requirements leader, program manager, sustainer, tester.[32] Each CFT must strike a balance for itself amid constraints: the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment. A balance is needed in order for a CFT in order to produce a realizable concept before a competitor achieves it.

Modernization reform is the priority for AFC; in order to achieve readiness for the future, de-layering of current Army Commands was implemented by creating Cross-functional teams[11] for materiel and capabilities which the Army must now match for its future: A Capability development integration directorate (CDID), for each CFT,[Note 1] is located at a Center of Excellence (CoE) listed below. For example, the Aviation CoE at Fort Rucker, in coordination with the Aviation program executive office (PEO), also contains the Vertical Lift CFT and the Aviation capability development integration directorate (CDID).

The CFTs will be involved in all three of AFC's elements: Futures and concepts, Combat development, and Combat systems.[33] "We were never above probably a total of eight people" — BG Wally Rugen, Aviation CFT.[34] Four of the eight CFT leads have now shifted from dual-hat jobs to full-time status. Each CFT lead is mentored by a 4-star general.[34]

Although AFC and the CFTs are a top priority of the Department of the Army, as AFC and the CFTs are expected to unify control of the $30 billion-dollar modernization budget,[35] "The new command will not tolerate a zero-defects mentality. 'But if you fail, we'd like you to fail early and fail cheap,' because progress and success often builds on failure." —Ryan McCarthy:[36] Holland notes that prototyping applies to the conceptual realm ('harvestable content') as much as prototyping applies to the hardware realm.[25]

A 2019 GAO report[37] cautions that lessons learned from the CFT pilot[11] are yet to be applied; Holland notes that this organizational critique applies to prototyping hardware, a different realm than concept refinement ("scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development").[25]

Joint collaboration on modernizationEdit

The Secretaries of the Army, Air Force, and Navy meet regularly to take advantage of overlap in their programs:[38]

  • Hypersonics — The US Army (August 2018) has no tested countermeasure for intercepting maneuverable hypersonic weapons platforms,[39][40] and in this case the problem is being addressed in a joint program of the entire Department of Defense.[41] The Army is participating in a joint program with the Navy and Air Force, to develop a hypersonic glide body.[42] The Long range precision fires (LRPF) CFT is supporting Space and Missile Defense Command's pursuit of hypersonics.[42][43] Joint programs in hypersonics are informed by Army work,[44][45] however at the strategic level, the bulk of the hypersonics work remains at the Joint level.[46][47] Long range precision fires (LRPF) is an Army priority, and also a DoD joint effort.[45] By adding rocket propulsion to a shell or glide body, the joint effort shaved five years off the likely fielding time for hypersonic weapon systems.[38][48]
  • Multi-Domain Operations (MDO)[49][50] — Joint planning and operations are also part of the impending DoD emphasis on multi-domain operations.[16][51][52][53][17][54][55][56] Multi-domain battalions, first stood up in 2019,[57] comprise a single unit[58] for air, land, space, and cyber domains.[38][52]
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) Modernization[59][60] — The Secretary of the Army has directed the establishment of an Army AI task force (A-AI TF) to support the DoD Joint AI center. The execution order will be drafted and staffed by Futures Command:[61][62]
    • Army AI task force[63] (its relationship with the CFTs is cross-cutting, in the same sense as the Assured Position, Navigation, Timing CFT (A-PNT) and the Synthetic Training Environment CFT (STE) are also cross-cutting) will use the resources of the Army to establish scalable machine learning projects at Carnegie Mellon University
    • the CIO/G-6 will create an Identity, Credential, and Access Management system to efficiently issue and verify credentials to non-person entities (AI agents and machines)
    • DCS G-2 will coordinate with CG AFC, and director of A-AI TF, to provide intelligence for Long-Range Precision Fires
    • CG AMC will provide functional expertise and systems for maintenance of materiel with AI
    • AFC and A-AI TF will establish an AI test bed for experimentation, training, deployment, and testing of machine learning capabilities and workflows.[64] Funding will be assured for the Fiscal Year 2019.[38]


AFC is actively seeking partners outside the gates of a military reservation.[65] "We will come to you. You don't have to come to us. — General Mike Murray, 24 August 2018"[19]:minute 6:07 Multiple incubator tech hubs are available in Austin,[66] especially Capital Factory, with offices of DIUx and AFWERX (USAF tech hub).[67] Gen. Murray will stand up an Army Applications Lab[Note 2] there to accelerate acquisition and deployment of materiel to the Soldiers, using AI[61] as one acceleration technique; Murray will hire a Chief Technology Officer for AFC.[68] Gen. Murray, in seeking to globalize AFC,[69] has embedded U.S. military allies into some of the Cross-functional teams (CFTs).[70]

AFC is seeking to design signature systems in a relevant time frame according to priorities[Note 1] of the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[33] AFC will partner with other organizations such as Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) as needed.[44][71] If a team from industry presents a viable program idea to a CFT, that CFT connects to the Army's requirements developers, Secretary Esper said, and the program prototype is then put on a fast track.[72]

The Secretary of the Army has approved an Intellectual Property Management Policy, to protect both the Army and the entrepreneur or innovator.[73][74]

For example, the Network cross-functional team (CFT) and the Program Executive Office Command, Control, Communications—Tactical (PEO C3T) hosted a forum on 1 August 2018 for vendors to learn what might function as a testable/deployable[75] in the near future.[76] A few of the hundreds of white papers from the vendors, adjudged to be 'very mature ideas', were passed to the Army's acquisition community, while many others were passed to CERDEC for continuation in the Army's effort to modernize the network for combat.[77]

While seeking information, the Army is especially interested in ideas that accelerate an acquisition program, in for example the Future Vertical Lift Requests for Information (RFIs): “provide a detailed description of tailored, alternative or innovative approaches that streamlines the acquisition process to accelerate the program as much as possible”.[78]

AFC eventsEdit

See the AFC events below


DoD (2007) Acquisition process denoting Milestones A, B, C along a timeline. When a milestone has been met, the triangle then points downward, at this time. Otherwise the milestone is planned, but not yet met at this time.

Futures Command partners with the ASA(ALT),[79][12] who, in the role of the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE),[80] has milestone decision authority (MDA)[27] at multiple points in a Materiel development decision (MDD).[81] (Thus, from the perspective of AFC, which seeks to modernize, consolidate the relevant expertise into the relevant CFT. The CFT balances the constraints needed to realize a prototype, beginning with realizable requirements, science and technology, test, etc. before entering the acquisition process (typically the Army prototypes on its own, and currently initiates acquisition at Milestone B, in order to have the Acquisition Executive, with the concurrence of the Army Chief of Staff, decide on production as a program of record at Milestone C).[82] Next, refine the prototype to address the factors needed to pass the Milestone decisions A, B, and C which require Milestone decision authority (MDA) in an acquisition process.[82] This consolidation of expertise thus reduces the risks in a Materiel development decision (MDD), for the Army to admit a prototype into a program of record.) The role of the existing processes (in April 2018) for a Materiel development decision (MDD) is to be announced.[80][81][25]

In order to achieve its mission of achieving overmatch,[83][49][24] each Futures Command CFT partners with the acquisition community.[84] This community (the Army acquisition workforce (AAW)) includes an entire Army branch (the Acquisition Corps),[85][86][87][88] U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC), Army Contracting Command, (.. This list is incomplete).[81] The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) is also deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command,[80] and leads the PEOs; he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[89]

The current acquisition system has pieces all throughout the Army. ... There’s chunks of it in TRADOC and chunks of it in AMC and then other pieces. So really all we’re trying to do is get them all lined up under a single command…..from concept, S&T, RDT&E, through the requirements process, through the beginnings of the acquisition system — Milestone A, B, and C — ….aligned under that same commander. ... We will finally achieve… unity of command — Secretary Esper.[23]

The PEOs work closely with their respective CFTs.[84] The list of CFTs and PEOs below is incomplete.[Note 1] Operationally, the CFTs offer "de-layering" (fewer degrees of separation between the echelons of the Army — Rugen estimates two degrees of separation),[34] and provide a point of contact (POC) for Army reformers[24] interested in adding value in the midst of constraints to be balanced while modernizing.[34] "... and if we're really good, we'll continue to adapt. Year over year over year." —Secretary Esper[19]:minute 19:00[5] (See #Value streams.)

Prototyping and experimentationEdit

"Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn’t exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper.[90] The development process will be cyclic, consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation,[72] in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record.

AFC activities include the Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[91]:Para. 2b and the associated Battle Lab,[91]:Para. 2b of each Center of Excellence (CoE) respectively. Each CDID and associated Battle Lab work with their CFT[31] to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.

Tests are run by JMC and WSMR, which hosts ATEC.[92] As ATEC reports directly to the Army Chief of Staff,[14] the test support level from ATEC[93] is to be specified by the CFT,[31] or PEO.[94] Fort Bliss and WSMR together cover 3.06 million acres, large enough to test every non-nuclear weapon system in the Army inventory.[95]:minute 1:26:00JMC runs live developmental experiments to test the concepts or capabilities for analysis by the Data Analysis Center, the Fort Leavenworth Operations research activities, formerly TRAC,[31] or AMSAA. CCDC (formerly RDECOM) includes the several Army research laboratory locations (ARLs),[96] as well as research, development and engineering centers (RDECs) listed:[91][31][5]

In internal partnerships, CCDC (formerly RDECOM) has taken Long range precision fires (LRPF) as its focus in aligning its organizations (the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)); as of September 2018, RDECOM's 'concept of operation' is first to support the LRPF CFT,[97] with ARDEC. AMRDEC is looking to improve the energetics and efficiency of projectiles. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Center is working on high-voltage components for Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA) that save on size and weight.[97] Two dedicated RDECOM people support the LRPF CFT, with reachback support from two dozen more at RDECOM.[98] In January 2019 RDECOM was reflagged as CCDC; General Mike Murray noted that CCDC will have to support more Soldier feedback, and that prototyping and testing will have to begin before a project ever becomes a program of record.[99][5]

Although the Army Research Laboratory has not changed its name, Secretary Esper notes that the CCDC objectives supersede the activities of the Laboratory;[31][25] the Laboratory remains in its support role for the top-six priorities for modernizing combat capabilities.[Note 1]

Acquisition specialists are being encouraged to accept lateral transfers to the several research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), where their skills are needed: Ground vehicle systems center (formerly TARDEC, at Detroit Arsenal), Aviation and missile center (formerly AMRDEC, at Redstone Arsenal), C5ISR center (formerly CERDEC, at Aberdeen Proving Ground), Soldier center (formerly NSRDEC, Natick, MA), and Armaments center (formerly ARDEC, at Picatinny Arsenal) listed below.[100]

AFC branch locationsEdit

The following activities for Futures Command are at 23 locations.[101]

  1. AFC HQ, Austin TX[3][19][49][48]
  2. AFSG Army Future Studies Group,[25] 2530 Crystal Dr, Arlington, VA 22202
  3. Futures and Concepts Center of AFC,[102] formerly ARCIC Fort Eustis VA
  4. JMC Joint Modernization Command,[67] Fort Bliss, which is contiguous to WSMR
  5. WSMR White Sands Missile Range NM,[92] also houses ARL,[103] TRAC,[104] and ATEC.[95]:minute 1:19:00
  6. FT LVN Operations research: Mission Command Battle Lab,[105] Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[106] The Research Analysis Center (TRAC), formerly TRADOC Analysis Center,[104][107] Fort Leavenworth KS
    • CFT: Synthetic Training Environment (STE):[108][109][110] The HQ for STE has opened in Orlando (January 28, 2019).[111]
  7. CCOE Cyber CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[112] Fort Gordon GA
    • CFT: Mobile and Expeditionary Network[75]
  8. MCOE Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[113] Fort Benning GA
    • CFT: Next-Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV)[114]
    • CFT: Soldier Lethality
  9. AVNCOE Aviation CoE - (its CDID),[115] at Fort Rucker
    • CFT: Future Vertical Lift (FVL)
  10. FCOE Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[116][117] Fort Sill OK
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF)[48][117]
    • CFT: Air and Missile Defense
  11. ICOE Intelligence CoE - (its CDID),[118] Fort Huachuca AZ
  12. MSCOE Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab),[119] Fort Leonard Wood MO
  13. SCOE Sustainment CoE - (its CDID),[120] Fort Lee VA
  14. APG Aberdeen Proving Ground,[121] Aberdeen MD, also houses Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC,[122] formerly RDECOM), Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA), and C5ISR center (formerly CERDEC)
    • CFT: Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires,[97]
  15. Armaments center (formerly Armament research, development and engineering center —ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, PEO AMMO, and the Cross Functional Team for Long Range Precision Fires
    • CFT: Long Range Precision Fires
  16. Ground vehicle systems center (formerly Tank Automotive research, development and engineering center —TARDEC), Detroit Arsenal (Warren, Michigan)
    • CFT: Next-Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV)
  17. Aviation and missile center (formerly Aviation and Missile research, development and engineering center —AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville AL
    • CFT: Air and Missile Defense
  18. Soldier center (formerly Natick Soldier research, development and engineering center —NSRDEC), General Greene Ave, Natick, MA 01760
  19. ARL-Adelphi Army Research Laboratory,[123] Adelphi MD
  20. ARL-Orlando Army Research Laboratory,[111] Orlando FL
  21. ARL West, Playa Vista[124] CA
  22. ARL-RTP Army Research Laboratory, Raleigh-Durham NC
  23. AI task force at Carnegie-Mellon University[59][31]

Need for modernization reformEdit

Between 1995 and 2009, $32 billion was expended on programs such as the Future Combat System (2003-2009), with no harvestable content by the time of its cancellation.[125] The Army has not fielded a new combat system in decades.[126][127][128]

Secretary of the Army Mark Esper has remarked that AFC will provide the unity of command and purpose needed to reduce the requirements definition phase from 60 months to 12 months.[129][15][30] A simple statement of a problem (rather than a full-blown requirements definition) that the Army is trying to address may suffice for a surprising, usable solution. —General Mike Murray, paraphrasing Trae Stephens[22]:minute 41:50 (One task will be to quantify the lead time for identifying a requirement; the next task would then be to learn how to reduce that lead time.—Gap analysis )[19]:minute 11:00[130][131][5] Process changes are expected.[130][25] The development process will be cyclic, consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation, in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record. The ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette[84] has cautioned the acquisition community to 'call-out' unrealistic processes which commit a program to a drawn-out failure,[132] rather than failing early, and seeking another solution.[133]

Secretary Esper scrubbed through 800[134] modernization programs to reprioritize funding[135] for the top 6 modernization priorities,[35] which will consume 80% of the modernization funding,[136] of 18 systems.[136] The Budget Control Act will restrict funds by 2020.[137][138][139][140][141][142][143][144][145][20] Realistically, budget considerations will restrict the fielding of new materiel to one Armor BCT per year;[146] at that rate, updates would take decades.[146]

The CIO/G6 has targeted Futures Command (Austin) in 2019 as the first pilot for "enterprise IT-as-a-service"-style service contracts; 2 other locations are to be announced for 2019. Six to eight other pilots are envisioned for 2020. However 288 other enterprise network locations remain to be migrated away from the previous "big bang" migration concept from several years ago, as they are vulnerable to near-peer cyber threats.[147][95]:minute 16:50 The CIO/G6 emphasizes that this enterprise migration is not the tactical network espoused in the top six priorities (a 'mobile & expeditionary Army network').[147]

  1. After AFC, the following G6 service contracts are high priority:[147]
  2. The Combat Training Centers (Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and Grafenwöhr)
  3. TRADOC and its Centers of Excellence (CoEs)
  4. The power projection bases from which deployments spring


Chief Milley noted that AFC would actively reach out into the community in order to learn, and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command.[19]:minute 7:30[15] In fact, AFC soldiers would blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms [to work side-by-side with civilians in the tech hubs],[148] Milley noted in the 24 August 2018 press conference.[19]:minute 6:20 Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process.[19]:minute 18:20

In the Department of Defense, the materiel supply process was underwritten by the acquisition, logistics, and technology directorate of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), with a deputy secretary of defense (DSD) to oversee five areas, one of them being acquisition, logistics, and technology (ALT).[149] ALT is overseen by an under secretary of defense (USD).[150] (Each of the echelons at the level of DSD and USD serve at the pleasure of the president, as does the secretary of defense (SECDEF).) The Defense Acquisition University (DAU) trains acquisition professionals for the Army as well.

In 2016 when RDECOM reported to AMC (instead of to AFC, as it does as of 2018), AMC instituted Life cycle management command (LCMC)[84] of three of RDECOM's centers for aviation and missiles, electronics, and tanks:[151] AMRDEC,[152] CERDEC,[153][154] and TARDEC[155] respectively, as well as the three contracting[156] functions for the three centers.[132]

This Life Cycle Management (formulated in 2004)[157][158] was intended to exert the kind of operational control (OPCON)[30] needed just for the sustainment function (AMC's need for Readiness today), rather than for its relevance to modernization for the future, which is the focus of AFC.

Relevance for modernizationEdit

The CFTs,[Note 1] as prioritized 1 through 6 by the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA), each have to consider constraints: a balance of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment.

The DOTMLPF method of mission planning was instituted to quantify tradeoffs in joint planning.[30] DOTMLPF will be used for modernization of the Army beyond materiel alone, which (as of 2019) is the current focus of the CFTs.[159] The updated modernization strategy, to move from concept to doctrine as well, will be unveiled by summer 2019.[159] DOTMLPF (doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities) itself is planned as a driver for modernization.[15][159] The plan is to have an MDO-capable Army by 2028, and an MDO-ready Army by 2035.[159]

TRADOC, ASA (ALT), and AFC are tied together in this process, according to Vice Chief McConville.[160] AFC will have to be "a little bit disruptive [but not upsetting to the existing order]" in order to institute reforms within budget in a timely way.[161]

The ASA(ALT), or Assistant Secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics, and technology is currently (2018) Dr. Bruce Jette. The ASA(ALT) is the civilian executive overseeing both the acquisition and the sustainment processes of the Department of the Army. The ASA(ALT) will coordinate the acquisition portion of modernization reform with AFC.

Congress has given the Army OTA (Other Transaction Authority),[162][Note 2] which allows the PEOs to enter into Full Rate Production quicker by permitting the services to control their own programs of record, rather than DoD.[89] This strips out one layer of bureaucracy as of 2018.[89][163]

Besides the AFC Cross-Functional Teams, the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC)[164][165][166] could also play a part in acquisition reform;[167] as of September 2018 the Deputy Chief of Staff G-8 (DCS G-8), who leads AROC and JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council) has aligned with the priorities of AFC.[168] The DCS G-8 is principal military advisor to the ASA (FM&C).[80]

In addition, the Program Executive Officers (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) are to maintain a dotted-line relationship[Note 1] (i.e., coordination) with Futures Command.[84][23]

There is now a PEO for Rapid Capabilities, to get rapid turnaround. The Rapid capabilities office (RCO)'s PEO gets two program managers, one for rapid prototyping, and one for rapid acquisition, of a capability.[169] The Rapid capabilities office (RCO) does not develop its own requirements; rather, the RCO gets the requirements from the Cross-functional team (CFT).[170] Rapid Capabilities (RCO) was headed by Tanya Skeen as PEO RCO[84] but Skeen moved to DoD, in late 2018.[171] In 2019 RCO became the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO) The Pentagon, headed by MG L. Neil Thurgood, lately of ASA(ALT)'s Army Hypersonics office.[172]

Progress toward FOCEdit

Progress in the top six priorities:[Note 1][28][173][72]

  • Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF)[97]
    • The Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) is slated to replace ATACMS in 2023[97]
    • The current Paladin (M109A6) cannon range is doubling (M109A7).[174]:minute 2:30[175] An operational test of components of Long range cannon (LRC) is scheduled for 2020.[176] LRC is complementary to Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA).[176] Investigations for ERCA in 2025: rocket-boosted artillery shells:[97] Tests of the Multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) XM30 rocket shell have demonstrated a near-doubling of the range of the munition, using the Tail controlled guided multiple launch rocket system, or TC-G.[177]
  • Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) portfolio:[178]
    • Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): in Limited User Tests[178]
    • A ground mobility vehicle competition, bids closing 26 October 2018[179]
    • Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF):[180][181] approved by joint requirements oversight council.[178] Two vendors were selected to build competing prototype light tanks (MPF), with contract award in 2022.[182]
    • Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV):[72] soliciting input, in requirements definition stage; 2 should fit in a C-17.[178] A request for proposal (RFP) for a vehicle prototype was placed March 29, 2019.[72]
    • Robotic Combat Vehicles (RCVs):[183][72] futures
    • Next Generation main battle tank:[184] futures
  • Future Vertical Lift (FVL)[25][9][185]
    • Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Soldier feedback remains an item for discussion in the Future Vertical Lift CFT.[186]
    • Future Vertical Lift will use the DoD modular open systems approach (MOSA),[9] an integrated business and technical strategy in FARA,[187][188] and in FLRRA:[189][190][78]
      • Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstrator (JMR-TD): prototypes by two teams to replace UH-60 with Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRRA).[191]
      • The Future Attack and Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) is smaller than FLRRA. The Army issued requests for proposals (RFPs) for FARA. RFPs were due in December 2018;[192][193][188][194] in April 2019, the Army awarded 5 Other transaction authority (OTA) contracts[195] to vendors with a Milestone C in 2028.[196] Each agreement spans the entire acquisition process, from design, to prototype, to flight test, to low-volume production, to fielding, to full-rate production (Milestone C);[196] but each agreement is subject to cancellation, if need be.
      • Future tactical unmanned aircraft systems (FTUAS): drones which do not require runways[197][198]
  • Mobile, Expeditionary Network: In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT will leverage Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[199] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[200] Avoid overspecifying the requirements (in ITN[201] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document) to meet operational needs,[200] such as interoperability with other networks.[202][95]:minute 26:40 ITN to have Capability set '21, '23, '25 incrementally.[203]
    • Five Rapid Innovation Fund (RIF) awards have been granted to five vendors via the Network CFT and PEO C3T's request for white papers. That request, for a roll-on/roll-off kit that integrates all functions of mission command on the Army Network, was posted at the National Spectrum Consortium and FedBizOpps, and yielded awards within eight months.[204][Note 2] Two more awards are forthcoming.
    • The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s Emerging Technologies Office structured a competition to find superior AI/Machine Learning algorithms for electronic warfare, from a field of 150 contestants, over a three-month period.[205][Note 2]
    • The Multi-Domain Operations Task Force (MDO TF) is standing up an experimental Electronic Warfare Platoon to prototype an estimated 1000 EW soldiers needed for the 31 BCTs of the active Army.[206][49]
  • Air, Missile Defense:[207][208][209]
    • U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command’s High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL TVD) laser system, a 100 kilowatt laser demonstrator for use on the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles, was awarded 15 May 2019.[210] System test at White Sands Missile Range in 2023.[210]
    • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS) second limited user test is scheduled to take place in the fourth quarter of FY20.[209] On 1 May 2019 an Engagement Operations Center (EOC) for the Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS) was delivered to the Army, at Huntsville, Alabama,[211] which is intended to integrate the following:
      • Lower tier air and missile defense sensor (LTAMDS) —PEO RCO is accelerating LTAMDS[209] experimentation by downselecting to two competitors with award by 2023[212][Note 2]
      • Indirect fire protection capability (IFPC) Multi-mission launcher (MML)[213][209]
      • Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD)[209] with laser cannon prototypes in 2020, fielding in 2021 and 2022 to two battalions per year.[53][214]
      • Aegis, Patriot, and THAAD
  • Soldier Lethality:[215] Maj. Gen. Dave Bassett, PEO GCS 2016[216][217][218] Note: In 2018 MG Bassett became PEO C3T — Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical
    • Next-generation squad weapon: Expect 100,000 to be fielded to Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, Special Forces, and Combat engineers. Tests at Fort Benning in 2019. —Chief of Staff Milley[219]
    • Enhanced night vision goggles (ENVG)-B, will be fielded to an ABCT going to South Korea in October 2019[220][221]
    • Synthetic training environment (STE)—a CFT devoted to an augmented reality system[111] to aid planning, using mapping techniques, even at squad level[222] will begin fielding by 2021.[223][109] [224]

In 2019 DoD planners are exercising DOTMLPF in planning, per the National Defense Strategy (NDS),[225] in the shift from counterinsurgency (COIN) to competition with near-peer powers.[225] The evaluations from planners' scenarios will be determining materiel and organization by late 2020.[225]


AFC faces multiple futures, both as threat and opportunity. The Army's warfighting directive, viz., "to impose the nation's political will on its enemy" —Chief of Staff Milley, is to be ready for multiple near-term futures.[226] Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Gen. Murray functions as the Army's Chief Investments Officer[68] (more precisely, its "chief futures modernization investment officer").[80]:Section 4[Note 2][24] Funding for the top six priorities could mean that existing programs might be curtailed.[227]

In the top six priorities:

  • LRPF Long range precision fires[228]
  • NGCV Next generation combat vehicle
    • Much small and lighter ground combat vehicles, optionally unmanned[114] (See Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC)) for robotic vehicles[232]
    • Robotic warfare, as a concept or capability at the Joint Corps echelon, was demonstrated at the operational level using Joint Warfighting assessment (JWA) 18.1 in April 2018.
    • JWA 19 (April–May 2019): I Corps, at JLBM (Joint base Lewis-McChord), is getting modernization training on the robotic complex breaching concept (RCBC), and the command post computing environment (CPCE) from Joint modernization command (JMC) training staff.[233]
    • Create decisive lethality[234]
  • FVL "Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn’t exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[90]
    • The FARA (Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft) scout helicopter prototypes are to be designed to fly along urban streets, to survive air defenses.[196] Five design vendors were selected, with downselect to two for prototyping by February 2020.[196]
  • Mobile & Expeditionary Network / MDO Multi-domain operations [146]
    • In the battlefield of the future, where nowhere is safe for long, "you will miss opportunities to get to positions of advantage if you don't synthesize the data very quickly"—LTG Wesley (AI for multi-domain command and control: MDC2)[58][235]
    • Cybersecurity[236][237][238][239] RAND simulations show Blue losses[53]
    • Cyber warfare[240] / urban warfare[17] / Underground warfare / Multi-domain combined maneuver[241]
    • Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)[242] A solar-powered drone successfully stayed aloft at Yuma Proving Ground for nearly 26 days, at times descending to 55,000 feet to avoid adverse weather conditions, while remaining well above the altitudes flown by commercial aircraft, and landing per plan in the summer of 2018, to meet other testing commitments.[243]
    • An A-PNT event is scheduled at WSMR for August 2019[244]
  • Air,Missile Defense[57][245]
    • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)[246] award, including next software build.[247][57] $238 million also funds initial prototypes of the command and control system for fielding in FY22.[209]
  • Soldier lethality
    • Sensor-to-shooter prototype for multi-domain battle, 2019 operational assessment: Air Force RCO / Army RCO / Network CFT[248][249]
    • Night vision goggles thermal polarimetric camera.[250] Integrated vision augmentation system (IVAS)[251][252]
    • Natick Soldier RDEC has awarded an OTA contract to prototype soldier exoskeletons which augment human leg strength under harsh conditions.[253][254]

Other ArmiesEdit

The British Army is also investigating innovations, such as robots and drones, including 70 technologies funded by a $1 billion (₤800 million) innovation fund launched in 2016.[255] Two hundred troops will engage in "surveillance, long-range, and precision targeting, enhanced mobility and the re-supply of forces, urban warfare and enhanced situational awareness".[255]

Russia jammed the GPS signal during NATO exercises in November 2018.[256][257] (See: meaconing) General Valery Gerasimov advocates hybrid warfare, a "blend of political, economic and military power to bear against adversaries".[258]

China — RAND simulations show Blue losses.[53]

Headquarters (HQ) and commanderEdit

On July 13, 2018, U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper said AFC's headquarters would be based in Austin, Texas.[259] AFC spreads across three locations totalling 75,000 square feet;[65] one of the locations in a University of Texas System building at 210 W. Seventh St. in downtown Austin,[260][261] on the 15th and 19th floors.[262] The UT Regents will not be charging rent to AFC until December 2019.[262] The command began initial operations on July 1, 2018.[263]

On July 16, 2018, Lieutenant General John M. Murray was nominated for a fourth star and appointment as Army Futures Command's first commanding general.[264][265] His appointment was confirmed August 20, 2018[266] and he assumed command during the official activation ceremony of AFC on August 24, 2018, in Austin, Texas.[65]

Value streamsEdit

The AFC commander, in a hearing before Congress' House Armed Services Committee, projects that materiel will result from the value stream below, within a two-year time frame,[12] from concept to Soldier. The commanding general is assisted by three deputy commanders.

  • the Futures and Concepts Center,[102] led by AFC deputy commander Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley,[44] who is seeking 4 value streams for reducing the time invested to define a relevant requirement:[130][25]
  1. Science and technology (S&T: discovery / collection of ideas with usable effects)[267][148]
  2. Experiments (Testing of a system to a known expectation of effects, or else observation of that system, in the absence of a specific expectation of effects)
  3. Concepts development[24] (Development of a relevant idea about that system)[107][105]
  4. Requirements development (Development of the terms and conditions for that system)
  • Combat Development element,[122][268] Army Futures Command.[102] Lt. Gen. James M. Richardson is the deputy commander. He assists the commander with efforts to assess and integrate the future operational environment, emerging threats, and technologies to develop and deliver concepts, requirements, and future force designs to posture the Army for the future.[269][111][136]
    • The Capability development integration directorate (CDID) of each Center of Excellence (CoE), works with its CFT[Note 1] and its research, development and engineering center (RDEC) to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.
    • The Battle Labs and The Research Analysis Center (TRAC)[104][107] prototype and analyze the concepts to test.
    • JMC is capable of providing live developmental experiments to test those concepts or capabilities, "scalable from company level to corps, amid tough, realistic multi-domain operations".[67][16][51]
    • RDECOM becomes the Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), part of the Combat Development element, on 3 February 2019.[122][31][99]
  • Combat Systems Directorate[268] will be led by Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski[270][271] (Principal Military Deputy (PMILDEP) to the ASA(ALT))[80]:AD2018-15,6b:PMILDEP will additionally be AFC director, Combat Systems [89] who will produce those developed solutions and seek feedback.[27]
    • Gen. Robert Abrams has tasked III Corps with providing Soldier feedback for the Next Generation Combat Vehicles CFT, XVIII Corps for the Soldier feedback on the Soldier lethality CFT, the Network CFT, as well as the Synthetic training CFT, and I Corps for the Long Range Precision Fires CFT.[186]
    • Combat Systems refines, engineers, and produces the developed solutions from Combat Development.[272]
    • An analysis by AMSAA can then assess that concept or capability, as a promising system for a materiel development decision.[81]

... what I do think you will see is some of the capabilities the cross-functional teams are working will be in production and being delivered and in the hands of soldiers in the next two years" —Gen. John "Mike" Murray (2018).[12]

Army Chief of Staff Milley is looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019.[19][273][37]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using Cross Functional Teams (CFTs) for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery)— Lead: Col (Promotable) John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next-generation combat vehicle— Lead: BG Ross Coffman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms— Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence— Lead: MG Pete Gallagher ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing— Lead: Kevin Coggins
    5. Air and missile defense— Lead: BG Randall McIntire, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality— Lead: BG David M. Hodne ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment — Lead: MG Maria Gervais ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 23, 2018) Army Futures Command Wants YOU (To Innovate)
    • —Adam Jay Harrison's list for types of Funding Authority


  1. ^ a b c Futures Command reveals new insignia as it 'forges' ahead; by Sean Kimmons, Army News Service; dated 6 December 2018, last accessed 3 February 2019
  2. ^ Army Futures Command Task Force (Wednesday, March 28, 2018) Army Futures Command
  3. ^ a b Vergun, David A. (13 July 2018). "Austin to be U.S. Army Futures Command location, says Army". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  4. ^ Roper and Grassetti (1 October 2018) Seizing the High Ground – United States Army Futures Command
  5. ^ a b c d e Army Directive 2017-33 (Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force) (7 November 2017) References Decker-Wagner 2011
  6. ^ Capt. Steve Draheim and Maj. Paul Santamaria (22 June 2018) Long-range, short term
  7. ^ Ed Lopez (21 June 2018) Picatinny Arsenal, PEO (AMMO) Army modernization advances with early team collaboration
  8. ^ John Liang (August 27, 2018) Inside the Army highlights
  9. ^ a b c New Army aircraft will be durable, lethal, unmanned for modern conflicts
  10. ^ Vergun, David A. (7 December 2017). "US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army". Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Army Directive 2017-24 (Cross-Functional Team Pilot In Support of Materiel Development)
  12. ^ a b c d Matthew Cox (14 Sep 2018) Head of Army Futures Command Fields Tough Questions From Congress
  13. ^ Source: Organization, United States Army. For detail, see AR10-87
  14. ^ a b Army Commands, Army Service Component Commands, and Direct Reporting Units ARN2541_AR10-87_WEB_Final.pdf section 20-2a, p.27
  15. ^ a b c d Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (April 1, 2019) The number one priority: An interview with Gen. Mark Milley: Readiness (both current and future)
  16. ^ a b c Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (Nov-Dec 2017) Multi-Domain Battle: The Advent of Twenty-First Century War
  17. ^ a b c Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (August 31, 2018) An interview with retired Gen. David McKiernan
  18. ^ Michael Hardy (Aug 24, 2018) Austin’s New Army Futures Command Marks ‘Biggest Reorganization of the Army Since 1973’
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i DVIDs video, 24 August 2018 press conference
  20. ^ a b c Army Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (February 26, 2019) FY20 budget proposal realigns $30 billion
  21. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 9, 2018) After hitting milestones, Futures Command looks ahead to more
  22. ^ a b AUSA 2018 CMF #1: Army Futures Command Unifies Force Modernization DVIDS video of panelists Gen. Murray, Sec. McCarthy, Dr. Jette, and Trae Stephens
  23. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (26 March 2018) Army Outlines Futures Command; Org Chart In Flux
  24. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 25, 2017) Can The Pentagon Protect Young Innovators? Fixing the 'up or out' culture, which favors generalists
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lt. Col. Thomas “Bull” Holland, PhD, U.S. Army (15 January 2019) Proposed Army Futures Command Process Tenets
    1. 'Scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development';
    2. Incorporate 'scientific research into "Appendix C: Functional Concepts" and specify pathways for technology development';
    3. Buy into the 'fail fast' mentality;
    4. '6.3-funded projects to produce knowledge (technical data) that can be consumed by requirements developers as opposed to PMs';
    5. Use 'evidence-based requirements process' (early hypothesis testing) with citations for evidence:
      • All projects will be executed in no less than two increments.
      • No new requirements once an increment is started.
    6. Summary: 'advances on the battlefield requires comprehensive, coordinated changes in the entire acquisition system';
  26. ^ Neil Hollenbeck and Benjamin Jensen (December 6, 2017) Why the Army needs a Futures Command Enable a culture of experimentation, and develop concepts and technology together.
  27. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Sep 2018) Futures Command Won’t Hurt Oversight, Army Tells Congress
  28. ^ a b ASA(ALT) Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized. 440 pages.
    • By Modernization priority
    • By Acquisition or Business System category (ACAT or BSC). The Weapon systems in each ACAT are sorted alphabetically by Weapon system name. Each weapon system might also be in several variants (Lettered); a weapon system's variants might be severally and simultaneously in the following phases of its Life Cycle, namely — °Materiel Solution Analysis; °Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction; °Engineering & Manufacturing Development; °Production & Deployment; °Operations & Support
    • ACAT I, II, III, IV are defined on page 404
  29. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg (7 May 2018) Permanent Evolution: SecArmy Esper On Futures Command
  30. ^ a b c d JP-1 p.xxi has the definition of operational control (OPCON). Note that "command authority may not be delegated" (COCOM being command authority). p.xxii has the definition of administrative control (ADCON): one application being coordinating authority.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Army R&D Chief: ‘I Don’t Think We Went Far Enough’ – But Futures Command Can
  32. ^ Scott Maucione (14 Sep 2018) Army leaders ask for trust in lieu of metrics for Futures Command
  33. ^ a b Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (August 31, 2018) Modernizing at the speed of relevance: An interview with Under Secretary of the Army Ryan McCarthy
  34. ^ a b c d Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (14 August 2018) Inside Army Futures Command: CFT Chiefs Take Charge
  35. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (29 August 2018) Army Futures Command: $100M, 500 Staff, & Access To Top Leaders
  36. ^ (22 April 2018) New Army Futures Command success hinges on relationship building
  37. ^ a b GAO report: GAO-19-132 (Jan 23, 2019) ARMY MODERNIZATION: Steps Needed to Ensure Army Futures Command Fully Applies Leading Practices
  38. ^ a b c d Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (February 11, 2019) Army aligning modernization programs with other services
  39. ^ In, for example Waverider hypersonic weapons delivery, China has flown a Mach 5.5 vehicle for 400 seconds, at 30 km altitude, demonstrating large-angle deviations from a ballistic trajectory, as well as recovery of the payload. See Current test targets, such as Zombie Pathfinder are not hypersonic. Rand Corporation (28 September 2017) Hypersonic Missile Nonproliferation estimates there is less than a decade to prevent Hypersonic Missile proliferation.
  40. ^ Stephen Carlson (14 Nov 2018) DARPA issues contract proposition for hypersonic missile defense
  41. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (22 August 2018) Army Warhead Is Key To Joint Hypersonics
  42. ^ a b Joe Lacdan (October 16, 2018) The Army joins the Air Force, Navy in attempt to develop hypersonic weaponry
  43. ^ Mary Kate Aylward (5 February 2019) Experiments in hyperspeed more on Prompt Global Strike
  44. ^ a b c (15 August 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  45. ^ a b Long-range precision fires modernization a joint effort, Army tech leader says
  46. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (March 01, 2018) DoD Boosts Hypersonics 136 % In 2019: DARPA
  47. ^ Jason Cutshaw (September 19, 2018) Secretary of the Navy visits AMC, SMDC memorandum of agreement in June to co-develop a hypersonic vehicle
  48. ^ a b c d e Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 September 2018) Aiming The Army’s Thousand-Mile Missiles
  49. ^ a b c d Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (March 13, 2019) Futures Command Deputy Commanding General talks the U.S. Army's Future at South by Southwest U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley, Deputy Commanding General (DCG), Army Futures Command
  50. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 December 2018) Army Multi-Domain Update: New HQs, Grey Zones, & The Art of The Unfeasible
  51. ^ a b US Army (Sep 4, 2018) U.S. Army Pacific Commander Gen. Robert Brown: State of the Pacific
  52. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 May 2019) How To Wage Global Cyber War: Nakasone, Norton, & Deasy
  53. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 March 2019) US ‘Gets Its Ass Handed To It’ In Wargames: Here’s A $24 Billion Fix Army prepositioned stocks (APS) vulnerability
  54. ^ Matthew Cox (28 April 2018) How Future Combat Systems Failed
  55. ^ APG News (June 13, 2018) News Briefs: The U.S. Army Modernization Strategy
  56. ^ Association of the U.S. Army (Sep 7, 2018) AUSA Aviation Hot Topic 2018 - PANEL 1 - Multi Domain Maneuver
  57. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 Jan 2019) Hack, Jam, Sense & Shoot: Army Creates 1st Multi-Domain Unit an MDO BN for Targeting, I Corps
  58. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (November 30, 2018) Artificial Intelligence: Forget The Terminator For Future Army: LTG Wesley
  60. ^ Ashton Carter (2012-11-21) Autonomy in Weapon Systems Most recent DoD guideline: 2012
  61. ^ a b Army Directive 2018-18 (Army Artificial Intelligence Task Force in Support of the Department of Defense Joint Artificial Intelligence Center) 2 October 2018
  62. ^ Terri Moon Cronk (December 13, 2018) Artificial intelligence experts address getting capabilities to warfighters
  63. ^ (February 01, 2019) Carnegie Mellon Hosts Activation of U.S. Army AI Task Force. Brigadier General Matt Easley is Director of Army Artificial Intelligence task force (A-AI TF)
  64. ^ RDECOM Research Laboratory Public Affairs (December 18, 2018) Black Hawk helicopter pilot interns with Army researchers
  65. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 15, 2018) Army Futures Command aims to tap into innovative culture in Austin and beyond
  66. ^ Dan Lamothe (14 July 2018) Why the Army decided to put its new high-tech Futures Command in Texas
  67. ^ a b c Maj. Brett Lea,24th Press Camp Headquarters (5 Sep 2018) "Army establishes Futures Command; U.S. Army JMC at Fort Bliss is operational arm" Fort Bliss Bugle
  68. ^ a b Lauren C. Williams (Sep 14, 2018) Army Futures Command to set up DIU-like innovation lab
  69. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (October 10, 2018) Army Futures Command to become 'global command,' says its leader
  70. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (April 4, 2019) Allies to join Army Futures Command
  71. ^ Technology Review (19 December 2016) The Pentagon's Innovation Experiment
  72. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (April 3, 2019) Army 'Shark Tank' enabling quick prototyping of new systems
  73. ^ Devon L. Suits (December 11, 2018) Army secretary approves new Intellectual Property Management Policy
  74. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 March 2019) IP Rights For Robot Tanks: NGCV To Test-Drive New Policy
  75. ^ a b David Vergun (29 March 2018) Army network modernization efforts spearheaded by new Cross-Functional Teams. The Army conducts a network demonstration at Fort Bliss, Texas. The Army is pursuing network modernization through Cross-Functional Teams.
  76. ^ (27 June 2018) U.S. Army to host tactical Cloud computing industry forum
  77. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 3, 2018) Army leveraging industry ideas to modernize network
  78. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 April 2019) US Army plans to field a future long-range assault helicopter by 2030 FLRRA
    • RFI posted on the Federal Business Opportunities, April 4
    • Contract award: fourth quarter of FY21
    • preliminary design review (PDR) second quarter of FY23
    • first flight in the third quarter of FY24
    • critical design review (CDR) in the fourth quarter of FY24
    • fielding to first unit in second quarter of FY30
  79. ^ Ms. Karen Diane Kurtz (ASA (ALT)) and Steven Y. Lusher (JPEO CBRND PAO) (October 8, 2018) ASA(ALT) Participates in U.S. Army Futures Command Panel at AUSA
  80. ^ a b c d e f Army Directive 2018-15 (U.S. Army Futures Command Relationship With the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) and DCS G-8, 27 August 2018
  81. ^ a b c d Richard Simonetti (23 April 2018) "US Army turns to new technologies"
  82. ^ a b Acquisition process: Materiel development decision (MDD)
  83. ^ USArmy tweet: Futures Command will have the overarching objective to achieve clear overmatch in future conflicts, making Soldiers and units more lethal to win the nation's wars, then return home safely.
  84. ^ a b c d e f Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and Technology) ASA(ALT)— Org Chart as of 11/26/18
  85. ^ Mr. Craig A. Spisak, Director, Acquisition Career Management (October 3, 2018) A vigorous talent management strategy keeps the acquisition workforce prepared for threats
  86. ^ A sample career path here: Aviation Engineering director to SES
  87. ^ (1 Aug 2018) Military (Officer) Corner: Army Acquisition Centralized Selection List
  88. ^ (29 Apr 2015) Army Acquisition Corps Recognized
  89. ^ a b c d Ms. Audra Calloway (Picatinny) (September 19, 2018) With new Army Futures Command, senior acquisition leader discusses role of Program Executive Offices
  90. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 January 2019) Bell V-280 Flies 322 MPH: Army Secretary Praises Program
  91. ^ a b c Secretary of the Army, Mark T. Esper, ESTABLISHMENT OF UNITED STATES ARMY FUTURES COMMAND Army General order G.O.2018-10
  92. ^ a b Team White Sands Organizations (TWSO)
  93. ^ For example,
  94. ^ (January 2011) Implementing Acquisition Reform: The Decker-Wagner Army Acquisition Review
  95. ^ a b c d DoD (May 16, 2018) Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request
  96. ^ U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (February 4, 2019) CCDC Research Laboratory
  97. ^ a b c d e f Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, CG RDECOM (September 25, 2018) RDECOM's road map to modernizing the Army: Long-range precision fires
  98. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin (October 17, 2018) RDECOM at the forefront of creating a more modern, lethal Army
  99. ^ a b Freedberg (31 Jan 2019) Army Completes Biggest Reorg In 45 Years: Can Futures Command End Weapons Disasters?
  100. ^ Ms. Jacqueline M. Hames, USAASC (October 10, 2018) Get that moving truck ready
  101. ^ Futures Command locations
  102. ^ a b c YouTube clip (7 December 2018) ARCIC Transition of Authority Ceremony 07 Dec 2018 to Futures and Concepts Center, AFC
  103. ^ (2016) ARL locations
  104. ^ a b c Tisha Swart-Entwistle (6 December 2018) TRAC makes official move to Futures Command
  105. ^ a b Mission Command Battle Lab
  106. ^ Mission Command Center Of Excellence (MC-CoE CDID)
  107. ^ a b c TRADOC Analysis Center. Combined Arms training center. Fort Leavenworth
  108. ^ Maj. Gen. Maria R. Gervais (August 31, 2018) The Synthetic Training Environment revolutionizes sustainment training
  109. ^ a b Jacqueline M. Hames and Margaret C. Roth (January 14, 2019) Virtual battlefield represents future of training Training as a service; more content at scale needed.
  110. ^ Army ALT Magazine (January 29, 2019) THEN AND NOW: TRAINING FOR THE FUTURE critique
  111. ^ a b c d By Patrick D Morgan (TRADOC) (March 18, 2019) STE CFT Cuts Ribbon in Orlando
  112. ^ Cyber CoE - (its CDID)
  113. ^ Maneuver CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  114. ^ a b Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (September 17, 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  115. ^ Aviation CoE - (its CDID)
  116. ^ Fires CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  117. ^ a b Col. Yi Se Gwon, Fort Sill Fires Bulletin (September-October 2018) The Army Multi-Domain Targeting Center
  118. ^ Intelligence CoE - no information on its CDID
  119. ^ Maneuver Support CoE - (its CDID and Battle Lab)
  120. ^ Sustainment CoE CDID not found
  121. ^ (12 September 2018) ASA(ALT) MilDep talks APG’s role in Futures Command Paul Ostrowski is PMILDEP to ASA(ALT)
  122. ^ a b c Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC HQ Public Affairs (January 31, 2019) RDECOM transitions to Army Futures Command
  123. ^ Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (February 25, 2019) Army-funded researcher wins Nobel Prize
  124. ^ (15 April 2016) US Army Research Lab Opens at USC ICT in Playa Vista
  125. ^ Dan Lamothe Washington Post (2018-07-12) Army to unveil details about new Futures Command in biggest reorganization in 45 years
  126. ^ Thomas E. Ricks (MARCH 2, 2015)Why hasn’t the Army’s regular acquisition process produced anything in decades? --Future of War conference.
  127. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (6 September 2018) Safer, smarter, faster: An interview with Gen. James McConville
  128. ^ "US edge has eroded to a dangerous degree"
  129. ^ US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army
  130. ^ a b c Army has picked a location for its new Futures Command, but now comes the hard part
  131. ^ Association of the United States Army (AUSA): Scott R. Gourley (Friday, January 13, 2017) CLOSING THE CAPABILITIES GAP: SEVEN THINGS THE ARMY NEEDS FOR A WINNING FUTURE
  132. ^ a b GAO report: GAO-17-457 (Jun 2017) ARMY CONTRACTING Leadership Lacks Information Needed to Evaluate and Improve Operations
  133. ^ Bruce Jette, Building the Army of the future
  134. ^ Hannah Wiley (April 6, 2018) Program cuts likely under Army secretary's new Futures Command
  135. ^ Jen Judson  (17 July 2018) US Army asks Congress to shift millions in FY18 dollars. What’s behind the request?
  136. ^ a b c David Vergun (September 5, 2018) Richardson confirmed as Futures Command deputy commander
  137. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 28, 2018) CHIPS Articles: Army Secretary defines goals for coming decade — modernization, Futures Command
  138. ^ Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment? video
  139. ^ Daniel Goure (October 18, 2018) Can Trump Rebuild The Military As Deficits Balloon?
  140. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 26, 2018) Joint Experiments Will Pick Budget Winners & Losers: Dunford Task is to cut $33 Billion from 2020 budget
  141. ^ Youtube: What will $716 Billion Buy You? US Defense Budget 2019 Weapons
  142. ^ Michael J. Meese (23 Dec 2016) Chapter 4 : The American Defense Budget 2017–2020 Note Fed chart 1970-2026
  143. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (October 26, 2018) Trump Orders DoD To Take Surprise $33B Budget Cut 2020 DoD budget cut from $733 billion to $700 billion
  144. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (November 14, 2018) The Pentagon’s First-Ever Audit: A Big Disappointment?
  145. ^ Wesley Morgan (09 December 2018) Trump reverses course, tells Pentagon to boost budget request to $750 billion
  146. ^ a b c Todd South, Military Times (8 May 2019) 4 things the general in charge of the Army's newest command says are needed to win the wars of the future
  147. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 March 2019) Army Bets Big On Service Contracts To Fix Aging IT
  148. ^ a b Joyce M. Conant, ARL Public Affairs (19 Feb 2016) ARL West hires its first employee, meet Dr. Benjamin T. Files
  149. ^ DoDI 5000.02: Defense Acquisition Life Cycle Compliance Baseline (Pre‐Tailoring)
  150. ^ DoD org chart
  151. ^ Dennis Via, CG AMC (6 April 2016) AMC announces Mission Command alignment
  152. ^ (10 April 2018) AMRDEC Industry days
  153. ^ (December 23, 2009) About CECOM LCMC
  154. ^ Megan Paice (26 July 2018) From RDECOM to CECOM
  156. ^ Ed Worley(November 2, 2018) ACC celebrates 10 years of enabling readiness, modernization Contracting officers are embedded with evry CFT
  157. ^ Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC) 2004
  158. ^ Ed Worley (October 1, 2018) Two contracting centers achieve full operational capability
  159. ^ a b c d Connie Lee (3/26/2019) NEWS FROM AUSA GLOBAL: Army Fleshing Out Updated Modernization Strategy
  160. ^ Lauren C. Williams (Aug 21, 2018) PEO structure survives Army Futures reorg, for now
  161. ^ Sydney Freeberg (6 September 2018) ‘A Little Bit Disruptive’: Murray & McCarthy On Army Futures Command
  162. ^ AcqNotes (17 Jan 2017) Other Transaction Authority (OTA) Guide – 17 Jan 2017
  163. ^ Paul McCleary (31 December 2018) Amidst Turmoil, Pentagon Persists On Acquisition Reform: Ellen Lord
  164. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Army in final stages of hashing out Stryker lethality requirements at an AROC council in January 2019
  165. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (December 14, 2018) Army Bradley Brigade Will Get Israeli Anti-Missile System: Iron Fist
  166. ^ Lt. Gen. John M. Murray, deputy chief of staff, G-8 (September 8, 2016) Modernization vital to joint force success
  167. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (August 27, 2018) Can Army Futures Command Overcome Decades Of Dysfunction?
  168. ^ Devon L. Suits (September 19, 2018) New G-8 embraces streamlining tech acquisition
  169. ^ Jen Judson (March 26 2018) The next Army program executive office will be the Rapid Capabilities Office
  170. ^ Jen Judson (7 Oct 2018) Army Rapid Capabilities Office realigned to focus on top modernization priorities
  171. ^ RCCTO (2019) About Us
  172. ^ Jen Judson (13 March 2019) Army Rapid Capabilities Office is getting a new name and mission
  173. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (March 14, 2019) Army ‘Big Six’ Ramp Up in 2021: Learning From FCS
  174. ^ M109A7 has 30-foot barrel and double the range
  175. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (September 13, 2018) Cross-functional teams already producing results, says Futures Command general, House Armed Services Sub-committee hearing, 13 September 2018
  176. ^ a b Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (September 20, 2018) Army doubles cannon range in prototype demo
  177. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (May 8, 2019) Army demonstrates extended ranges for precision munitions
  178. ^ a b c d Bob Purtiman, NGCV Cross-Functional Team (September 17, 2018) Preparing for future battlefields: The Next Generation Combat Vehicle
  179. ^ Jen Judson   (9 October 2018) US Army triggers start of possible ground mobility vehicle competition after long delay
  180. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Decision coming soon on who will build prototypes for a new Army light tank
  181. ^ Youtube: MPF
  182. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (December 17, 2018) Army Picks BAE, GD For MPF Light Tank Prototypes: Upstart SAIC Is Out
  183. ^ Army ALT Magazine, Commentary (March 20, 2019) Driving the Future
  184. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (October 9, 2018) Next Generation Combat Vehicles to replace Bradley starting fiscal year 2026
  185. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (April 2019) Army Aviation Modernization $57 billion to modernization 2019-2024. $4.7 billion to Aviation 2019-2024
  186. ^ a b Myers (March 27 2018) Abrams: Army units will be tasked to work on each of Futures Command’s priorities
  187. ^ DoD Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA)
  188. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 October 2018) Army Wants Revolutionary Scout Aircraft For $30 Million, Same As Apache E FARA Solicitation
  189. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (March 28, 2019) FVL: Next Steps For UH-60 & Shadow Replacements In ‘Weeks’
  190. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 24, 2018) Future Vertical Lift projects to build on recent progress FVL Deliverables— 1: Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstration (JMR). 2: Analysis of alternatives (AoA). Phase II award— 2020-2023
  191. ^ FLRRA, JMR-TD: Flight test
  192. ^ Yasmin Tadjdeh (10/11/2018) Army Sees Progress with Future Vertical Lift Projects
  193. ^ Jen Judson (10 October 2018) Can the Army pull off buying two new helicopters back to back?
  194. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 March 2019) Don’t Panic About Apaches: Army Not Junking Gunships
  195. ^ U.S. Army Futures Command (April 23, 2019) Army announces attack reconnaissance aircraft prototype award
  196. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 April 2019) FARA: Army Awards 5 Design Contracts; Winner Enters Production in 2028—Awards for Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft designs went to Bell, Boeing, Karem, Sikorsky, and a partnership of AVX and L-3.
  197. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 March 2019) Textron, Martin Win $99.5M For Army Scout Drone: FTUAS
  198. ^ Jen Judson (29 March 2019) US Army picks 2 drones to test as Shadow replacement
  199. ^ PEO C3T May 30, 2018
  200. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (October 3, 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network In 2018 MG Bassett became (Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical) PEO C3T)
  201. ^ Jared Serbu (August 24, 2018) Army experimenting with SOF-tested equipment while building long-term tactical network plan
  202. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (October 25, 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
  203. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI: Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
  204. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (October 17, 2018) New players bring novel approaches to the Army's network modernization goals
  205. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (November 8, 2018) Cutting through the noise: Army, industry work together to speed up signal detection
  206. ^ SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR. (November 19, 2018) Can Army Afford The Electronic Warfare Force It Wants?
  207. ^ AARON MAK (MAY 12, 2019) Report: Missile System and Surveillance Plane Funding Will Go Towards the Border Wall
  208. ^ Jason Cutshaw (SMDC/ARSTRAT) (March 22, 2019) Army's senior air defender talks future of air, missile defense
  209. ^ a b c d e f Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (March 13, 2019) FY20 budget to boost air & missile defense
  210. ^ a b Jen Judson (15 May 2019) Dynetics-Lockheed team beats out Raytheon to build 100-kilowatt laser weapon
  211. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (1 May 2019) IBCS: Northrop Delivers New Army Missile Defense Command Post 11 EOCs as well as 18 IBCS integrated fire control network (IFCN) relays by year-end 2019
  212. ^ Jen Judson (8 Oct 2018) What’s the rush? US Army races to get missile defense radar early
  213. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2018) Army nearing strategy on way ahead for Indirect Fire Protection Capability
  214. ^ Joe Lacdan (October 22, 2018) Army to fuse laser technology onto air defense system
  215. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC Public Affairs (March 29, 2019) CCDC technology to increase Soldier readiness in multi-domain operations: capabilities by 2023
  216. ^ Defense & Aerospace Report (Oct 12, 2016) US Army Ground Combat Systems Chief on Armored Vehicle Programs
  217. ^ (11 Oct 2017) US Army's Bassett on Trophy Active Protection Decision, AMPV, Future Vehicle Tech
  218. ^ Marty Beckerman (October 17, 2018) A serious participation Trophy
  219. ^ David Vergun (October 8, 2018) Next-generation squad weapon to be very capable, lethal, says Army chief of staff
  220. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (April 4, 2019) Army to field new night vision goggles
  221. ^ Purtiman (September 21, 2018) Lethality Cross-Functional Team bringing next generation technologies to Soldiers ENVG-B, Next Generation Squad Weapons, and the Adaptive Soldier Architecture
  222. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 22, 2018) Synthetic training environment to enhance Soldier lethality
  223. ^ The Army Strategy 2018
  224. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (May 15, 2019) Let The (War) Games Begin: Army Buying High-Tech Training Sims
  225. ^ a b c Paul McCleary (April 16, 2019) Esper: Chinook & JLTV ‘Designed For a Different Conflict’
  226. ^ AUSA, ILW selected papers, David Perkins, moderator (October 24, 2018) ILW Launches Landpower Education Forum 4 views
  227. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 08, 2018) Army Moves $25B To Big Six, From New Tanks To 6.8mm Rifle
  228. ^ A series on: Army Strategic Fires
  229. ^ Matthew Cox (14 September 2018) The Army is developing a new strategic cannon to devastate targets over 1,000 miles away
  230. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 March 2019) Army Sets 2023 Hypersonic Flight Test; Strategic Cannon Advances
  231. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 Oct 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire
  232. ^ Mark Gardiner The New York Times (Friday 21 Sep 2018) p.B4
  233. ^ Maj. Rich Marsh, Joint Modernization Command (February 14, 2019) JMC sets the stage for largest annual modernization exercise
  234. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) The Army’s future tank may not be a tank 
  235. ^ Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (March 13, 2019) Futures Command highlights changes, new structure at SXSW
  236. ^ NPR on the GAO report: GAO-19-128 Bill Chappell NPR (October 9, 2018) Cyber Tests Showed 'Nearly All' New Pentagon Weapons Vulnerable To Attack, GAO Says
  237. ^ GAO-19-128 (October 2018) report on weapon system vulnerabilities
  238. ^ David Vergun (September 24, 2018) Cybersecurity: 'Remain vigilant, be accountable, stand ready' Army major general says
  239. ^ ARL Public Affairs (September 6, 2018) Army research takes proactive approach to defending computer systems Moving target defense (MTD)
  240. ^ Shane Harris (March 27, 2019) Palantir Wins Competition to Build Army Intelligence System
  241. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (September 10, 2018) Multi-domain operations to exploit enemy vulnerabilities, say Army leaders
  242. ^ ARL Public Affairs (October 16, 2018) Researchers develop technique to locate robots, Soldiers in GPS-challenged environments
  243. ^ Mark Schauer (ATEC) (February 12, 2019) Unmanned aircraft stays aloft for nearly 26 days above U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground
  244. ^ Mark Pomerleau (28 March 2019) If GPS goes out, the Army now has a requirement for that
  245. ^ Paul McLeary (January 17, 2019) Missile Defense Review a Multi-Billion IOU to White House
  246. ^ PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE MISSILES AND SPACE (2018) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Program Overview
  247. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 01, 2018) Army Awards Northrop $289M For IBCS Missile Defense Network
  248. ^ Claire Heininger (August 9, 2018) Army, Air Force team on sensor to shooter prototype for multi-domain battle
  249. ^ Mark Pomerleau   (April 11 2018) In the move to multi-domain operations, what gets lost?
  250. ^ ARL (September 24, 2018) New Army technology guides Soldiers in complete darkness
  251. ^ Joe Lacdan (May 13, 2019) Augmented reality training on the horizon to give Soldiers edge in combat allows repetition, for training
  252. ^ Tom McKay (6 April 2019) The Army Just Gave a Press Demo of Microsoft's HoloLens 2 Military Prototype
  253. ^ NSRDEC Public Affairs (October 15, 2018) Natick's exoskeleton work is a powerful step toward the future of Soldier lethality
  254. ^ RDECOM Soldier Center, Public Affairs Office (January 23, 2019) Soldier Center partners with industry experts to advance exoskeleton technologies
  255. ^ a b MIT Technology Review (13 November 2018) The British Army is carrying out a massive test of military robots and drones
  256. ^ (4 November 2018) Russia Jammed GPS During Major NATO Military Exercise With US Troops
  257. ^ Russia has figured out how to jam U.S. drones in Syria, officials say
  258. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (March 2, 2019) Russian General Pitches ‘Information’ Operations as a Form of War
  259. ^ "Army Futures Command: U.S. Army Secretary Mark Esper announces that Austin has been chosen as the location for the new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  260. ^ (13 July 2018) University of Texas System to serve as home base for U.S. Army Futures Command
  261. ^ Army’s new Futures Command to set up headquarters at University of Texas
  262. ^ a b Ralph K.M. Haurwitz - American-Statesman Staff (10 August 2018) UT regents give Army’s Futures Command free use of space temporarily
  263. ^ "Army announces Austin as the home of new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  264. ^ "PN2622 — Lt. Gen. John M. Murray — Army". U.S. Congress. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  265. ^ McBride, Courtney (24 May 2018). "General selected to lead Army Futures Command". Inside Defense. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  266. ^ Austin gets its general; Army Futures Command leader confirmed
  267. ^ As an example, any number of effects can be weaponized (see p.1 The New York Times 2 September 2018 "Invisible strikes may be cause of envoy's ills", describing the Microwave auditory effect), or else countered. Hypersonic vehicles are a countermeasure to ballistic missiles.
  268. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (10 Dec 2018) US Army’s Brain Transplant: Futurists Move To Futures Command
  269. ^ AFC:"Who we are":"Meet our leadership":Lt. Gen. James M. Richardson
  270. ^ Jen Judson (6 September 2018) Military deputy to US Army acquisition now has two bosses
  271. ^ Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski Bio
  272. ^ Ft Meade Soundoff! (July 19, 2018) New site for Army Futures Command
  273. ^ SYDNEY J. FREEDBERG JR. (January 11, 2019) 12 Moments Of Truth For Army Modernization In 2019

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